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department shall connect itself with either of the two great parties ; but would manifest a favorable spirit towards the general idea of setting apart these lands for educational purposes. That is in one resolution ; and that is followed by another, expressing a favorable interest in both the great subjects that are seeking these public lands, namely: the subject of technical education and also that of common schools.
RECEPTION OF THE PRESIDENT.
At this point the President of the United States entered the ball, upon which the department rose and received him with applause.
President Binford, as the President reached the platform and while the department was standing, said: “I am happy to present to the convention the President of the United States, whom we all recognize as our friend, both theoretically and practically."
Mr. Ruffner then resumed his remarks and said : We think this resolution meets with universal favor, no objection to it having been made in Congress or elsewhere; and we propose that this convention shall express its favorable view in regard to it.
In regard to the fourth resolution Mr. Ruffner said: I suppose the convention is aware that these respective parties, those favoring the common-school-education particularly and those favoring technical education, have heretofore acted separately; there have been distinct bills before Congress in behalf of these two objects. The committee propose that the friends of education in Congress should unite and agree upon a single bill; agree, too, among themselves as to the items of that bill and as to the appropriations that may be allowed ; and then leave it discretionary with the State-legislatures to use the funds in the way indicated; that is, as respects those two objects. If they wish to give a certain proportion to the technical colleges, they will be at liberty to do so, to give either the maximum amount allowed or some smaller amount. The object of that resolution is not to cut off these technical institutions, whose claims were so forcibly presented to our consideration last evening by President White; not to undertake, as school-superintendents, to absorb the whole for common schools, but to give colleges and technical schools their share.
The report was then received. The resolutions are as follows: Resolved, (1,) That this convention strongly approves the policy hitherto pursued by the Federal Government of leaving the people and local government of each State to manage their own educational affairs without interference, believing that the principle on which this policy is based is as sound educationally as it is politically.
Resolved, (2) That this convention acknowledge the great service done to the cause of education by Congress, in establishing and maintaining a Department of Education similar in principle to those of agriculture and statistics, whereby appropriate information from all points of the world may be gathered, digested, and distributed and whereby a number of important ends may be subserved in connection with the practical work of education. It would also acknowledge specially the very valuable service already done by the Bureau of Education, and would venture to express the hope that its means of usefulness may be increased.
Resolved, (3,) That this convention most heartily indorses the proposition, a lready under consideration by Congress, to set apart the public lands of the United States exclusively for the purposes of free education in the States and Territories; and it also approves the proviso that, at least for the present, the basis of division shall be illiteracy existing in the several States in the population, from ten years old and upwards; but would deprecate the attachment to such grant of any conditions which would embarrass its use in any State, excepting the sole condition needed to insure its application to the objects for which it is given.
Resolved, (4,) That this convention favors such united action on the part of the special friends of primary and of agricultural and other industrial education, respectively, as would allow the various State- and territorial legislatures to employ 25 per cent. of such donated funds for the purposes of industrial education.
RECEPTION OF THE HON. SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR AND HON.
A. R. SHEPHERD, GOVERNOR OF THE DISTRICT. At this point Hon. Columbus Delano, Secretary of the Interior, and Hon. A. R. Shepherd, governor of the District of Columbia, entered. On being introduced, they were cordially applauded. On introducing Governor Shepherd, President Binford expressed his gratification at the fact that "we are honored by the presence of one whose efforts are given to make the capital of the nation a place of beauty and a joy forever, an endeavor which we all appreciate.” [Applause.]
RESPONSE BY GOVERNOR SHEPHERD. Governor Shepherd responded as follows:
It gives me great pleasure to meet and welcome an assembly of so many able and well-informed men in this Capital of the nation, for the assembling of such a body is an event of intense interest to me. It is gratifying to know that within the past few years such wonderful strides have been taken in the development of our educational interests. So far as our District is concerned, we have endeavored to make our advance in educational matters keep pace with our material progress. This has been a difficult work, in consequence of the floating population brought among us. But the people of the District have never faltered, and I do not believe they ever will falter, in this attempt.
I am happy to meet this body of educators, and to wish you God-speed in your noblo work.
At this point General Hawley, of Connecticut, president of the Cen. tennial Commission, and Judge Kelley, of Pennsylvania, from the Corfgressional Committee on the Exposition, entered the hall, and were in. troduced to the convention. General Hawley explained the reasons for their apparently late appearance and spoke as follows. Excusing him. self on the ground of urgent duties at the House, the honorable gentleman retired immediately on the conclusion of his address.
