« 上一頁繼續 »
monies, or government, but that only which the Lord in his word, commandeth : Such ceremonies as do not necessarily appertain to the gospel of Christ, may be changed; observing always that which St. Paul hath commanded, Phil. iv. 8, 1 Cor. xiv. 26. 6. Ought every particular church or parish in England, of necessity, and by the order of God's word, to have its own pastor, elder, and deacons, chosen by the people of that parish; and they only to have the whole government of that particular church, in matters ecclesiastical ? Wherever this government hath been, the choice hath been by certain persons, with the allowance of the people, so far as I ever read. But what is most requisite at the present time, I leave to those whom God hath set in authority. - - 7. Should there be an equality among all the ministers of this realm, as well in government and jurisdiction, as in the ministration of the word and sacraments That all ministers are called to the preaching of the word, and the ministration of the sacraments, no man, I ihink, will deny. Touching government or governors, the Holy Ghost calleth them fellow-ministers, fellow-elders, fellow-officers, fellow-soldiers, fellow-labourers, fellow-servants'; and St. Peter expressly forbids them being lords over God’s heritage. St. John evidently condemneth the lordly dominion of Diotrephes, in commanding and excommunicating by his own authority. Our Lord himself, refused to exercise any lordly dominion; and when his disciples strove for superiority, he expressly forbad them, and reproved them for aspiring after it. Though ministers are worthy of double honour, singular love, great reverence, and all humble duty, I dare, by no means, make them lords in the ministry, nor give to any one of them authority above the rest. - * * 8. Are the patrimonies of the church, such as bishops' lands, the lands belonging to cathedral churches, the glebe lands, and tithes, by right, and God's word, to be taken from them , Render unto Caesar, the things which are Caesar's, and into God, the things that are God's, is a rule always binding. Every prince who feareth the King of kings, must make sufficient provision for the ministry, then for the poor, then for schools and the universities, in such a degree as may supply the wants of the ministry; with
out which the spoil of the church is most unnatural sacrilege. 9. Are the ministers of this realm, of whatsoever calling, now in place, lawful ministers; and their administration, and ecclesiastical actions, lawful and effectual 2 This article, so far as I can see, is the same as the fourth. 10. Is it not convenient at a marriage, to have the communion, and the newly married persons to communicate; and, at a funeral, to have a sermon I would have communions at such times as the church appoints. On those days, if there be a marriage, it is meet that the parties communicate. As to the funeral sermons, they may be used. Yet, if there be any inconvenience, by hurting or offending the church, they ought to be omitted. II. Is it lawful for any man to preach, besides he who is a pastor; and may a pastor preach out of his own flock without a license 2 None may preach but a pastor, and he, on just occasion, being requested, may preach out of his own flock. But, surely, if he have no license to preach, he hath no license to be a pastor. 12. Is it better and more agreeable to God's word, and more for the profit of God's church, that a prescribed order of common prayer be used, or that every minister pray publicly, as his own spirit shall direct him An ordinary prayer is very necessary, that it may be familiar to the people: but, as every parish will have its occasions and necessities, so it is necessary, that the minister be able to pray in the congregation, according to the necessities of the people. 13. Are the children of parents, who are perfect papists, to be baptized 2 And are infants within God's covenant, and have they faith ? If parents are obstinate, and perfect papists, wanting nothing of the spiritual wickedness of antichrist, and are so accounted by the church, their children are not to be admitted to this sacrament, though we exclude them not from the election of God: but if . parents be not cast out of the church, we may admit the children; yet not, as having that faith which cometh by hearing, but as being within the covenant: I am their God, and the God of their children. .
14. May any ecclesiastical persons have more ecclesiastical livings than one?" For one man to have many parsonages, where he cannot possibly reside, is great wickedness. And seeing Christ hath purchased his church with his own blood, whosoever enjoys several livings, considers very little the words of St. Paul : Take heed unto all the flock, over which the Holy Ghost hath made you overseers, to feed the church of God. I, therefore, humbly beseech your honours, to have this carefully reformed. 15. May one be a minister, who has no particular flock assigned him? And may an ecclesiastical person be exercised, also, in a civil function ? A minister can no more be without a charge, than a king without a kingdom. No man that warreth entangleth himself with the affairs of this life. And I am sure whatsoever person seeketh after civil offices, wanteth that love which should most abound. Our Saviour refused to be judge in the division of lands. Yet I judge not him, who, on special occasions, seeketh to do good to others. 16. Are all the commandments of God needful for salvation ? . . All the commandments are necessary for all men in all places, and are ever to be observed. And as Christ was minister, not of earthly things, but heavenly; so the observance of all his commandments is necessary to salvation; and the breach of the least of them, if imputed to us, hath the just recompence of eternal death. 17. Has the Queen of England authority over the ecclesiastical state, and in ecclesiastical matters, as well as civil? Let every soul be subject to the higher powers, whether he be an apostle, or evangelist, or prophet, or whatsoever he be. This subjection is not against his calling. Princes have full authority over all ecclesiastical and civil persons, and equally over both, to punish offenders, and to praise well-doers. Only this is the difference in the sovereignty over both. The commonwealth cannot be without the magistrate; but if all magistrates fall from the church, we must still hold this article, “ I believe in the catholic church.” For Christ, and not the christian magistrate, is the life and head of the church. In the commonwealth,
* What could the commissioners design by proposing this question Did they imagine it was a crime to speak against pluralities, the great plague of the christian church, and at which even papists blush?
