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book; and says, he designed to complete this history in four books, which should detect the foul lives and practices of the monastics, both men and women. He published the two first parts, which he dedicated to King Edward, and intimated that the other two should presently follow; but it is supposed they never came forth. He, at the same time, published “An Apology against a rank Papist, answering both him and the Doctors, that neither their Vows, nor yet their Priesthood, are of the Gospel, but of Antichrist.” This was also dedicated to the king. The Apology begins thus: “A few months ago, by chance as I sat at supper, this question was moved unto me, by one who fervently loves God's verity, and mightily detesteth all falsehood and hypocrisy : Whether the vows expressed in the xxxth chapter of Numbers give any establishment to the vow of our priests now to live without wives of their own o’’ This piece was answered by a certain chaplain; and Bale published a reply. During the above year, he likewise published his “Image of both Churches,” being an exposition of Revelation. Also, “A Dialogue or Communication to be had at table between two Children.” And “A Confession of the Sinner, after the Sacred Scripture.” By these and similar productions of his pen, he so exposed the delusive superstitions and vile practices of the Romish church, as greatly to exasperate the party; and Bishop Gardiner, the cruel persecutor, complained of him to the lord protector, but most probably without success.t During Bale's abode at Bishopstoke, where he lived retired from the world, he waited upon the king, who was then at Southampton. His majesty, who had been informed of his death, was greatly surprised and delighted to see him; and the bishopric of Ossory, in Ireland, being then vacant, he summoned his privy council, and appointed him to that see. Upon which the lords wrote the following letter to our author: “To our very lovinge friende Doctour Bale. After our “ heartye commendacyons. For as much as the kinges “ majestie is minded in consideracyon of your learninge, “wysdome, and other vertuouse qualityes, to bestowe upon “ yow the bishopricke of Ossorie in Irelande presently “ voyde, we have thought mete both to give yow knowledge “ thereof, and therewithall to lete you understande, that “ his majestie wolde ye made your repayre hyther to the “ courte as soon as convenientley ye may, to thende that if “ ye be enclined to embrace this charge, his highnesse may “ at your comynge give such ordre for the farther pro44 o with yow herin, as shall be convenient. And “ thus we bid yow hartely farewell. From Southampton, “ the 16 daye of August 1552. Your lovinge frendes, W. “ Winchestre, F. Bedford, H. Suffolke, W. Northampton, “T. Darcy, T. Cheine, F. Gate, W. Cecill.” Bale, at first, refused the offered preferment, on account of his age, poverty, and ill health; but the king not admitting his excuses, he at length consented, and went soon after to London, where everything relative to his election and confirmation was dispatched in a few days, without any expense to him. He was consecrated by the Archbishop of Dublin, assisted by the Bishops of Kildare and Down; and Hugh Goodacre, a particular friend of his, was, at the same time, consecrated Archbishop of Armagh. There was, however, some dispute about the form of consecration. Dr. Lockwood, dean of the church, desired the lord chancellor not to permit the form, in the Book of Common Prayer lately set forth by the parliament in England, to be used on this occasion, alledging that it would cause a tumult, and that it was not consented to by the parliament of Ireland. The lord chancellor proposed the case to the archbishop and the bishops, who agreed in opinion with the dean. Dr. Goodacre wished it might be otherwise, but was unwilling to enter into any disputation about it. But our author positively refused being consecrated according to the old popish form, alledging, that as England and Ireland were under one king, they were both bound to the observance of the same laws. Upon which, the lord chancellor ordered the ceremony to be performed according to the new book, and afterwards entertained the bishops at dinner.{ This celebrated divine having entered upon his new charge, did not become indolent, nor yet rise in worldly grandeur, but was constantly employed in his beloved work of preaching the gospel, labouring to the utmost of his power to draw the people from popery to Christ. He spent a great part of his income in the purchase of books, manuscripts, and records, for the purpose of publishing certain learned works which he had then in contemplation. Upon the accession of Queen Mary, and the return of popery, Dr. Bale was again exposed to the resentment and

* Strype's Eccl. Memorials, vol. ii. p. 263. + Burnet’s Hist. of Refor. vol. ii. p. 12.

