holiday, was to make her an idol,” Bishop Aylmer committed him to the Fleet. Lord Rich, for attempting to vindicate him, was at the same time sent to the Marshalsea, and Mr. Dix to the Gatehouse.” Mr. Morley, a Norfolk minister, and Mr. Handson, preacher at Bury St. Edmunds, were both greatly molested, and suspended for nonconformity. The lord treasurer, with several other eminent persons, interceded with the bishop for the restoration of Mr. Handson, but all to no purpose. The angry prelate peremptorily declared, that he should not be restored, unless he would publicly acknowledge his fault, and enter into bonds for his good behaviour in future. Mr. Drewit was committed to Newgate, and Mr. Nash to the Marshalsea, where they remained a long time. Also, during this year, Mathew Hament, a poor plow-wright at Hethersett, near Norwich, being suspected of holding many unsound and dangerous opinions, was convened before the Bishop of Norwich, condemned as an heretic, and, May 20th, committed to the flames in the castle-ditch. As a preparative to this punishment, his ears were cut off on the 13th of the same month. These proceedings were too conformable to those of the church of Rome. Great numbers of pious and learned ministers were now ndicted at the assizes, for omitting to use the surplice, the cross in baptism, the ring in marriage, or some part of the # common prayer. They were ranked with the worst of felons, and exposed to public contempt, to the great dishonour of God, and injury of her majesty's subjects. Many persons of quality in the various counties of England, petitioned the lords of the council in behalf of the persecuted ministers. In the Suffolk petition are these words:— “The painful pastors and ministers of the word, by what justice we know not, are now of late brought to the bar at every assize; marshalled with the worst malefactors, indicted, arraigned, and condemned for matters, as we presume, of very slender moment: some for having holidays unbidden; some for singing the hymn nunc dimittis in the morning; some for turning the question in baptism from the infants to the godfathers, which is only you, for thou; some for leaving out the cross in baptism; some for leaving out the ring in marriage; whereunto,” say they, “neither the law, nor the lawmakers, in our judgment, had ever any regard.: * Strype's Aylmer, p. 86. + Heylin's Hist, of Pres. p. 280,281. # Parte of a Register, p. 128.

But instead of relieving the suffering ministers, their burdens were greatly increased. In the year 1580, the parliament passed a law, entitled “An Act to retain the Queen's Subjects in their due Obedience,” which enacted “That all persons who do not come to church or chapel, or other place where common prayer is said, according to the act of uniformity, shall forfeit twenty pounds per month to the queen, and suffer imprisonment till paid. Those who are absent for twelve months, shall, besides their former fine, be bound with two sufficient sureties in a bond of two hundred pounds, until they conform. And every schoolmaster who does not come to common prayer, shall forfeit ten pounds a month, be disabled from teaching school, and suffer a year's imprisonment.” This, says a learned churchman, was little better than making merchandize of souls. The fine was, indeed, unmerciful, and the common people had nothing to expect but to rot in jails.

