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he was entirely knit to him, though in some circumstances of religion they had formerly jarred a little; wherein it was Hooper's wisdom, and his own simplicity, which had made the difference.” All the severe persecution in this queen's reign, did not extinguish the light of the English reformation. Great numbers were driven, indeed, into exile, and multitudes suffered in the flames, yet many, who loved the gospel more than their lives, were enabled to endure the storm. Congregations were formed in various parts of the kingdom. There was a considerable congregation of these excellent christians, at Stoke, in Suffolk; with whom, on account of their number and unanimity, the bishops were for some time afraid to interfere. They constantly attended their private meetings, and never went to the parish church. An order was at length sent to the whole society, requiring them to receive the popish sacrament, or abide by the consequences. But the good people having assembled for the purpose of consultation, unanimously resolved not to comply. In about six months, the Bishop of Norwich sent his officers, strictly charging them to go to church on the following Lord's day, or, in case of failure, to appear before the commissary to give an account of their conduct. But having notice of this, they kept out of the way to avoid the summons. When they neither went to church, nor appeared before the commissary, the angry prelate suspended and excommunicated the whole congregation. And when officers were appointed to apprehend them, they left the town, and so escaped all the days of Queen Mary.4 The most considerable of these congregations, was that which met in and about London. Owing to the vigilance of their enemies, these people were obliged to assemble with the utmost secrecy; and though there were about 200 members, they remained for a considerable time undiscovered. Their meetings were held alternately in Aldgate, in Blackfriars, in Pudding-lane, in Thames-street, and in ships upon the river. Sometimes they assembled in the villages about London, especially at Islington, that they might the more easily elude the bishops’ officers. To screen themselves from the notice of their persecutors, they often met in the night, and experienced many wonderful providential deliverances." Their public devotions were conducted by the following ministers: Edmund Scambler, afterwards successively Bishop of Peterborough and Norwich, Mr. Fowler, Mr. John Rough, Mr. Augustine Birnher, Thomas Bentham, afterwards iłishop o Lichfield and Coventry, and Mr. John Pullain, afterwards an excellent puritan. # During Mr. Rough's ministry among these people, he was apprehended, with Mr. Cuthbert Sympson and some others, at a house in Islington, where the church was about to assemble for prayer and preaching the word; and being taken before the council, after several examinations, he was sent to Newgate, and his case committed to the management of Bonner. The character of this prelate, whose hands were so deeply stained with innocent blood, needs no colouring in this place: the faithful pages of history will always hold it up to the execration of mankind. In his hands, Mr. Rough met with the most relentless cruelty. Not content with degrading him, and delivering him over to the secular power, the furious prelate flew upon him, and plucked the beard from his face. And, at length, after much cruel usage, he ended his life in the flames, in December, 1557.t Mr. Sympson, who was deacon of the church, was a pious, faithful, and zealous man, labouring incessantly to preserve the flock from the errors of popery, and to secure them from the dangers of persecution. At the time of his apprehension, the whole church was, indeed, in the utmost danger. It was Mr. Sympson's office to keep a book, containing the names of all the persons belonging to the congregation, which book he always carried to their private assemblies. But it was so ordered, by the good providence of God, that on the day of his apprehension, he left it with Mrs. Rough, the minister's wife.” Two or three days after this, he was sent to the Tower. Durin his confinement, because he would not discover the book, nor the names of the persons, he was cruelly racked three several times; and an arrow was tied between his two forefingers, and drawn out so violently as to cause the blood to gush forth; but all was without effect. He was then committed to Bonner, who bore this testimony concerning him before a number of spectators: “You see what a personable man this is; and for his patience, if he were not an heretic, I should much commend him. For he has been thrice racked in one day, and, in my house, he hath endured some sorrow ; and yet I never saw his patience once moved.” The relentless prelate, nevertheless, condemned' him, ordering him first into the stocks in his coal-house, and from thence to Smithfield; where with Mr. Fox and Mr. Davenish, two others of the church taken at Islington, he ended his life in the flames. # Seven more of this church were burnt in Smithfield, six at Brentford, and others died in prison.f The numerous divines who fled from the persecution of Queen Mary, retired to Frankfort, Strasburgh, Zurich, Basil, Geneva, and other places; but they were most numerous at Frankfort. At this place it was, that a contest and division commenced, which gave rise to the PURITANs, and to that SEPARATION from the church of England which continues to this day. The exiles were in no place so happily settled as at Frankfort; where the senate gave them the use of a church, on condition that they should not vary from the French reformed church, either in doctrine or ceremonies. According to these conditions, they drew up a new liturgy, more agreeable to those of the foreign churches, omitting the responses and the litany, with many trifling ceremonies in the English prayer book, and declined the use of the surplice. They took possession * A few nights before this, Mr. Rough had a remarkable dream. He thought he saw Mr. Sympson taken by two of the guard, and with the book above-mentioned. This giving him much trouble, he awoke, and related the dream to his wife. Afterwards, falling asleep, he again dreamt the same thing. Upon his awaking the second time, he determined to go o, immediately to Mr. Sympson, and put him upon his guard; but while he was getting ready, Mr. Sympson came to his house with the book, which he deposited with Mrs. Rough, as above related.—For, vol. iii. p. 726.
