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Peirce, were opponents. Bishop Jewel acted on this occasion, as moderator. At the conclusion, her majesty delivered a *. in praise of the learned disputants.” o his learned divine was, at length, favoured with a toleration for about ten or eleven years; and about 1576, he consented to wear the habits. Wood says, in the year 1570, but Mr. Strype, 1576, he was made dean of Gloucester; and in 1580, he was removed from the deanery of Gloucester, to that of Winchester. This he kept to his death. He was particularly intimate with the Lord Treasurer Burleigh, who, even before he consented to wear the habits, moved the queen to prefer him to a bishopric: but, as Burleigh informed him, his nonconformity seemed to be the chief impediment in the way. The Earl of Leicester, in his letter to the university of Cambridge, dated March 26, 1567, makes very honourable mention of him, and most warmly recommends him to the office of vice-chancellor of that university; “ who,” says he, “is every way a right worthy man.”; , Dr. Humphrey was intimate with Mr. Gilby, a celebrated puritan, at Ashby-dela-Zouch in Leicestershire, with whom he held a friendly correspondence. Some of his letters to this venerable divine are now before me, addressed “to his worshipful and well beloved friend Mr. Anthony Gilby, at Ashby;” in one of which he writes as follows: - “My salvation in Christ Jesus. “I thank you for your good counsel. I would I were “ as well able as I am willing. Though many brethren and “nobles also wish; yet we must pray that God may open “the queen's majesty's ears to hear of a reformation; for “there is the stay. ' And openly to publish such admoni“tions as are abroad, I like not; for in some parts and “ terms, they are too broad and overshoot themselves. A “book, indeed, I gave as a present of mine office and “cognizance of the university, a Greek Testament, with “mine additions or collections, to stir up her majesty to “ peruse the book, and to reform the church, by it, in cer“tain sentences. I have there declared, and in a word or ** two using orations, the copy whereof I send you. The “Lord Jesus bless you and yours. Oxon. Jan. 17, 1572. “Yours, L. HuMPHREY.”
* Biog. Britan. vol. iv. p. 2230. Edit. 1747. + Wood's Athenae Oxon. vol. i. p. 195.-Strype's Annals, vol. ii. p. 45i, # Ibid. vol. i. p. 430.
§ Baker's MS. Collec. vol. xvii, p. 256. ! Ibid. vol. xxxii. p. 431.
As Dr. Humphrey was many years president of Magdalen college, Oxford, public professor of divinity in the university, and several times vice-chancellor; so the Oxford historian, who denominates him the standard-bearer of the nonconformists, says, that he stocked his college with such a generation of nonconformists, as could not be rooted out of it many years after his death; and that he sowed in the divinity schools, such seeds of Calvinism, and such hatred of popery, as if nothing but divine truth was to be found in the one, and nothing but abominations in the other. Nevertheless, he adds, #o was a great and general scholar, an able linguist, and a deep divine; and who, for the excellency of his style, the exactness of his method, and the solidity of his matter, was superior to most theologians in his day. Archbishop Matthews said, “Dr. Humphrey hath read more fathers, than Campian the Jesuit ever saw ; devoured more than he ever tasted; and taught more than he ever heard or read.” He had the honour of seeing many of his pupils become bishops, while he, who was every way their superior, was denied any considerable preferment, on account of his puritanical principles. At length, after a life of much labour and hard study, he died in the month of February, 1589, aged sixty-three years. Fuller styles him a moderate and conscientious nonconformist, and says, that at his death, he bequeathed a considerable quantity of gold to Magdalen college. Ho Granger says, he was one of the greatest divines, and most general scholars, of his age; and that when Queen Elizabeth visited the university, he and Bishop Jewel entertained her majesty with a public theological disputation. The remains of Dr. Humphrey were interred in the inner chapel belonging to Magdalen college, where a monumental inscription was erected to his memory, of which the following is a translation:5
Sacred to the MEMORY of LAwkeNce HUMPHREY, D. D. twenty-eight years Regius Professor and Governor of this College. His eldest daughter, JUSTINIA DoRMER, erected this monument to the memory . of her venerable Father. .. He died in February, 1589, aged 63.