the prince maketh and repealeth laws, as appears most for the safety of the state, and the benefit of the people; but in the church, there is only on E LAwgive R, even Jesus CHR1st. 18. Is the Queen of England the chief governor under Christ, over the whole church and state ecclesiastical in this realm, or but a member of it And may the church of England be established without the magistrate? - #. is answered under the seventeenth article. 19. Is the Queen of England bound to observe the judicial laws of Moses, in the punishment and pardon of criminal offences 2 - We are sure that the law of Moses, was, to the people of Israel, an absolute and a most perfect rule of justice; so that all laws ought to be made according to its equity. Yet, to decide on all particular cases, dare I not. It belongeth to the Lord to say, I will pardon, or I will destroy. 20. May the Queen of England, of herself, and by her own authority, assign and appoint civil officers? I never knew a man who doubted this article. And sure I am, that her majesty, in her wisdom, may do as she thinketh best.* These were the articles proposed to Mr. Deering in the star-chamber, and this was the substance of those answers which he presented to the court in writing. In these answers, says Mr. Strype, he made very ill reflections upon the reformation and religion of the established church.t Whether this remark be consistent with christian liberality, or even common justice, every reader will easily judge. What could be the design of the commissioners in proposing such inquiries 2 Some of them relating wholly to matters fstate, seem designed to ensnare him. Others were evidently intended to draw him either to approve, or to censure, the corruptions of the church. And in general, it is extremely manifest, that they were put to him, to rack his conscience, and to get something out of him; to make him an offender by his own confession. “For my part,” says Mr. Peirce, “when I consider the abominable tyranny of all such proceedings, and the barbarous wickedness of sifting the secrets of mens' hearts, about those matters, of which perhaps they never spoke any thing in their lives; I heartily bless my God that he did not cast my lot in those days, but reserved me for times of greater equity and freedom.”f
* Parte of a Register, p. 73–80.-Strype's Annals, vol. ii. p. 280,281. + Strype's Parker, p. 452. f Peirce's Windication, part i. p. 81.
During Mr. Deering's suspension, the Bishop of London, out of good nature, it is said, interceded with the treasurer, to procure the consent of the council for his liberty to preach. again at St. Paul's; upon these conditions, that he taught. sound doctrine, exhorted to virtue, dissuaded from vice, and meddled not with matters of order and policy, but left them to the magistrate ; and, he said, he believed Mr. Deerin would be brought so to do. He thought these gentle deasings the best, for the present, and would quiet the minds of the people. He thought a soft plaster, in such a case, much better than a corrosive. But the treasurer, we are informed, disliked the advice, and sharply reproved the bishop for iving it. At length, however, he prevailed; got Mr. eering's suspension taken off, and, notwithstanding his puritanical answers to the above articles, procured his restoration to his lecture.” The lords of the council having restored him to his beloved work of preaching, the archbishop and several of the bishops were much offended. Dr. Cox, bishop of Ely, wrote a warm letter to the treasurer, signifying his great disapprobation of the conduct of the council in restoring him, even as a man sound in the faith, and by their own authority, without consulting spiritual men, whose business it was to determine in such cases: and that they ought not to have determined a matter relating to religion without the assistance of those who belonged to the ecclesiastical function. Mr. Deering was, indeed, restored in consequence of the answers he gave to the articles, which articles, it seems, were collected out of Mr. Cartwright's book against Whitgift. Though Bishop Cox said his answers were fond and untrue, the lords of the council thought otherwise, and were satisfied with them. The bishop urged, that in these matters they ought to have consulted the judgment of learned divines, adding, “ In all godly assemblies, priests have usually been called, as in parliaments and privy councils.” And in the warmth of his zeal, he seemed inclined to move the queen's majesty to oppose and recall the decree of the council: but he trusted that the treasurer would, in his wisdom and godly zeal, undertake to do it himself. Our author further adds, that when Mr. Deering and three of his brethren were first cited into the star-chamber, the Bishop of London remained silent, for which the queen afterwards bitterly rebuked him.t * Strype's Parker, p. 426. + Ibid. p. 426,427. t Queen Elizabeth was a lady of a proud and imperious spirit; and