* Biog, Britan, vol. i. p. 532, + Ibid,

cruel persecution of his popish adversaries. All his endeavours to reform the manners of his diocese, to correct the lewd practices and debaucheries of the priests, to abolish the mass, and to establish the use of the new Book of Common Prayer set forth in England, were not only rendered abortive by the death of K. Edward, and the accession of ~ Mary, but exposed him so much to the fury of the papists, that his life was frequently in the utmost danger. At one time in particular, they murdered five of his domestics, who were making hay in a meadow near his house; and he would in all probability have shared the same fate, if the governor of Kilkenny had not seasonably interposed by sending a troop of soldiers to his protection. This, however, served only as a defence against the present outrage. It did not in the least allay the fury of his adversaries, who were implacably enraged against him for preaching the doctrines of the gospel. He could find no permanent security among them, and was obliged to flee for safety. He did not, indeed, withdraw from the storm till after his books and other moveable articles were seized, and he had received certain information, that the Romish priests were conspiring to take away his life. Dr. Leland's reflections are not at all favourable to the memory of our prelate. After calling him the violent and acrimonious oppugner of popery, and relating his rigid and uncomplying conduct at his consecration, he ai. “That Bale insulted the prejudices of his flock without reserve, or caution. They were provoked; and not so restrained, or awed by the civil power, as to dissemble their resentments. During the short period of his residence in Ireland, he lived in a continual state of fear and persecution. On his first preaching the reformed doctrines, his clergy forsook him, or opposed him; and to such violence were the populace raised against him, that five of his domestics were slain before his face; and his own life saved only by the vigorous interposition of the civil magistrate. These outrages are pathetically related; but,” he adds, “we are not informed what imprudencies provoked them, or what was the intemperate conduct which his adversaries retorted with such shocking barbarity.” r When Dr. Bale fled from the fury of his enemies, he went first to Dublin, where, for some time, he concealed himself. Afterwards, a favourable opportunity offering,

* Biog. Britan. vol. i. p. 535,

he endeavoured to make his escape in a small trading vessel, bound for Scotland, but was taken prisoner by the captain of a Dutch man of war, who rifled him of all his money, apparel and effects. This ship was driven by distress of weather into St. Ives in Cornwall, where our author was taken up on suspicion of treason. The accusation was brought against him by one Walter, an Irishman, and pilot of the Dutch ship, in hopes of obtaining a share of Bale's money, which was in the captain's hands. When our author was brought to his examination before one of the bailiffs of the town, he desired the bailiff to ask Walter, “How long he had known him 2 and what treason he had committed 2’’ These interrogatories being proposed, Walter replied, that he had never seen him, nor ever heard of him, till he was brought into their ship. Then said the bailiff, “What treason have you known by this honest entleman since 2 For I promise you he looks like an onest man.” “Marry,” said Walter, “ he would have fled into Scotland.” “Why,” said the bailiff, “know you any impediment why he should not have gone into Scotland? If it be treason for a man, having business in Scotland, to go thither, it is more than I knew before.” Walter was then so confounded, that he had nothing more to say. The captain and purser deposed in favour of Bale, assuring the bailiff that he was a very honest man, and that Walter was a vile fellow, deserving no credit. This they did, lest they should be deprived of the money and other articles which they had taken from our author. Dr. Bale being honourably acquitted, the ship sailed, and, in a few days, arrived in Dover road, where he was again brought into danger by false accusation. One Martin, a Frenchman by birth, but now an English pirate, persuaded the Dutch captain and his crew, that Bale had been the principal instrument in pulling down the mass in England, and in keeping Dr. Gardiner, bishop of Winchester, a long time in the Tower; and that he had poisoned the king. With this information the captain and purser went ashore, carrying with them our author's episcopal seal, and two letters sent him from Conrad Gesner and Alexander Alesius, with commendations from Pellicanus, Pomeranus, Melancthon, and other celebrated reformers, who were desirous to become acquainted with the doctrines and antiquities of the English church. They also took from him the council's letter of his appointment to the bishopric of Ossory. All these things served to

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aggravate the charge. The episcopal seal was construed to be a counterfeiting of the king's seal; the two letters were heretical; and the council's letter a conspiracy against the queen. When the captain returned to the ship, it was proposed to send Bale to London; but, after some consultation, they resolved to send two persons, with information to the privy council. This determination, however, was relinquished, upon Bale's strong remonstrances to the captain, and offering to pay fifty pounds for his ransom, on his arrival in Holland. He was carried into Zealand, and lodged in the house of one of the owners of the ship, who treated him with great civility and kindness. He had only twenty-six days allowed him for raising the money agreed upon for his ransom, and could not obtain the liberty of going abroad to find out his friends. In this state of perplexity and distress, he was sometimes threatened to be thrown into the common gaol, sometimes to be brought before the magistrates, sometimes to be left to the examination of the clergy, at other times to be sent to London, or to be delivered to the queen's ambassador at Brussels. At length his kind host interposed, and desired the captain to consider, how far he had exceeded the limits of his commission, in thus using a subject of England, with which nation they were at peace. This produced the desired effect, and the captain was willing to take thirty pounds for his ransom, as he should be able to pay it, and so discharged him.” Dr. Bale having obtained his liberty, retired to Frankfort, where he and the other English exiles were favoured by the magistrates with the use of one of their churches. Having obtained so great a privilege, their next object was to agree to certain forms of worship: driven from their own country, and now comfortably settled in a foreign land, they thought it their duty to make certain improvements upon the reformation of King Edward. They entered, therefore, into a mutual and friendly consultation upon the subject, and agreed to the following things:—“Having perused the “English liturgy, it was concluded among them, That the “ answering aloud after the minister should not be used; the “litany, surplice, and many other things also omitted, “ because in the reformed churches abroad such things “would seem more than strange. It was further agreed “upon, that the minister, in the room of the English con

* Biog. Britan. vol. i. p. 533.

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