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queen offered him the archbishopric of Canterbury. This he declined, as some thought, from a desire of privacy; but as others thought, from a disaffection to the ecclesiastical discipline. The mastership of the Savoy, which he might have accepted without subscription, was also offered him about the same time; but he would accept of no preferment in the church, as it then stood. Refusing to embrace these offered promotions, he excused himself to the queen, by saying, he could live plentifully by the preaching of the gospel without any preferment: While others exerted themselves to obtain dignified titles and worldly emolument, he was content with deserving them. Accordingly, he went up and down like an apostle, preaching the word where it was most wanted; and spent his life in celibacy, which gained him the greater reputation in the eye of the queen, who was never fond of married priests. It is observed, that Mr. Whitehead coming one day to the queen, her majesty said to him, “I like thee the better, W.i. because thou livest unmarried.” “In troth, Madam,” replied Mr. Whitehead, “I like you the worse for the same cause.” + In the year 1564, Mr. Whitehead shared the same fate with many of his brethren. He was cited before the ecclesiastical commissioners, and suffered deprivation, for nonconformity to the rites and ceremonies of the church,t Though it does not o how long he remained under the ecclesiastical censure, Bishop Maddox is greatly mistaken, when he asserts, “ that Mr. Whitehead always continued preaching, that he approved the constitution of the church, and died a member of the church of England.”; The celebrated Lord Bacon observes, that though he was much esteemed by Queen Elizabeth, he was not preferred, because he was against the government of the bishops. During his deprivation, he most probably united with the other nonconformist divines, in presenting to Archbishop Parker, a paper of reasons for refusing the apparel. This excellent paper, now before me, is entitled “Reasons grounded upon the Scriptures, whereby we are persuaded not to admit the use of the outward apparel, and ministering garments of the pope's church.” Mr. Whitehead died in the year 1571. According to Wood, he was a great scholar, and a most excellent professor of divinity." In the opinion of Fuller, he was a man of great learning, a deep divine, and a rare example of moderation and self-denial. # It is observed of Coverdale, Turner, and Whitehead, three worthy puritans, “That they were the most ancient preachers of the gospel, and the most ancient fathers of this our country; and that from their pens, as well as their mouths, most of Queen Elizabeth's divines and bishops first received the light of the gospel.”f Mr. Whitehead was author of “Lections and Homilies on St. Paul's Epistles,” and probably some other works.
* Fuller's Worthies, part ii. p. 12. . . . . , t Ibid.
# Strype's Grindal, p. 98. § Vindication of the Church, p. 337. Bacon's Works, vol. ii. p. 419. Edit. 1303.
£ MS. Register, p. 57–60. . . " -
Mr. MILLAIN was fellow of Christ's college, Cambridge, and one of the preachers to the university. He maintained liberty of conscience, and publicly avowed his sentiments. Being thoroughly disatisfied with the corruptions in the church, he openly declared his opinion of them, as things worthy of censure. In the year 1572, .# delivered a sermon in St. Mary's church, he was convene before the vice-chancellor Dr. Bying, and the heads of colleges, when he was charged with having delivered the following opinions:–1. “ #. the ordering and making of ministers as used in the church of England, is an horrible confusion, and contrary to the word of God.—2. That ignorant and unpreaching ministers are no ministers.3. That such as are not called by some particular congregation, are no ministers.-4. That able and sufficient ministers are rejected from the sacred function.—5. That the clergy of England deface and pull down the church, by maintaining both adultery and idolatry.—6. That to command saints' eves to be observed, is idolatry.—7. That to command saints' days to be kept as days of fasting, is abominable idolatry.”—When he was examined upon these #. he confessed the whole, declaring that what he
ad delivered was according to the word of God. Refusing, therefore, to revoke these dangerous errors, as they are called, he was expelled from his college, and driven from the university.;
WILLIAM Bonham was a zealous nonconformist, and a considerable sufferer under the oppressions of the persecuting prelates. In the year 1569, he and Mr. Nicholas Crane, another puritan minister, were licensed to preach by Bishop Grindal. Their licenses are said to have been granted on condition that they should avoid all conventicles, and all things contrary to the order established in this kingdom. Accordingly, they made the following promise, signed with their own hands:–“ I do faithfully “promisc, that I will not, any time hereafter, use any “ public preaching, or open reading, or expounding of the “scriptures; nor cause, neither be present at, any private “assemblies of prayer or expounding of the scriptures, or “ministering the communion in any house, or other place, “contrary to the state of religion now by public authority “established, or contrary to the laws of this realm of Eng“land. Neither will I inveigh against any rites or cere“monies used or received by common authority within “this realm.” Such were the conditions on which these divines entered the sacred function . But, surely, if the church of England, so lately separated from the church of Rome, had come immediately from heaven, and been as infallible as its natural parent, the mother church, pretended it would have been too wisely constructed to require such tyrannical promises of the Lord's servants. o The two divines were afterwards apprehended and cast into prison for nonconformity, where they remained more than twelve months, and then they were released. But persisting in the same practice, and not keeping to the exact order established in the church of England, Mr. Bonham was again committed to prison, and Mr. Crane was silenced from preaching within the diocese of London; but it does not appear how long they continued under these ecclesiastical oppressions.# Mr. Bonham was a zealous man in the cause of the reformation. Being concerned for the restoration of a purer ecclesiastical discipline, he, in 1572, united with his brethren in the formation of the presbyterian church at Wandsworth in Surrey. Our divine was afterwards called to endure fresh trials. Mr. Bonham and Mr. Nicholas Standen, another puritan minister, were brought under the tyrannical power of the high commission, and cast into prison for nonconformity. After having continued under confinement a long time, and being deeply afflicted with the sickness of * Strype's Grindal, p. 156.