The legislature, by these violent measures, overshot the mark, and instead of crushing the puritans, or reconciling them to the church, they drove them farther from it. Men. of integrity will not easily be beaten from their principles by canons, injunctions, subscriptions, fines, or imprisonment; much less will they esteem the church fighting with such weapons. Multitudes were by these methods driven to a total separation, and they became so far opposed to the persecuting church of England, as not to allow it to be a true church, nor its ministers true ministers. They renounced all communion with it, not only in the prayers and ceremonies, but in hearing the word and the sacraments. These were called BRow NISTs, from Robert Brown, at this time a preacher in the diocese of Norwich. The Brownists did not differ from the church of England in matters of faith; but were very rigid in points of discipline. They maintained the discipline of the church of England to be popish and antichristian, and all her ordinances to be invalid. They apprehended that, according to scripture, every church-ought to be confined within a single congregation; and the choice of its officers, and the admission and exclusion of members, with all its other regulations, ought to be determined by the brotherhood. Many of the Brownists were great sufferers in their zeal for nonconformity : among these were Mr. Copping and Mr. Thacker, ministers in the county of Suffolk. After suffering imprisonment seven years, for spreading Brown's books against the bishops and the established church, they were tried, condemned, and hanged at Bury St. Edmunds. At the same time, Mr. John Lewis, for denying the godhead of Christ, and, it is said, for holding other detestable heresies, was burnt at Norwich, September 17, 1583.” Upon the death of Archbishop Grindal, Dr. John Whitgift became Archbishop of Canterbury, and was confirmed September 23, 1583. The queen charged him “to restore the discipline of the church, and the uniformity. established by law, which,” says she, “through the connivance of some prelates, the obstinacy of the puritans, and the power of some noblemen, is run out of square.”f Therefore, in obedience to her majesty's royal command, the new archbishop immediately published the following articles, and sent them to the bishops of his province, for their direction in the government of their dioceses:— “That all reading, preaching, catechising, and praying in any private family, where any are present besides the family, be utterly extinguished.—That none do preach or catechise except he also read the whole service, and administer the sacrament four times a year.—That all preachers, and others in ecclesiastical orders, do at all times wear the habits prescribed.—And that none be admitted to preach, , or to execute any part of the ecclesiastical function, unless they be ordained according to the manner of the church of England; nor unless they subscribe the three following articles.” 1. “That the queen hath, and ought to have, the sove“reignty and rule over all manner of persons, born “ within her dominions, of what condition soever they be ; “ and that none other power or potentate hath, or ought to “ have, any power, ecclesiastical or civil, within her realms “ or dominions. 2. “That the Book of Common Prayer, and of ordaining “bishops, priests, and deacons, containeth in it nothing “contrary to the word of God, but may be lawfully used;

* Burn’s Eccl. Law, vol. ii. p. 146. + Fuller's Church Hist. b. ix. p. 131.

* Parallel betwixt Phanatics, p. 11. Edit. 1661 : from Stow.

+ Grindal, in his latter days, was much inclined to favour the puritans, and was, with great difficulty, brought to punish them for their nonconformity. . He had not sat long in the chair of Canterbury, before he was suspended and confined in his own house, for not suppressing the religious exercises called Prophesyings, which his conscience told him should have been encouraged and promoted. He continued under the tyrannical censure several years.-Hume's Hist. of Eng. vol. v. p. 188.—Granger's Biog. Fsist. vol. i. p. 204.

: Kennet's Hist. of Eng. vol. ii. p. 494.