REMARKS OF GENERAL HAWLEY. General Hawley, president of the Centennial Commission, was then introduced, who said : NR. CHAIRMAN AND GENTLEMEN: I am rejoiced at what you have already done in
relation to the Centennial Celebration and International Exhibition of 1876, and I perceive you have a complete comprehension of the case. "
Of course it was evident that there must be a celebration in 1876. The boys knew it, even if the men did not. Everybody knew that no other nation could in such a manner name the precise day of its birth. The origin of most other nations is lost in the mists of tradition. But we can point to July 4, 1776, as the day when we stepped into the family of nations, and under circumstances that we think are exceedingly important in the history of the governments of the world.
You know that we will celebrate that anniversary; and of course every boy thinks of fire-crackers and all the noisy demonstrations of which John Adams spoke. And, however foolish some may consider such things, there is not a man, I don't care how many laws he has helped to pass against fire-crackers, who will not sympathize with the boys on the annual return of the Fourth.
But there will be something besides demonstrations of this kind, something besides the beating of drums and the thundering of capnon. What so appropriate as this Exhibition, wbich is to mark the improvement of a century! International exbibitions are no new thing; they have been coming into fashion since the great Exposition of 1850, in London. Nothing is more interesting or valuable, as a mere exhibition of material progress. We want not only a national Exhibition, but an international one. So the first step was taken when Congress passed the following act:
"An act to provide for celebrating the one hundredth anniversary of American Independence, by
holding an International Exhibition of Arts, Manufactures, and Products of the Soil and Mine, in the city of Philadelphia and State of Pennsylvania, in the year eighteen hundred and seventy-six. “ Whereas the Declaration of Independence of the United States of America was prepared, signed, and promulgated in the year seventeen hundred and seventy-six, in the city of Philadelphia; and whereas it beloves the people of the United States to celebrate, by appropriate ceremonies, the centennial anniversary of this memorable and decisive event, which constituted the fourth day of July, anno Domini seventeen hundred and seventy-six, the birthday of the nation ; and whereas it is deemed fitting that the completion of the first century of our national existence shall be commemorated by an exhibition of the natural resources of the country and their development and of its progress in those arts which benefit mankind, in comparison with those of older nations; and whereas no place is so appropriate for such an exhibition as the city in which occurred the event it is designed to commemorate ; and whereas, as the exhibition should be a national celebrati on, in which the people of the whole country should participate, it should have the sanction of the Congress of the United States : Therefore,
“ Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That an exhibition of American and foreign arts, products, and manufactures shall be held under the auspices of the Government of the United States, in the city of Philadelphia, in the year eighteen hundred and seventy-six.
“Sec. 2. That a commission, to consist of not more than one delegate from each State and from each Territory of the United States, whose functions shall continue until the
close of the Exhibition, shall be constituted, whose duty it shall be to prepare and superintend the execution of a plan for holding the Exhibition; and, after conference with the authorities of the city of Philadelphia, to fix upon a suitable site within the corporate limits of the said city, where the Exhibition shall be held.
“SEC. 3. That said commissioners shall be appointed within one year from the passage of this act, by the President of the United States, on the nomination of the governors of the States and Territories, respectively.
“ Sec. 4. That in the same manner there shall be appointed one commissioner from each State and Territory of the United States, who shall assume the place and perform the duties of such commissioner and commissioners as may be unable to attend the meetings of the commission.
“ SEC. 5. That the commission sball hold its meetings in the city of Philadelphia, and that a majority of its members shall have full power to make all needful rules for its government.
“SEC. 6. That the commission shall report to Congress, at the first session after its appointment, a suitable date for opening and for closing the exbibition; a schedule of appropriate ceremonies for opening or dedicating the same; a plan or plans of the buildings; a complete plan for the reception and classification of articles intended for exhibition ; the requisite custom-house-regulations for the introduction into this country of the articles from foreign countries intended for exhibition; and such other matters as in their judgment may be important.
"SBC. 7. That no compensation for services shall be paid to the commissioners or other officers provided by this act from the Treasury of the United States; and the United States shall not be liable for any expenses attending such Exhibition or by reason of the same.
“SEC. 8. That, whenever the President shall be informed by the governor of the State of Pennsylvania that provision has been made for the erection of suitable buildings for the purpose and for the exclusive control by the commission herein provided for of the proposed exhibition, the President shall, through the Department of State, make proclamation of the same, setting forth the time at which the Exhibition will open and the place at which it will be held; and he shall communicate to the diplomatic representatives of all nations copies of the same, together with such regulations as may be adopted by the commissioners, for publication in their respective countries."