* Wood’s Athene Oxon. vol. i. p. 135, 136. + Fuller's Worthies, part ii. p. 12. i Strype's Crammer, p. 274. § Strype's Whitgift, p. 48, 49. Appen. p. 16.
the prison, they presented their petitions to the lords of the council, to which their lordships paid immediate attention. They accordingly addressed a letter to Archbishop Parker and other commissioners, signifying that they should be glad to assist them in any lawful cause against such as refused conformity; yet they did not like men to be so long detained without having their casue examined, and desire them to proceed in such cases more speedily in future. They entreat them to examine the cause of the two complainants, and, in case they should be found so sick that
they could not continue in prison without inconvenience, to.
suffer them to be bailed till their cause should be ended.” This effort of the council seems to have been without any good effect. Undismayed, however, by the first repulse, they made a second application, but in a style much more peremptory. They addressed another letter to the archbishop alone, signifying, that, for good considerations, it was her majesty's pleasure that Bonham - and Standen, committed by his lordship for breach of conformity, should be set at liberty, upon warning to observe the laws in their public ministry in future, or else to abstain from it.* Mr. Strype observes, that, during the above year, these two divines were accused of being concerned in Undertree's sham plot, and committed to prison; but, upon examination, they were found innocent, and were both acquitted and released by order of council.:
RoBERT JoHNson was fellow of King's college, Cambridge, and domestic chaplain to Lord Keeper Bacon. He preached and administered the sacrament in his lordship's family at Gorambury, and was statedly employed in the ministry at St. Alban's. In July, 1571, he was brought into trouble for nonconformity. He was cited before Archbishop Parker, and the Bishops of Winchester and Ely, at Lambeth. Upon his appearance, he was threatened to be silenced if he would not subscribe. Accordingly, not being satisfied in every point contained in the articles proposed to him, and refusing subscription, he was immediately suspended. Afterwards, he sent the following humble letter to the commissioners, earnestly desiring to be restored to his
* Baker's MS. Collec. vol. xxi. p. 384. + Ibid. p. 385. # Strype's Parker, p. 466.
ministry. This letter was dated from the lord keeper's house, Gorambury, near St. Albans, August 14, 1571. --" “Whereas July 4th,” says he, “being before your lordships, to answer to your three articles, I did forbear to " subscribe to the first, viz. “That the Book of Common Prayer is agreeable to the word of God,” because it seemed to me to contain a license of administering baptism by women, a thing forbidden by the word of God. And being suspended and sequestered, I have abstained from preaching and administering the sacrament, and thereby, my lord, and his family, have suffered the want of those most necessary and comfortable religious privileges. Therefore, my duty to his lordship's household, and to that part of the church from which I receive some maintenance, move me with all due humility and submission, to beseech you that I may be restored to my former liberty. “And concerning the articles, I trust this will suffice and fully answer your intention, that, by this my letter, subscribed with my own hand, I do promise and declare, that I did not mean to vary from the ordinary book of service, in my ministry. Neither to inveigh against it by public speech, wittingly, or maliciously; but to move the auditory to hold the truth in matters of faith and sound religious practice, and to live for ever in the fear of God. And I think that the contents of the service book, then expressly mentioned, and according to the exposition then given to me, are not defective, nor expressly contrary to the word of God; and that the imperfections thereof, may, for the sake of unity and charity, be suffered, till God grant a more perfect reformation: for which, every man, according to his particular vocation, ought diligently to labour. “As to the second article, “That the apparel of ministers is not wicked, and directly against the word of God; and being appointed by the prince only for the sake of policy, obedience, and order, it may be used;’ yet is it not generally expedient, nor edifying. “And as to the third, “That the articles of religion, which only concern the confession of the true christian faith, and the doctrine of the sacrament, comprised in a book, entitled Articles agreed upon by the Archbishops and Bishops of both Provinces, and the whole Clergy, in the convocation holden in London, in the year of our Lord 1562, and every of them, contain true and godly christian doctrine. - - * “And because I perceived it to be offensive to his grace WOL. I. N