Gloucestershire, Mr. Whitfield of Ockham, Mr. Garth of Woversh, Mr. Ward of Pepper-Harrow, Mr. Farrol of Purbright, Mr. Pegges of Weeford, and Mr. Thomas Valentine, minister of Chalfont St. Giles, with many others, were brought from various parts of the country, and prosecuted in the high commission.” Mr. Edmund Calamy, Mr. William Bridge, Mr. Thomas Allen, and about thirty other worthy ministers, for refusing to read the book and observe Bishop Wren's articles, were driven out of the diocese. # And Laud, at the same time, caused upwards of twenty ministers to be fined and expelled from their livings, for not bowing at the name of Jesus.f Towards the close of this year, William Prynne, esq. a member of Lincoln’s-inn, having published a book, entitled “Histrio-mastix; or, the Play's Scourge,” exposing the evil of plays, masquerades, &c. was sentenced to have his book burnt by the common hangman, to be put from the bar, to be for ever incapable of his profession, to be turned out of the society of Lincoln’s-inn, to be degraded at Oxford, to stand in the pillory at Westminster and Cheapside, to lose both his ears, one in each place, to pay a fine of five thousand pounds, and to suffer perpetual imprisonment. Dr. Bastwick, a physician of Colchester, having published a book, entitled Elenchus religionis, papisticae, with an appendix, called Flagellum pontificis and episcoporum Latialium, so greatly offended the prelates, by denying the divine right of bishops above that of presbyters, that by the high commission, he was discarded from his profession, excommunicated, fined one thousand pounds, and imprisoned till he should recant. And Mr. Burton having published two sermons against the late innovations, entitled “ For God and the King,” had his house and study broken open by a serjeant at arms, and his books and papers carried away. He was then suspended, and committed close prisoner to the Fleet, where he remained a long time. These terrible proceedings made many conscientious nonconformists retire, with their families, to Holland and New England. Mr. Thomas Goodwin, Mr. Jeremiah Burroughs, Mr. William Bridge, Mr. Sydrach Sympson, Mr. Julines Herring, Mr. Samuel Ward, and many others, having . endured the cruel oppressions of the prelates, went to Holland. Mr. Herring had been driven from his flock, and several times suspended. Mr. Ward had been suspended, required to recant, condemned in costs of suit, and cast into prison, where he had remained a long time. And Messrs. Mather, Bulkley, Hobert, Symes, Whitfield, Rogers, Partridge, Whiting, Knollys, and Chauncey, withdrew from the storm, and fled to New England. This was no rash adventure. They suffered many hardships by suspension and imprisonment, previous to their departure. Mr. Chauncey was twice prosecuted by the high commission, suspended from his ministry, cast into prison, condemned in costs of suit, and obliged to make a recantation. While these fled from the storm, others continued to endure the painful conflict. Dr. Stoughton, rector of Aldermanbury, London; Mr. Andrew Moline, curate of St. Swithin's; Mr. John Goodwin, vicar of St. Stephen's, Coleman-street; and Mr. Winer of St. Lawrence, Old Jewry, were prosecuted for breach of canons. Mr. Turner and Mr. Lindall, with some others, were censured in the high commission. Mr. John Wood, formerly censured in the high commission, and Mr. Sparrowhawke of St. Mary's, Woolnoth, were both suspended for preaching against bowing at the name of Jesus. Dr. Cornelius Burgess and Mr. Wharton suffered in the high commission. Mr. Matthews, rector of Penmayn, was suspended by his diocesan, for preaching against the observance of popish holidays." Mr. Styles was prosecuted in the ecclesiastical court at York, for omitting the cross in baptism. Mr. Leigh, one of the prebendaries of Lichfield, was suspended for churching refractory women in private, for being averse to the good orders of the church, and for ordering the bell-man to give notice in open market of a sermon. Mr. Kendal of Tuddington, was suspended for preaching a sermon above an hour long, on a sabbath afternoon. Dr. Jenningson of Newcastle, was prosecuted in the high commission, and forced to quit the kingdom, to escape the fury of Laud. Mr. John Jemmet of Berwick, was apprehended by a pursuivant, suspended from the sacred function, and banished from the town, without any article or witness being brought against him; and above twenty other ministers were suspended for nonconformity.t Mr. John Evans was sent to the Gatehouse; Mr. John

* Prynne's Cant. Doome, p. 149, 151, 382. + Calamy’s Account, vol. ii. p. 5,476. f Huntley's Prelates’ Usurpations, p. 165. § Rushworth's Collec. vol. ii. p. 233.

