others in the diocese of Ely were prosecuted for nonconformity. Also Messrs. Barber, Field, Egerton, and Rockrey, were all suspended, part of whom continued under the censure many years. Mr. Elliston of Preston, in Northamptonshire, was, for three years together, continually molested and cited before the prelates. During that period, he had ten journies to London, seven to Peterborough, one to Cambridge, and many to Leicester and Northampton. He was greatly impoverished, suspended from his ministry, and deprived of his living. Mr. Cawdrey, rector of Luffenham in Rutlandshire, a divine of good reputation, was suspended, deprived, cast into prison, degraded from the ministry, and, with a family of eight children, left to starve as a mere layman; also, during his troubles, which continued many years, he had twenty-two expensive journies to London. Mr. John Holden, rector of Bildeston, was suspended and excommunicated for not subscribing to Whitgift's articles." Mr. Hopkins, vicar of Nazing, in Essex, was, for the same thing, deprived of his benefice. Mr. Whiting of Panfield, was twice suspended, and then deprived. Mr. Hawkdon, vicar of Fryon, was indicted at the assizes, suspended, and deprived of his living. Mr. Huckle of Eythorp-Roding, was suspended; and though the lords of the council applied to the bishop for his restoration, his grace positively refused. Mr. Cornwell of Markshall, was suspended, and openly reviled by the bishop, who called him wretch, and beast, and committed him to the custody of his pursuivant. Mr. Negus of Leigh, was suspended and deprived, for not promising to wear the surplice, though there was no surplice in the parish. Mr. Seridge of East Havingfield, was suspended and three times indicted at the assizes. Mr. Carew of Hatfield, being cited before the bishop, and refusing the oath ea officio, was suspended, deprived, and committed to the Fleet; and Mr. Allen, his patron, was committed at the same time. Mr. Gifford, vicar of Maldon, was twice suspended, and cast into prison, and his troubles continued several years. Mr. Morley of Ridgwell, having been molested several years, was indicted at the assizes, committed to prison, and obliged to enter into bonds not to preach any more within the diocese of London. Upwards of thirty other ministers in the county of Essex were suspended, deprived, or worse treated, by the inhuman proceedings of Bishop Aylmer, for refusing to subscribe, wear the surplice, or some other trivial matter.” He, moreover, advised the heads of the university of Cambridge to call in all their licenses, and expel all who refused to wear the apparel, saying, “The folly that is bound up in the heart of a child, is to be expelled by the rod of discipline.” This cruel, perse. cuting prelate might, therefore, with truth say, “He was hated like a dog, and was called the oppressor of the children of God.”f While the puritans were suffering the above extremities, there was the greatest scarcity of preachers in all parts of the kingdom. It appears from an impartial survey of all the counties of England, that there were only 2000 preachers, to serve nearly 10,000 parishes: § and while many of the best and most useful preachers were silenced, there were multitudes of pluralists, nonresidents, and ministers, who could not preach. There were 416 ministers who could not preach in the county of Norfolk, 457 in Lincolnshire, and the same in other counties. Numerous petitions were, at the same time, presented to parliament in favour of the suffering nonconformists; but by the opposition and influence of Whitgift and other prelates, they were rejected. I The lords of the council being much concerned for the persecuted ministers, wrote to Whitgift and Aylmer, saying, “That they had received complaints, that great numbers of zealous and learned preachers in various counties, especially in Essex, were suspended or deprived; that there was no preaching, prayers, or sacraments in the vacant places; that in some places, the persons appointed to succeed them, had neither good learning, nor good name; and that in other places, a great number of persons occupying cures, were notoriously unfit, some for lack of learning, and others chargeable with enormous faults: as, drunkenness, filthiness of life, gaming at cards, haunting of ale-houses, &c. against whom they heard of no proceedings.” The Lord Treasurer Burleigh, also, himself addressed the archbishop, saying, “I am sorry to trouble you so oft as I do, but I am more troubled myself, not only with many private petitions of ministers, recommended for persons of credit, and peaceable in their ministry, who are greatly troubled by your grace and your colleagues; but I am daily charged by counsellors and public persons, with neglect of my duty, in not staying your grace's vehement proceedings against ministers, whereby papists are encouraged, and the queen's safety endangered.—I have read over your twenty-four articles, formed in a Romish style, to examine all manner of ministers, and to be executed ex officio nuro. I think the Inquisition of Spain used not so many questions to comprehend and to trap their priests. Surely this judicial and canonical sifting of poor ministers, is not to edify or reform. This kind of proceeding is too much savouring of the Romish Inquisition, and is a device to seek for offenders, rather than to reform them.” But these applications were to no purpose: for, as Fuller observes, “This was the constant custom of Whitgift; if any lord or lady sued for favour to any nonconformist, he would profess how glad he was to serve them, and gratify their desires, . them for his part, that all possible kindness should be indulged to them, but he would remit nothing of his rigour. Thus he never denied any great man's desire, and yet never granted it; pleasing them for the present with general promises, but still kept to his own resolution; whereupon the nobility ceased making any further application to him, knowing them to be ineffectual.”: The commons in parliament, at the same time, were not unmindful of the liberties of the subject. They presented a petition to the upper house, consisting of sixteen articles, with a view to further the reformation of the church, to remove the grievances of the puritans, and to promote an union of the conformists and nonconformists. But by the opposition of the bishops, nothing could be done. All that the puritans could obtain, was a kind of conference betwixt the Archbishop and the Bishop of Winchester, on the one part; and Dr. Sparke and Mr. Travers, on the other, in the presence of the Earl of Leicester, Lord Gray, Sir Francis Walsingham, and some others. The conference was held at Lambeth, concerning things needful to be reformed in the Book of Common Prayer." In the year 1586, the persecution of the puritans went forards with unabating fury. The celebrated Mr. Travers was silenced by Archbishop Whitgift. Mr. Udal was suspended and deprived of his living. Mr. Glover was convened before Whitgift, and cast into prison. Mr. Moore was cited before the high commission at York, where he endured many troubles. Mr. Hildersham, a most excellent divine, was suspended, and commanded to make a public recantation. Dr. Walward, a learned professor of divinity at Oxford, and Mr. Gillibrand, fellow of Magdalen college in the same university, were both cited before the high commission at Lambeth; when they were suspended, enjoined public recantations, and obliged to enter into bonds till they were performed. Mr. Gardiner was deprived and committed to Newgate by Bishop Aylmer, from whom he received most cruel usage. Mr. Wigginton, vicar of Sedburgh, was deprived of his living, and afterwards apprehended and carried before Whitgift; who, upon his refusal of the oath ea officio, committed him to prison, where he was treated with the utmost barbarity. The tyrannical archbishop also deprived him a second time, and degraded him from the ministry. Mr. Wigginton afterwards obtaining his release, returned home ; and venturing to preach after his lordship's censure, he was apprehended and sent prisoner to Lancaster castle, where he remained a long time under very cruel usage. At the same time, about one hundred and forty of his people, for hearing him preach, were excommunicated. The zealous minister having at length obtained his liberty, was again apprehended and carried before Whitgift, who, for refusing the above oath, committed him to the Gatehouse, where he continued most probably till he consented to be banished. Mr. Settle, a Suffolk divine, was arraigned before the archbishop, who treated him with very reproachful language, calling him ass, dolt, {. ; and after many threatenings, the angry prelate sent im to the Gatehouse, where he continued close prisoner many years. Such were the proceedings of that archbishop who is said to have been eminently distinguished for his mild and excellent temper." The suffering puritans, during this year, presented a tition to the convocation, tending to promote a reconciliation betwixt the conformists and nonconformists, but most probably without the least effect. They also made another effort to obtain a redress of their grievances from the parliament, by presenting an humble supplication to the house of commons; in which they say, “ It pierces our hearts with grief to hear the cries of the people for the word of God. The bishops either preach not at all, or very seldom. And others abandon their flocks, contrary to the charge of Christ, feed my sheep. But great numbers of the best qualified for preaching, and of the most industrious in their spiritual function, are not suffered quietly to discharge their duties, but are followed with innumerable vexations, notwithstanding they are neither heretics nor schismatics, but keep within the pale of the church, and persuade others so to do, who would have departed from it. They fast and pray for the queen and the church, though they have been rebuked for it, and diversly punished by officers both civil and ecclesiastical. They are suspended and deprived of their ministry, and the fruits of their livings sequestered to others. This has continued many years; and last of all many of them are committed to prison, when some have been chained with irons, and continued in hard durance a long time. “To bring about these sevcrities, the bishops tender the suspected persons an oath ex officio, to answer all interrogatories to be put to them, though it be to accuse themselves ; and when they have got a confession, they proceed upon it to punish them with all rigour, contrary to the laws of God and the land. Those who refused have been cast into prison, and commanded there to lie without bail, till they would yield. The grounds of these troubles are not impiety, immorality, want of learning or diligence in their ministerial work, but not being satisfied in the use of certain ceremonies and orders of the church of Rome, and for not being able to declare, that every thing in the Book of Common Prayer is agreeable to ihe word of God.”f Two bills were at the same time brought into the house of commons, for the abolition of the old ecclesiastical laws,