I need not spend time to show the appropriateness of the place where this is to be held. New York would have been glad to hold it there; so would Baltimore, and many other places; but it was perfectly obvious that it could not be held with any propriety in any other place than Philadelphia, where the Declaration of Independence was proclaimed aud where the old Independence Hall yet stands. By the provisions of the bill it will be seen that ninety-four commissioners are to be pominated by the respective governors and appointed by the President. It is settled that we are to bave a great International Exhibition, and at Philadelphia; and notice has been given to the world, and five or six nations (many more since this was said] have accepted the invitation. There was a technical defect in the act, and Secretary Fish says he could not use the word “invite." It is, therefore, necessary that we have power to invite the nations definitely; otherwise they will not come. [Congress has since anthorized this.] The only way to get exhibitors from abroad will be to invite the governments, and the people through the governments, and then those governments will appoint commissioners to take care of their interests in the exhibition. The people of Europe, who are engaged in commerce, see that they cannot afford to stay away. Our coming Interna" tional is as well understood in Europe as in America; I might say, better; because our representatives at the Vienna Exhibition have explained it to the commissioners and exhibitors from other countries ; it was advertised in many languages in the Vienna catalogues; it has been discussed in leading journals all over Europe. Correspondence pours in upon us from all parts of the world.
The world wants to come; China and Japan will be here, and we shall have our pride and vanity touched a little, perhaps wholesomely so, when we come to the Exhibition. But other people will learn something, also, in respect to material progress; we shall all learn. No nation has so wide a range of territory, or can exhibit in such variety its products or show a growth from three to forty-two millions of people ; in 1776 a few small colonies, in 1876 a nation of forty-seven States and Territories, extending from the Atlantic to the Pacific. .
(The great variety of our mineral and vegetable products was then referred to, as well as the importance of our manufactured articles which are to be exhibited.)
The first act with reference to the Centennial was passed nearly three years ago. We have gone on as far as we could. The State of Pennsylvania was expected to take the lead in the matter, and she has done her full duty, with all generosity, courtesy, and good sense. Her people placed at the disposition of the commissioners more than three million dollars. [Since made more than four millions.] It is time for the rest to do something. Just as we were arrticipating great assistance, the financial disasters came down on us like a great darkness. Now we must ask Congress to help us start. I do not care how they do it. But we are going through anyhow, whether Congress helps or not. The Exhibition will be held, and it will be one creditable to us, because Pennsylvania and Philadelphia, aided by individual efforts elsewhere, are determined to carry it through. But we should be ashamed to let this burden fall almost wholly on one State. The American people will not do that; our pride is involved. Whatever is worth doing by a whole people can be done better by a free people than any other. No single man can call or order out the efforts of a people so well as the people them selves, when they unanimously determine to work. I want it demonstrated that, what no king could compel a people to do, we, the people, can do.
I am very glad you have given me an opportunity to come here and speak of this subject. You reach a large part of the educated mind of the country, which is working for something outside of and above and beyond itself. You are a body of very practical philanthropists in that respect, and you reach men who do not ask for a dividend upon all their outlays. You, who control or are very influential in controlling the educational associations of your several States, can aid us immensely in all respects. Especially you can see to it that there shall be a full representation of the condition of education and the appliances for educational labor* in 1776 and in 1876, and the steps of progress during the intervening century. You will not have this field all to yourselves. You would hardly look for a competitor in Austria, but Austria will make a special exhibit in the educational department; and our friends who have visited that country tell us that we can learn from her.
The International Exhibition of 1876 can and must be made worthy of the nation. It will be of immense advantage to manufacturing, mechanical, and commercial interests; it will greatly stimulate immigration; it will greatly promote good 'feeling between all sections of our own country and with foreign nations. This being true, we are sure to have the good will and the good works of all friends of education and of mental and moral progress.
REMARKS OF HON. W. D. KELLEY.
Hon. W. D. KELLEY, chairman of the House Committee on the Centennial, was then introduced, and said :
MR. CHAIRMAN AND GENTLEMEN AND LADIES: I do not know that I can say anything very appropriate to this occasion; and yet the subject is one that inspires me with enthusiasm, and upon which, should I talk too long, you will pardon me when I shall have told you that on this theme I could fight“ until my eyelids would no longer wag." I think that the great international, social event of the century is to transpire in the coming Centennial Exposition. This in itself, and its location in this country, will make it a great educator, and will teach grand lessons, the grandest humanity may learn, with an emphasis with which they have never been uttered. Great Britain, France, Germany, Austria, will be here, with China, Japan, Siam, and the islands of the sea You are all prepared to believe that we shall be able to teach the Chinese, the Japanese, and other remote people something by the exhibition of educational systems of our country, the modes of administering our laws, and many other things; but, in my judgment, we shall impart to Great Britain, Germany, France, Austria, Spain, and other continental nations grander lessons, which they will accept as more immediately applicable.
*See Appendix B for classification of groups relating to educational matters. 5 E