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Vicars was apprehended by a pursuivant, cast into prison, fined, and deprived of his living; and Mr. George Walker was prosecuted in the star-chamber, sequestered, and cast into prison, where he remained till the meeting of the long parliament. Dr. Pierce, bishop of Bath and Wells, at the same time persecuted the nonconformists without mercy. He drove all the lecturers out of his diocese, and put down their lectures, as factions, and nurseries of puritanism. Upon a reflection on what he had done, he said, “I thank God, I have not one lecturer left in my diocese,” hating the very name. He suspended Mr. Davenish of Bridgewater, for preaching a lecture in his own church on a market-day; and having absolved him upon his promise to preach no more, he said, Gothy way, and sin no more, lest a worse thing befal thee. He suspended Mr. Cornish for preaching a funeral sermon in the evening; and he questioned Mr. Thomas Erford for preaching on a revel-day, saying “his text was scandalous to the revel.” He sharply reprimanded other ministers for explaining the questions and answers in the catechism, and said, “That was as bad as preaching.” For this practice he enjoined Mr. Barret, rector of Barwick, to do public penance." Dr. Conant, rector of Limington, received much molestation from this prelate. Mr. Richard Allein, fifty years minister of Dichiat, endured great sufferings under him. And Dr. Chambers was silenced, sequestered, and cast into prison, being harassed several ears.f y Bishop Wren of Norwich, having ordered the communion tables in his diocese to be turned into altars, fencing them about with rails, many of the people, to avoid superstition and idolatry, refused to kneel before them. And though they presented themselves on their knees in the chancel, they were refused the communion; and afterwards, for not receiving it, they were excommunicated by this prelate. His lordship had no mercy on the puritans. He suspended, deprived, excommunicated, or otherwise censured no less than fifty able and pious ministers, to the ruin of themselves, their wives, and their children. Among this number were Messrs. William Leigh, Richard Proud, Jonathan Burr, Matthew Browning, William Powell, Richard Raymund, John Carter, Robert Peck, William Bridge, William Green, Thomas Scott, Nicholas Beard, Robert Kent, Thomas Allen, John Allen, and John Ward." Some of them spent their days in silence; others retired into foreign countries; but none were restored without a promise of conformity. This furious prelate, by these severities, drove upwards of three thousand persons to seek their bread in a foreign land.4 About the year 1637, many of the persecuted puritans, to obtain a refuge from the storm, retired to New England; among whom were Messrs. Fisk, Moxon, Newman, Peck, Ezekel Rogers, and Thomas Larkham.f Mr. Larkham was so followed by continued vexatious prosecutions, that he was a sufferer in almost all the courts in England. He was in the star-chamber and high commission at the same time. And, he said, he was so constantly hunted by hungry pursuivants, that at last, by the tyranny of the bishops, and the tenderness of his own conscience, he was forced into exile.; While these ravages were made in the churches, numerous pious ministers and their flocks being torn asunder, if any attempted to separate from the national church, the jealous archbishop was sure to have his eye upon them. Mr. Lamb was accordingly prosecuted in the high commission, and cast into prison. #. was confined in most of the jails about London. Mr. Wilson and Mr. Cornwall were committed to Maidstone jail. Many others were excommunicated and imprisoned by the archbishop. This tyrannical arch-prelate †a one Mr. Warren, a schoolmaster, for refusing conformity, and for reading only books on divinity among his scholars. Mr. Ephraim Hewet, minister of Wroxall in Warwickshire, was suspended by his diocesan, for keeping a fast in his parish, and not observing the ceremonies. Mr. Jeffryes was forced from his flock; and Mr. Wroth and Mr. Erbery were prosecuted, when the latter resigned his vicarage, and left the diocese in peace. Great numbers in Kent were excommunicated and cast into prison. About thirty of the London ministers were convened before their diocesan; when many of them were suspended and excommunicated for refusing to receive the sacrament at the rails.” Mr. Miles Burket, vicar of Patteshall in Northamptonshire, was prosecuted in the high commission, for administering the sacrament without the rails, and for not bowing at the name of Jesus. ! Mr. Burton, Mr. Prynne, and Dr. Bastwick, already mentioned, having been long confined in prison, were prosecuted in the starchamber, when they received the following dreadful sentence: —“Mr. Burton shall be deprived of his living, and degraded from his ministry, as Mr. Prynne and Dr. Bastwick had been already from their professions; they shall each be fined se5,000; they shall stand in the pillory at Westminster, and have their ears cut off; and because Prynne had lost his ears already, the remainder of the stumps shall be cut off, and he shall be stigmatized on both his cheeks with the letters S. L. for a seditious libeller; and they shall all three suffer perpetual imprisonment in the remotest parts of the kingdom.”f The church of England and the governing prelates were now arrived at their highest power and splendour. The afflicted nonconformists, and those who favoured their cause,' felt the relentless vengeance of the star-chamber and high commission. Dr. Williams, the excellent Bishop of Lincoln, was now removed from the court, and retired to his diocese. Here he connived at the nonconformists, and spoke with some keenness against the ceremonies. He once said, “That the puritans were the king's best subjects, and he was sure they would carry all at last.” Laud being informed of this expression, caused an information to be lodged against him in the star-chamber, when, after suspension from all his offices and benefits in the high commission, he was fined sel0,000 to the king, e1,000 to Sir John Mounson, and committed to the Tower during the king's pleasure. Being sent to the Tower, his library and all his goods were seized, and sold to pay the fine. His papers i. seized, two letters were found written to him by Mr. Osbaldeston, chief

* Prynne's Cant. Doome, p. 377, 378.

+ Palmer’s Noncon. Mem. vol. i. p. 229.

† Calamy’s Account, vol. ii. p. 580, 754.

§ Nalson's Collections, vol. ii. p. 399.

| A minister's son was excommunicated for only repeating the sermon of or, who had been excommunicated.-Rushworth's Collec, vol. iii. p. 181.

* Rushworth's Collec. vol. iii. p. 353.-Nalson's Collec. vol. ii. p.400,401. + Prynne's Cant. Doome, p. 376. " # The number of ministers driven to New England by the hard dealings

of the bishops, from the year 1620 to 1640, amounted to about ninety-JMS. Remarks, p. 919–921.

§ Calamy's Contin. vol. i. p. 330.
WOL. I. - o

* Wharton's Troubles of Laud, vol. i. p. 546—557. + Prynne's Cant. Doome, p. 96. : For a circumstantial account of the execution of this barbarous sen

tence, see Art. Henry Burton.

§ Many of those who favoured the cause of the nonconformists, paid great sums of money to obtain their release from the ecclesiastical censure. And Mr. John Packer, a gentleman of exemplary piety, charity, and zeal for a further reformation, was most liberal in supporting the silenced ministers; and he paid £1,000 for one of them to be released.-MS. Chronology, vol. iii, A.D. 1640, p. 44.

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