* Wood's Athenae Oxon. vol. i. p. 195, 196.
+ Fuller's Church Hist. b. ix. p. 234.
# Granger's Biog. Hist. vol. i. p. 211. Wood's Hist. et Antiq. lib. ii. p. 203.
His Works.-1. Epistola de Graecis literis, & Homeri lectione & imitatione, ad Praesidem, &c., 1558.-2. De Religione Conversatione & Reformatione deque Primatus Regum, 1559.-3. De Ratione Interpretandi Authores, 1559.-4. Optimates sive de Nobilitate, ejusque antiqua origine, natura, officiis, disciplina, &c., 1560.*— 5. Orationes Woodstochiae habitae ad illustress. R. Eliz., 1572.6. De Vita et Morte Johannis Juelli: Ejusq; verae Doctrinae Defensio, cum Refutatione quorundam Objectorum, Hardingi, Sanderi, &c., 1573.−7. De fermento vitando: conscio in Matt. xvi. Marc. viii. Luc. xii., 1582-8. Jesuitismi pars prima, 1582– 9. Jesuitismi pars secunda, 1584.—10. Apologelica Epistola ad Academiae Oxoniensis Chancellarium, 1585.-11. Seven Sermons against Treason, 1588–12. Conscio in die Cinerum.—Many of these articles were translated and published in English.
Thomas SAMPson, D. D.—This celebrated divine was born about the year 1517, and educated in the university of Oxford. Afterwards he studied at the Temple, became a zealous protestant, a distinguished preacher, and instrumental in the conversion of John É.i. the famous martyr. He married the niece of old Bishop Latimer. He was ordained by Archbishop Cranmer and Bishop Ridley, who, at his request, dispensed with the habits. He was highly esteemed by these two reverend prelates. He was preacher in the army of Lord Russel, in his expedition against the Scots. In the year 1551, he became rector of Alhallows, Bread-street, London; the year following he was preferred to the deanery of Winchester; and he continued a famous preacher to the death of King Edward. Upon the accession of Queen Mary, he concealed himself for some time. During this period, he and Mr. Richard Chambers, another zealous protestant, collected money in London, for the support and encouragement of poor scholars in the two universities. But it was no sooner discovered, than they were both obliged to flee for their lives. For, August 16, 1554, Mr. Bradford, Mr. Becon, and Mr. Veron, were apprehended and committed to the Tower; and Sampson was to have been committed the same day, and was even sought after for this purpose, in the house in which Mr. Bradford was taken. Because he could not be found, the Bishop of Winchester fumed exceedingly, as was usually the case with angry prelates." Thus, having narrowly escaped the fire, he fled to Strasburgh, where he was much esteemed by the learned Tremelius. He was intimately acquainted with most of the learned exiles, and particularly John Jewel, afterwards the celebrated Bishop of Salisbury. By the joint advice of Dr. Sampson, Dr. Edwin Sandys, and Mr. Richard Chambers, Jewel was induced soon after his arrival on the continent, to make a public confession of his sorrow, for his late subscription in favour of popery.f Sampson, during his exile, was concerned in writing and publishing the Geneva Translation of the Bible.} Upon the accession of Queen Elizabeth, our learned divine returned home. While on his journey, being informed that a bishopric was designed for him, he wrote to Peter Martyr for his opinion and advice, whether it was lawful to swear “ that the queen was supreme head of the church under Christ.” He thought that Christ was the only supreme head of the church, and that no account of any inferior head was to be found in scripture. He thought, also, that the want of discipline in the church of England, rendered it impossible for a bishop to perform his duty. The method of electing bishops, appeared to him, totally different from the primitive institution: the consent of neither clergy, nor people, being so much as asked. The superstitious dress of bishops seemed to him very unbecoming. He wrote to his learned friend, not that he expected a bishopric would be offered him ; but he prayed to God that it might not. He resolved to apply himself to preaching