“ and that he himself will use the same, and none other, in “public prayer and administration of the sacraments. 3. “That he alloweth the book of articles, agreed upon “ in the convocation holden at London in 1562, and set “forth by her majesty's authority; and he believe all the “articles therein contained to be agreeable to the word << of God.” - These were called Whitgift's articles, because he was their principal author. Subscription to them was required for many years, without the warrant of any statute or canon whatsoever. By Whitgift's strict imposition of them upon all ministers, multitudes who refused to comply were suspended and deprived. They would most cordially have subscribed to the first and third, but could not in conscience subscribe, “That the Book of Common Prayer and Ordination contained nothing contrary to the word of God,” These proceedings excited universal alarm, and great numbers of worthy ministers were brought under the ecclesiastical censure. Sixty-four ministers were suspended in the county of Norfolk, sixty in Suffolk, thirty in Sussex, thirty-eight in Essex, twenty in Kent, and twenty-one in Lincolnshire. Among those in the county last mentioned, were Messrs. Charles Bingham, vicar of Croft, John Somerscales of Beseby, Joseph Gibson of Swaby, William Muming, vicar of Claxby, Reignald Grome of Thedilthorp St. Hellen, Mr. Sheppard, vicar of Bardney, Mr. Bradley of Torksey, Mr. Huddlestone of Saxilby, Mr. Rellet of Carlton in Moreland, Mr. Nelson of Skinnand, Mr. Hughe of Silk-Willoughby, Mr. Daniel of Ingolsby, Mr. Richard Holdsworth of Boothby, Mr. Thomas Fulbeck of Boultham, Mr. Anthony Hunt of West-Deeping, and Mr. Richard Allen of Ednam.” Great numbers in the diocese of Peterborough, in the city of London, and other parts of the kingdom, received the like ecclesiastical censure. Multitudes of the best ministers and most laborious preachers in the nation, as the Earl of Leicester observes, were now deprived of their ministry.4 The terrible storm fell upon Mr. Fenner and Mr. Wood, who were imprisoned twelve months, and suspended seven or eight years. Mr. Stroud was deprived of his ministry, and commanded to leave the country. He had so high a reputation, and was so universally beloved, that no less than thirteen petitions were presented to the archbishop for his restoration; but all to no purpose. Messrs. Underdown, Hopkinson, Norden, and Hely, together with Mr. Anthony Hobson, vicar of Leominster; Mr. John German, vicar of Buringham; Mr. Richard Whitaker, vicar of Almerby; Mr. William Clark, vicar of Langton; Mr. John Bingham, minister of Hadleigh, Mr. Turner, Mr. Star, Mr. Jackson, and many others, were all suspended at the same time.: Mr. Hill, minister at Bury St. Edmunds, for having omitted the cross in baptism, and making some trivial alteration in the vows, was suspended, several times indicted at the assizes, and committed to prison, where he continued a long time. The venerable Mr. Fenn was cited to Lambeth and suspended. Messrs. Hooke, Paget, and Oxenbridge, suffered the like ecclesiastical censure. Mr. Daniel Dyke, a most excellent divine, was twice suspended, deprived of his ministry, and driven out of the county. Mr. Benison was committed to the Gatehouse, where, to his unspeakable injury, he remained five years. Upon his application to the council, the lords were so moved with the reading of his case, that they wrote to Bishop Aylmer, signifying that he ought to make the good man some considerable recompence for his hard dealing. Dr. Browning was deprived of his fellowship at Cambridge, and forced from the university. Mr. Brayne, another learned divine at Cambridge, was cited to Lambeth, and, refusing the oath ea officio, was suspended. Many

* Strype's Whitgift, p. 115, 116. + MS. Register, p. 513.

† The names of those suspended in Suffolk, were the following, fortyfour of the last being suspended on one day;-Nicholas Bound, minister of Norton; Richard Grandish, A. M. rector of Bradfield; Lawrance Whitaker, A. B. rector of Bradfield; Richard Holden, A. B. rector of Testock; Gaulter Allen, B. D. of Rushbrook; Reignald Whitfield, A. M. of Barrow; Thomas Rogers of Horningsheath; Anthony Rowe of Hedgesset; Thomas Warren; William Cook; William Holden; Nicholas Bonnington, rector of Chettisham; John Tylmen, A. M. of Borgholt; Richard Dowe, A. M. vicar of Stratford ; John Carter, A. M. vicar of Bramford ; Martin Brige, A. M. vicar of Brettenham ; Henry Sandes of Boxford ; John Holden, rector of Bildeston; Thomas Cranshawe, A. M. rector of Boxted ; ‘Peter Cook, curate to Mr. Cranshawe; John Knewstubs, B. D. rector of Cockfield; William Hey, rector of Nedging; John Aulthroppe of Sudbury; Robert Ballard, A. B. rector of Clare: Lawrance Fairclough, vicar of Haverhil; John Ward ; ; Nicholas Egleston, rector of Stradshill; William Turner, rector of Wratting-Parva; Robert Prick of Denham; Thomas Sutton, A. M. rector of Eriswell; Josias Hallington, Edmund Salmon, Thomas Jeffraye, Thomas Wattis, Mr. Phillips, Roger Nutle, Roger Geffrey, John Smith, John Forthe, Thomas Moore, William Browne, John Cooper, William Flemming, Robert Sweete, William Bentloc, John Smith, Thomas Hagas, Daniel Dennis, George Webb, William Bend, John English, Thomas Fowle, Robert Cotsford, Richard King, Mr. Lovell, Mr. . Mr. Pigge, Mr. Hill, Mr. Smith, and Dr. Crick-MS. Register, P. 437.

* MS. Register, p. 696–712, + Ibid. 513. f Ibid. p. 395.

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