* MS. Register, p. 586, 587.

* The names of these persecuted servants of Christ, were the following:— Messrs. Wyresdale of Maldon, Carr of Rayne, Tonstal of Totham, Piggot of Tilbury, Ward of Writtle, Dyke of Coggeshall, Northey of Colchester, Newman of Coggeshall, Taye of Pildon, Parker of Dedham, Farrar of Langham, Serls of Lexden, Lewis of St. Peter's, Colchester, Cock of St. Giles's, Colchester, Beaumont of Easthorpe, Redrige of Hutton, Chaplain of Hempsted, Culverwell of Felsted, Chapman of Dedham, Knevit, Mileend, Colchester, Rogers of Wethersfield, Wilton of Aldham, Forth of Great-Glaston, Winkfield of Wicks, Dent of South-Southberry, Pain of Tolesbury, Barker of Prittlewell, Larking of Little-Waltham, Camillus Rusticus of Fangy, Howell of Paglesham, Maiburne of Great-Makering, Knight of Hempsted, and Chadwick of Danbury. These, says our author, are the painful ministers of Essex, of whom says the bishop, “You shall be white with me, or I will be black with you.”—MS. Register, p. 584 741, 742.

+ Strype's Aylmer, p. 69. i Ibid. p. 96.

§ MS. Register, p. 206. Ibid. p. 696.

1 Strype's Whitgift, p. 176—183.


* Fuller's Church Hist, b, ix. p. 151. + Ibid. p. 155. # Ibid. p. 218. § D. Ewes's Journal, p. 357-359.

* See Art. Travers,


* Paule's Life of Whitgift, p. 37. + Parte of a Register, p. 323. † MS. Register, p. 672.

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