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education, a department of the government; and thus uniformity of plan is secured. The agencies for industrial-art-education employed are, first, a museum of industrial masterpieces; and a large portion of the national collection of pictures in connection with, secondly, a national training-school for art-masters, both located in the same building; thirdly, a traveling museum, for exhibition in the provinces, which circulates good specimens of industrial art and forms the nucleus for local exhibitions, and also the circulation of books and paintings, on loan, to provincial schools ; fourthly, examination and supervision of all grades of art-instruction carried on in connection with the national system. Art-instruction is divided into three grades, progressing in difficulty from the first, and called first, second, and third grade. Teachers are trained and certificated to give instruction in each, according to their powers; and, thus qualified, the government recognizes their qualifications by paying, on a published scale, a sum of money for each successful examination passed by the pupils of these certificated teachers.” (Art-Education, Scholastic and Industrial, pp. 132, 133.)
AMERICAN FACILITIES FOR GENERAL INTRODUCTION OF ART-TRAINING.
While, in the countries of Europe, whatever relates to the people in education, as in other matters, is in the control and general direction of the central government, so that what the central power decides to do is readily and immediately set in motion throughout the entire country, in the United States there is wisely no such central control. This power inheres to the States and to the local communities within the States. This very circumstance, though somewhat, it may be, delaying the adoption of useful measures, yet renders the wise adaptation of training to the peculiar industries and needs of the various parts of the country far more probable. It is readily seen that the kind of special technical training would vary as it was applicable to a manufacturing, a farming, or a mining community.
INFLUENCE OF LOCALITIES ON ART-DEVELOPMENT.
Indeed, this has already been exemplified in a marked degree in the different developments of the schools of science in the several States, adapting themselves in their chief courses of instruction to the industrial demands of their localities. So we may hope to have in the art-future of this country, as have the different European countries, art-capitals famous for their peculiar developments and queening it over their own States, as do Dresden and Munich and Florence and the other famous homes of art. San Francisco, St. Louis, Cincinnati, Chicago, Cleveland, Pittsburg, Boston, New Haven, Worcester, and many other prosperous cities and towns may become in time great centers of beauty as well as of commerce, each having its own special development, varying in architecture according to the building-material most conveniently accessible and in art-production and artistic manufactures according to their special industries and resources, but all alike affording to their children thorough technical training and all attractive because everywhere the eye rests on noble buildings—when the homes of industry shall also be homes of beauty, and to walk through the city-streets shall be of itself an art-education, as of old in Athens, as it was in many a mediæval town and is still in many an ancient city of France, and Germany, and Italy, and far-off Spain.
Now, drawing is the very alphabet of art, (for art is but a language,) the one essential requisite preliminary to any artistic or technical training; and, if it is desirable that the children of the public schools shall be fitted to become, if they wish it, skilled workmen in any branch of industry, it is necessary that they shall be taught to draw correctly. To those to whom art means higher things, as they suppose, than its application to every-day-utensils and mere manufactures, who look for grand galleries of pictures and statues and to all the higher refinements of cultured art, it may be a suggestive reflection that, among a people ignorant of drawing and whose daily surroundings—as is true of most of the American people—afford few suggestions of art in any of its forms, high art must ever remain an exotic and native artists be rarer than the fabled phænix.
A country's art, like all its other good things, must be based primarily upon its people. Where all are judges of art, great artists arise, just as great warriors among nations of soldiers; and, until the common people know the language of art and can comprehend the meaning of line and color and form, the artist is as much out of place and as little to be looked for as a great author would be among a people ignorant of reading.
Nor has it ever been otherwise. The history of art is the history of peoples. Nor is there anything little or common in the eyes of art. The people that produced great buildings, fine paintings, and noble statues had also the most exquisite household-utensils. Their commonest articles, whose fragile beauty has outlasted the centuries, to-day, with subtle grace and perfect forni, tease the eye of the artist and challenge in vain our most skilled artisans to reproduce them. The antique eastern dish of burned clay is held by the modern connoisseur as of more worth than its weight in silver; yet it was once in as humble and universal use as the commonest crockery of our kitchens.
Great collections, museums, art-galleries, much as they may contribute to the self-satisfaction of cliques and cities, will be of the slightest possible value and barren of results, either upon the industries of the people or their art-culture, so long as drawing is not generally understood.
