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the element, to make a sacrament.” You lacked the word, therefore, it was no sacrament. J. I had the word. - - B. How had you the word, when you confess that you". recited not the institution ? o s J. I had recited the institution sufficient. D. Yea, for that bread and wine that was present; but when you sent for more bread or wine, you should again have rehearsed the words of the institution. J. The book appointed no such thing. B. Yes, sir, the book saith, you shall have sufficient bread and wine, and then the prayer of the institution must be recited. Now, as you had not sufficient, you should, therefore, have repeated the institution. J. There is no such caveat, nor proviso, appointed in the book. B. But that is the meaning of the book. J. Men may make what meaning they please; but I reser myself to the book, whether or not it be so appointed. D. You are not forbidden to use the repetition. J. Neither am I commanded. D. I will prove this to be the meaning of the book. For it is said in the prayer, “these creatures of bread and wine:” . so that the book hath respect to the bread and wine there. present, and not to any other. Therefore, if there be any: more brought, it must be consecrated afresh, by the words of the institution. J. I pray you tell me one thing. Are the words of the institution spoken for the bread, or for the receivers ? . . . D. For both. - . . . . J. I deny that. For the evangelist declares, that Christ said unto his disciples, to teach them for what end and purpose they should take the bread. ... " D. Then the word is of no force. J. I deny that. The word is necessary to the substance of the sacrament. But this is not the question : we both confess this. Herein is the controversy, whether it be necessary for the institution to be repeated, seeing it is but one and the same action, and the same communicants' as before, for whom the words are spoken. If it had not been the same supper, or if the communicants had been changed, it would have been necessary to rehearse the institution.
B. You like yourself very well, and you are stubborn
before, and that was
. and arrogant. I have before heard of your stubborn heart, but now I perceive it. J. My lord, who he is that liketh himself so well, and is so stubborn and arrogant, that Lord, who trieth the hearts of all, must judge. B. Why, you being unlearned, stand stubbornly against us all, and so no learning will satisfy you. J. I would fain understand with what words Christ did consecrate. Dr. Wilson. With this word, benedicit. J. Be it so. But we know not the words with which Christ did benedicere. Therefore, we must consecrate with
we know not what.
L. C. J. Ah! Johnson. Is this your submission ? J. I must needs defend my own innocence. G. Johnson, you in a manner confess as much as you are charged with. For you confess, that when the words of the institution were recited, you had no wine. : J. I do not confess that. I had both bread and wine. G. But you had not that wine. J. No. . - G. Therefore it was not consecrated. J. The words before repeated were sufficient for the consecration. D. Then, with those words you consecrated all the wine in the tavern. J. No, sir, it was the wine that was brought from the tavern to the church, and of a common wine, was appointed to be a sacramental wine, to represent Christ's blood; and this is consecration. : D. Why then, with you, the word is of no force. J. It is not of force to bring any holiness to the sacrament. I trust you do not think that the word maketh the bread any holier when used in the sacrament. W. Yes, it is holy bread. B. It is a holy sacrament. J. That I confess. But holiness is in the use and end, not in the substance. For otherwise you would make a magical enchantment of it, and not a consecration. Dr. Cranmer, in his book on the sacrament, saith, “There cometh no holiness to the bread by consecration.” G. If thou wert well served, thou wouldst be used like a magician. J. Whatever your judgment may be, I stand or fall to my own Lord. - - -
B. You know not what harm you have done, by defending an error before this company, bringing them so into doubt, that they know not which way to take.
J. My lord, I defend no error. I maintain the truth.
D. Nay, you maintain a horrible heresy.
Bromley. Yea, if you were well served, you should fry a faggot.
J. As you say that I maintain a heresy, I pray you shew me by what commandment I am bound to the precise words of the institution. - D. As the word in baptism is, “I baptize thee in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost:” so the word in the Lord's supper is the rehearsal of the institution. - a " J. Bullinger was of another mind; for he saith, “The consecration of sacraments is not by the nature, will, command, or precept of Christ, nor from the authority of any other.” D. Where doth he say this 2
J. Sermon vi. decad 5.
D. You falsify his words.
J. No, I cite them right. And the churches of Geneva and Scotland consecrate with other words, without using the words of the institution, except in preaching.
D. You slander those churches, as appeareth from their own words, which I have here in a book.
J. I have not slandered those famous churches. Let their liturgy witness. And as to that book, there is nothing in it which I do not believe. But I pray you, my lord of London, answer me one question. Must consecration be performed before the delivery of the elements, or after? B. I will not answer it. J. It is only a question. I pray you answer it.