the gospel, and to avoid having any share in the government of the church, till he saw a thorough reformation, both in doctrine and discipline. Upon the reception of Peter Martyr's answer, Sampson replied, January 6, 1560, saying, “We are under sad apprehensions, concerning which, we desire an interest in your prayers. We are afraid lest the truth of religion, in England, should either be overturned, or very much darkened. Things still stick with me. I can have neither ingress, nor egress. God knows how glad I should be to have an egress. Let others be bishops, I desire only to be a preacher, and no bishop. There is yet a general prohibition of preaching; and still a crucifix on the altar at court, with lights burning before it. And though, by the queen's order, images are removed out of the churches all over the kingdom, yet the people rejoice to see that this is still kept in the queen's chapel.” Three bishops officiate at the altar: one as priest, another as deacon, and a third as sub-deacon, all in rich copes before the idol : and there is sacrament without any sermon. Injunctions are sent to preachers not to use freedom in reproving vice.” . He then asks Martyr, Bullinger, and Bernardin, what they thought of these things; and whether, if similar injunctions were sent to all churches, the clergy ought to obey, or suffer deprivation rather than comply. - May 13th he wrote again, signifying that a bishopric had been offered him, but he had refused to accept it; for which, he desired Peter Martyr not to censure him, till he became acquainted with the whole matter. He rejoiced that Parkhurst was made Bishop of Norwich. And Norwich, it seems, was the bishopric offered to him.; This illustrious divine, therefore, refused the offered preferment, because he was thoroughly dissatisfied with the episcopal office, the popish habits, and the superstitious ceremonies. During the three first years of Queen Elizabeth's reign, Dr. Sampson delivered the rehearsal sermons at Paul's cross, and is said to have been appointed to do this on account of his wonderful memory and fine elocution; and in her royal visitation in the north, he was the visitor's preacher. In the year 1560, he became dean of Christ-church, Oxford. To procure his settlement in this public situation, the members of the house wrote to Lord Dudley, urging him to prevail upon the queen, in behalf of Sampson. In this letter, subscribed by twenty-two persons of distinguished * Dr. Sampson having laid a Common Prayer Book, (adorned with fine cuts and pictures, representing the stories of the saints and martyrs,) in the queen's chapel, for her use, it is said, that she severely reprimanded him for so doing, and told him, “That she had an aversion to idolatry, and “ to images and pictures of this kind.—That he had forgot her proclama“tion against images, pictures, and Roman relics in churches.—And she ‘‘ ordered that no more mistakes of this kind should be committed within “the churches of her realm for the future.” It seems difficult to reconcile this, to her majesty's conduct in still retaining idolatrous worship in her own chapel.—Strype's Annals, vol. i. p. 239. + Bishop Parkhurst, who was an exile in the days of Queen Mary, was a person of great learning, a worthy prelate, and always a decided friend to the nonconformists.-MS. Chronology, vol. i. p. 273. (2.)
* Mr. Strype highly commends this work, both for the excellency of its matter, and the elegancy of its style. In this work, the author, speaking of astrology, says, “This science above the rest was so snatched at, so “beloved, and even devoured by most persons of fashion, that they needed “no incitements to it, but a bridle rather: not to be set on, but rather “taken off from it. And that many had so trusted to this, that they almost “ distrusted God.”—Strype's Cranmer, p. 358.-Biog. Britan. vol. iii. p.
487. Edit. 1778.
* Fox's Martyrs, vol. iii. p. 76. + Wood's Athenae Oxon. vol. i. p. 192. of Biog. Britan. vol. iv. p. 2759. Edit. 1747. § See Art. Coverdale.