Whoever succeeds in having all the public-school-children of the country properly trained in elementary drawing will have done more to advance the manufactures of the country and more to make possible the art-culture of the people than could be accomplished by the establishment of a hundred artmuseums without this training. Just as libraries are worthless to those who cannot read, so are art-collections to those who cannot comprehend them; just as all literature is open to him who has learned to read, so is all art to him who has learned to draw, whose eye has been trained to see and his fingers made facile to execute. We have begun at the wrong end: we asked for art-galleries when we needed drawing-schools. But the evil is not irremediable. Let drawing be generally taught, and our art-galleries and museums, poor as they are, will at once grow more and more valuable; for they will then begin to be of use.
A BEGINNING ALREADY MADE TOWARDS GENERAL ART-TRAINING. Already many cities and towns have awakened to the necessity of some art-training and some teaching of drawing has been attempted in the public schools, so that several of the cities sent specimens of the drawing of their public-school-children to be exhibited at Vienna, which attracted much attention from foreign observers, as, in fact, did everything relating to our system of public free education.
MASSACHUSETTS THE FIRST STATE TO ACT.
The legislature of Massachusetts, moved thereto by the persistent efforts of a few cultured and public-spirited citizens, who realized the imperative need and demand for such training in the public schools, passed an act in 1870, making drawing one of the studies of the public schools and also making the establishment of free drawing-classes for adults obligatory upon all towns and cities containing over ten thousand inhabitants. In pursuance of this law, Mr. Walter Smith, “Art-master, London, late head master of the Leeds School of Art and Science and Training-School for Art-Teachers," was invited, both by the city of Boston and by the State of Massachusetts, to come from England and introduce the new study into the schools of the city and of the Commonwealth. Mr. Smith was highly recommended by the Kensington school-authorities. He was appointed State-director of art-education, and has been unremitting in his efforts to introduce drawing into the public schools and to foster the establishment of classes for adults. Mr. Smith was also appointed general supervisor of art in the Boston schools.
He published, in 1872, a large illustrated work upon art-education,* which is indispensable to a thorough investigation of the subject and will be found full of practical suggestions to those wishing to introduce the study into the schools.
ANNUAL REPORTS OF MASSACHUSETTS COMMITTEE ON DRAWING. The annual report of the committee on drawing, published June 10, 1873, contains 28 pages of heliotype “fac-similes of drawings made in the ordinary course of instruction by pupils in the public schools and free industrial nightclasses, which were exhibited at the annual exhibition.” .
There are drawings from pupils in the primary, grammar-, and high schools, and of children of all ages, from eight years upwards. The ages of the pupils of the evening-classes whose drawings are given are from fourteen to twenty-five; these drawings are made by mechanics, clerks, wood-engravers, carpenters, and shipwrights.
Certainly, as showing the results of but two years' instruction, these drawings are remarkable and full of encouragement to those who hope so much from the experiment. Two difficulties have been met : the want of persons qualified to teach the public-school-teachers and the want, in the advanced classes, of pupils who had had the benefit of proper elementary training.
The general supervisor gives normal instruction to the teachers, and his lessons are repeated by two assistants.
"*Art-Education, Scholastic and Industrial, by Walter Smith, art-master, London, late head master of the Leeds School of Art and Science and Training-School for Art-Teachers, now professor of art-education in the City of Boston Normal School of Art and State-director of art. education, Massachusetts." With illustrations. James Osgood & Co., Boston, 1872. Pp. 398.
Five hundred city-school teachers attended these lessons in 1872 and 620 in 1873. The committee, in their report, speak in the highest praise of the marked advance made during the past year.
The need of some provision for the art-training of teachers became so evident that the legislature made a small appropriation for that purpose, and rooms were assigned for it in 33 Pemberton Square, Boston, Mr. Walter Smith being appointed director and an able corps of instructors secured.
In their first annual report, the board of visitors say: “The most important event of the past year connected with the educational interests of the Commonwealth was doubtless the establishment of the State Normal Art-School.” After expressing in the strongest terms the importance, in their judgment, to the State of general artistic and technical training, they say, “ The special purpose of this school is to train teachers of drawing and the arts of design. It is the first institution of the kind established in this country. The necessity of providing this new educational instrumentality became apparent as soon as the attempt was made to carry out the provisions of the law requiring the teaching of industrial drawing, provisions which had been made in compliance with the request of leading representatives of the great industrial interests of the State. It was in vain to look to private enterprise for the means of qualifying the needed teaching staff. Public provision was indispensable.”