B. Answer it thyself.
D. It shall be answered. The consecration must go before; for Christ gave a sacrament, which could not be without the word. Consecration, therefore, must go before.
J. But Christ spake the word after the distribution. For he first gave them the bread, and then said, “Take, eat, this is my body.”
D. And what then 2
J. Then, according to what you say, Christ did not consecrate aright. ".
o You defend a horrible heresy: for you reject the WOrd.
J. I do not reject the word, but would understand what the word meaneth.
D. It meaneth the institution of Christ.
J. All writers do not so understand it. Some by the word, understand the promises, as Musculus, Bullinger, Peter Martyr, and Calvin.
D. The word is not the promise. *
J. These learned men so take it. Herein I am content to refer myself to the judgment of the learned. L. C. J. Here is my lord of London, a prelate of the realm, and a bishop, and this gentleman, Mr. Dean; dost thou think they are not learned?
J. I neither despise, nor deprave their learning. But as to the words of the institution, I say, they are to be considered, either as they are expressly set down by the evangelist; or, as other words are used equivalent to them, declaring the sum and substance of them, and, in either case, the institution is whole and sound. Consecration may be taken either according to the consecration of the papists, who say, “This is my body, and this is my blood;” or, as the best writers in our time, take it for the rehearsal of the promises and thanksgiving to be enjoined; and whichsoever of these two be accepted, seeing I used the words of delivery, there was sufficient consecration.
L. C. J. Let us make an end of it. Charge the jury.—
The witnesses were then called and sworn, some of whom were known papists, and others had done penance for the foulest crimes, against whom no exception would be taken; and Mr. Johnson being by their verdict found guilty, was condemned to one year's imprisonment, and immediately sent back to the Gatehouse."
The hard treatment Mr. Johnson received from Bishop Sandys, and the other commissioners, as appears in the above examination; with the heavy sentence pronounced upon him, after having endured some close and severe imprisonment already, were, surely, more than proportionate to any crime with which he was charged, even supposing he had been guilty. , Indeed, whether the principal thing with which he was charged was good or evil, was matter of mere opinion, and a point much to be disputed. But right or wrong, he must be punished.
During the execution of the heavy sentence, and about two weeks after his trial, Mr. Johnson wrote a letter to Bishop Sandys, dated March 7, 1574, in which he earnestly pleads for more kind treatment. He thus observes, “Our Saviour saith, Blessed are the merciful, for they shall obtain mercy: And the apostle, He shall have judgment without mercy, that hath shewed no mercy. I wonder what mercy you, and the rest of the commissioners, hope for, and what judgment you look for, seeing for trifles and of no weight, nay of no truth, as I doubt not you are persuaded in your own consciences, you not only mock and molest men, deprave and deprive them, but to their great poverty and utter ruin, and without any bowels of mercy, you condemn them to long imprisonment. Where hath God given any such commandment 2 Where hath Christ given any such precedent Where did the apostles put any such thing in practice? If you say, that we hold errors, are schismatics, and promote sects; then do you the part of a teacher, to reform our errors, to reduce schismatics to unity, and to dissuade sectaries from dissention. Your office and function, your name and title, your degree and profession, your knowledge and religion, yea the apostles, Jesus Christ, and , God himself, requireth this at your hands. You know who saith, If a man be overtaken in a fault, ye which are spiritual, restore such a one in the spirit of meekness. Compare your doctrine in time past, and your doings now, and see how they agree. We may say as the prophet said: The Lord God of your fathers was wroth with Judah, and he hath delivered them into your hand, and you have persecuted them in a rage that reacheth up to heaven.
* Parte of a Register, p. 105–111.
“If to imprison and famish men, be the proper way to instruct the ignorant and reduce the obstinate, where is the office and work of a shepherd, to seek that which was lost, and bring home that which went astray ? We beseech you, therefore, to gather something out of the Old and New Testament, that you may reduce those who go astray, and heal that which is bruised and broken. And I pray you, let us feel some of your charitable relief, to preserve us from death, under this hard usage; especially as you have been the chief cause of my trouble, I desire you to be some part of my comfort. Let pity requite spite, and mercy recompence malice. Thus beseeching God, that you may proceed faithfully in all the duties of a bishop, I commend you to Jesus Christ, the great Shepherd and Bishop of souls.
- “Robert Johnson.”
* Parte of a Register, p. 117, 118.