* Prince's Chron. Hist. vol. i. p. 217.—Bishop Ridley was a famous disputant against the papists. He forced them to acknowledge, that Christ in his last supper, held himself in his hand, and afterwards eat himself.-Granger's Biog. Hist. vol. i. p. 159. t Clark's Martyrologie, p. 515.
* On one of these nocturnal occasions, being assembled in a house, by the side of the river, in Thames-street, they were discovered; and the house was so guarded, that their enemies were sure none could escape. But among them was a worthy mariner, who, seeing no other way of deliverance, got out at a back door; and swimming to a boat in the river, brought it; and having received all the good people into it, he made oars of his shoes, and conveyed them all away in safety. — Clark's Martyrologie, p. 515, 516. + Ibid.—Strype's Annals, vol. i. p. 292. f Fox's Martyrs, vol. iii. p. 722, 726. — Mr. Rough had been a celebrated preacher in Scotland, and also in England, in the reign of Edward VI. A sermon which he delivered in the parish church of St. Andrew, was made a great blessing to the celebrated Mr. John Knox, and proved the means of bringing him forth to engage in his public ministry.—Biog. Britan. vol. iv. p. 2865. Edit. 1747.
of the church, July 29, 1554; and having chosen a temporary minister and deacons, they sent to their brethren, who had fled to other places, inviting them to Frankfort, where they might hear God's word truly preached, the sacraments duly administered, and the requisite christian discipline properly exercised: privileges which could not be obtained in their own country.* The members of the congregation sent for Mr. John Knox from Geneva, Mr. James #. don from Strasburgh, and Mr. Thomas Lever from Zurich, requesting them to take the oversight of them in the Lord.
The church at Frankfort being thus comfortably settled with pastors, deacons, and a liturgy, according to its own choice; Dr. Richard Cox, a man of a high spirit, coming to that city, with some of his friends, broke through the conditions of the new-formed church, and interrupted the public service by answering aloud after the minister. On the Lord's day following, one of the company, equally officious as himself, ascended the pulpit, and read the whole litany. Mr. Knox, upon this, taxed the authors of this disorder with a breach of the terms of their common agreement, and affirmed, that some things in the Book of Common Prayer were superstitious and impure. Dr. Cox reproved him for his censoriousness; and being admitted, with the rest of his company, to vote in the congregation, obtained a majority, prohibiting Mr. Knox from preaching any more. But Mr. Knox's friends applied to the magistrates, who commanded them to unite with the French church both in doctrine and ceremonies, according to their original agreement. Dr. Cox and his party finding Knox's interest among the magistrates too strong, had recourse to an unworthy and unchristian method to get rid of him. This divine having published a book, while he was in England, entitled “An Admonition to Christians,” in which he had said, “That the emperor was no less an enemy to Christ than Nero,” these overbearing fellowexiles basely availed themselves of this and some other expressions in the book, and accused him of high treason against the emperor. Upon this, the senate being tender of the emperor's honour, and unwilling to embroil themselves in these controversies, desired Mr. Knox, in a respectful manner, to depart from the city. So he left the place, March 25, 1555.
* Troubles at Frankeford, p. 1–3. + Cox and his friends were admitted to vote in the congregation, through the particular solicitations of Mr. Knox-Ibid. p. 33.
Upon Mr. Knox's departure, Cox's party having strengthened themselves by the addition of other exiles, petitioned the magistrates for the free use of King Edward's servicebook; which they were pleased to grant. The old congregation was thus broken up by Dr. Cox and his friends, who now carried all before them. They chose new churchofficers, taking no notice of the old ones, and set up the service-book without interruption. Among those who were driven from the peaceable and happy congregation, were Knox, Gilby, Goodman, Cole, Whittingham, and Fox, all celebrated nonconformists in the reign of Queen Elizabeth." From the above account, it will sufficiently appear who were the aggressors. Bishop Burnet, with great injustice, says, “That Knox and his party certainly began the breach.”4
Towards the close of this queen's unhappy reign, her government having sustained many losses, her spirits failed, her health declined, and, being seized with the dropsy, she died November 17, 1558, in the forty-third year of her age, having reigned a little more than five years and four months. Queen Mary was a princess of severe principles, and being wholly under the controul of her clergy, was ever forward to sanction all their cruelties. Her conscience was under the absolute direction of the pope and her conf fessor; who, to encourage her in the extirpation of heresy, and in all the cruelties inflicted upon protestants, gave her assurance, that she was doing God service. She was naturally of a melancholy and peevish temper; and her . death was lamented only by her popish clergy. Her reign was in every respect calamitous to the nation, and will be transmitted to posterity in characters of blood.
From the Death of Queen Mary, to the Death of Queen
The accession of Queen ELIZABETH to the crown, gave new life to the Reformation. The news had no sooner reached the continent, than most of the worthy exiles with joy returned home; and those who had concealed themselves, during the late storm, came forth as men restored from the
* Troubles at Frankeford, p. 1–&c. + Hist. of Refor. vol. ii. p. 389. # Ibid. p. 869–371. C