The report urges the imperative necessity of immediately taking measures to provide more suitable accommodations; and, after declaring there is no longer any question but that this school is demanded, they close by saying, “As Americans, we are apt to boast of our enterprise, especially in all matters pertaining to popular education ; but it is a fact which ought to moderate our disposition to indulge in self-complacency that, since the movement was begun in this State in 1869 in favor of industrial-art-education, in several European cities very large and costly establishments for this purpose have been built and equipped in the amplest manner.”
The following extract from a letter recently received at this Bureau from Mr. Smith is of interest in this connection :
“I would like to say that, called by the city of Boston and the State of Massachusetts to organize a system of industrial drawing in both, the first thing I discovered with certainty was that qualified teachers of drawing did not exist in this country; and, after a careful examination of all the drawing-classes in the State, I saw the one thing necessary to make success possible was to train teachers. I, therefore, with Mr. Philbrick and others, appealed to the State to establish such a school, first unsuccessfully, in 1872; next successfully, in 1873. I have had over two hundred applications for admission; and, if proper conveniences were given, (I judge that a great training-school is essentially needed in this country,) such a school can open with five hundred students next year. It has been terribly uphill-work and is so now, the appropriation being entirely insufficient and the two upper floors (about 35 by 18 feet each) of a private house being utterly ill-adapted for the work, the crowding and inconvenience being intolerable. Still, the best work ever done in this country, the authorities tell me, is being done in the school, and my hope is that the little we do shall be at least searching and thorough.
“I have on my desk applications from many colleges and universities in several States for accomplished teachers of art. I do not know one. It will take us four years to make one, and then we may make perhaps from ten to twenty. I wish that America could have, as every European country has, an industrial-art-school, which should by its graduates affect the value and beauty of every branch of industry.”
In his “Second annual report on the promotion of industrial-art-education in the State of Massachusetts for 1873," made to the State-board of education, Mr. Smith refers to the difficulty of obtaining trained teachers for the free industrial-drawing-classes. He also dwells upon the importance of enforcing the provisions of the law requiring drawing to be taught in all the public schools, and especially in the teaching of drawing in the primary schools, and remarks that the usefulness of the free industrial classes is much impaired by the need of teaching the primary lessons in drawing; a difficulty which existed in England and on the continent, so that “the success of the art-schools was limited and their influence on manufactures inappreciable.” The remedy there was found in teaching every child to draw in the public schools, and in a few years the effect was so marked in England that, instead of there being less than a score of schools barely supported by the public, as was the case in 1851, there are now in the United Kingdom nearly eight hundred schools of art and evening-classes at which instruction is given in industrial drawing.
“The agency in popularizing drawing next in importance to the normal art-school is the drawing-class in each normal school. Here the teachers of the public schools will be prepared for teaching drawing as one of the elementary subjects of general education.
“I have visited and examined the pupils of the four normal schools during the year. Each school has now an art-class-room and the nucleus of a collection both of casts and flat copies.”
In regard to the free industrial-drawing-classes in cities of over 10,000 inhabitants, 20 are reported as having been held and three cities disregard the statute. The director suggests that the law shall be amended to include all towns of over 5,000, which would include 43 more, and suggests that the present law will work hardship to the workmen of the smaller places who may also desire to become skilled workmen. He also furnishes a schedule for a thirteenyears course of art-training in the public schools, three in the primary, six in the grammar-, and four in the high schools. He also gives a schedule for a twoyears course in the free industrial-drawing-classes, both for instrumental drawing and for free-hand-drawing, the first year's course to be the same for both.
Appended to the report of normal-art-school-visitors is a report of the Stateboard of examiners on the second exhibition of works from the free industrialdrawing-classes of the State of Massachusetts. The decided superiority of the present over the previous exhibition is spoken of and the former superiority of the Boston schools to those of the other cities is declared to have arisen from their having had suitable casts, models, and flat examples to draw from, which the other schools had not. This want having been partially supplied to the other schools, their improvement is very apparent. The examiners deem a supply of proper models indispensable to the success of these classes. There were exhibited, in 1872, 612 drawings; in 1873, 1,209, made by the pupils of these free drawing-schools. For some reason, several of the schools did not exhibit.
In addition to the drawings of these classes, the classes of architectural and industrial design, established in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, exhibited some 40 architectural drawings, chiefly original designs, and 150