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could bave such a thing as that alone, if we had nothing else, at the grand World's Exposition at Philadelphia, for everybody-men, women, and children-to look at, I undertake to say that that alone would be of sufficient benefit to this country to pay for all the expense of the Exposition, even if the Goverument appropriates, as I hope it will, $5,000,000.
Tbat is only one thing. I am sure, if that Exposition is held, there will be thousands upon thousands, at a very moderate estimate, of the teachers of our country who will go there and examine the section appropriated to the exhibition of education. They will do as those schoolmasters of Europe did, many of them, with inadequate salaries, traveling hun. dreds of miles, and going through and examining every part of the ex. hibition, taking copious notes with the greatest zeal, to carry home an idea. Think of the ideas that would be spread broadcast over every part of our country from such an exhibition. In school-furniture America stood foremost; and that little exhibition of school-furniture made its impression upon the civilized world. There is no doubt that the splendid single desk and chair from that point will travel around the world. From that time forth nobody who knows about it—and a knowl. edge of it is to be spread by drawings and cuts, will ever consider that a school is properly furnished for education unless it have that identical kind of furniture. But I am taking up your time, and beg your pardon for saying so much.
General EATON. There is very great dificulty in getting information, and, for that reason, I am obliged to Hon. Mr. Philbrick for the interesting statement he has presented. The department is undoubtedly aware that the Centennial at Philadelphia bas a large commission in charge of it and that they have organized their forces; they have a committee on education, and have prepared their programme, of which I have done all in my power to get a copy for the benefit of the department of superintendence here. I have only one copy, however.
I expected that before this time the president of the commission, Gov. ernor Hawley, would be here to make an official statement of the present position of the Exposition ; and perhaps Judge Kelley, the chairman of the House Coinmittee on the Centennial.
To illustrate what had been said by Mr. Philbrick in regard to the exposition at Vienna, General EATON called attention to two volumes, wbich he had with him, published by the Austrian government, showing the progress of education in that country. These, he said, contain not only historic text, but also a number of very interesting maps. An examination of these volumes tends to show how readily much similar work can be done in this country by ourselves. Not only were these publications made by the governments, but corresponding ones were made by institutions; not for general distribution, but for examination by experts. It is very difficult to obtain these, as only a few copies are prepared by some institutions; but the men who prepared them are among the very ablest in their respective specialties. Though fur: nished with every possible facility for obtaining such matter while at Vienna, lie could not obtain there a copy of an important work on the agricultural school at Milan. He found on visiting Milan that only three copies of the publication referred to were in existence. One of these three he was able to bring away with him. The efforts made to secure this were detailed by General Eaton, who said that he considered it one of the most valuable monographs ever prepared in Italy on the subject of agricultural education.
On examining the specimens of writing and drawing in a Portuguese school-house at Vienna, he was struck with the universality of the influeuce of such expositions, for he noticed that the age of the boys and girls who prepared the specimens was the same as that of the boys and girls who sent specimens from this country, and that the date of the preparation of these specimens was the same. But then they got ahead of us in Portugal; for they not only gave the name and age and date of writing, but a photograph of the pupil who prepared the accompanying specimen, affording thus a further means of judging of the child's capacity.
Hon. J. P. WICKERSHAM. I was a member of the committee from whom this report came, and I approve cordially of its recommendations. I like the proposition calling upon each State and Territory to represent its educational features at Philadelphia. I believe that calling upon each State and Territory separately to represent itself in this way will bring out the best that each has to show.
In the committee the question was discussed as to whether it was best to call upon the nation as a whole or each State and Territory separately. I am very decidedly of the opinion that it is best to call upon them to be represented separately.
Each State will be put upon its metal and will be stimulated to do the best it can. I like the idea, too, of calling upon each institution, college, and private institution ; let them all be represented there.
The idea of our Educational Congress, too, strikes me very favorably. I like the idea of asking all the world to come and bring what they have to show in reference to educational systems, and to come themselves; it is better to come themselves than to send. And I hope that, while that exbibition is held, there will be an international congress in which may be representatives from all the enlightened countries of the world, and unenlightened nations too, if they choose to be present.
This Exposition is to be held in Philadelphia, in Pennsylvania; aud, as I came from that State, I may be pardoned for saying a word with reference to the relation of Philadelphia and of Pennsylvania to it, since Judge Kelley is not here. I am not prepared to go into details, because I have given them but little attention. First of all, in a finan. cial way Philadelphia and Pennsylvania mean to do their duty fully in regard to it. Philadelphia has made arrangements for appropriating a million of dollars. The city has already made a large appropriation, and will increase it to a million dollars. We hope to increase this to two millions by subscription from individuals. The other portions of the State, you may rest assured, will contribute to that Exposition at least two and a half million dollars. If necessary, we will do more than that. I think I know the spirit of the people in this regard.
But I want to say, most of all, here, that this Exposition is not an exposition for Philadelphia or for Pennsylvania ; it is not a city-or a Stateexposition; it is an Exposition of the United States of America; and all the States have an equal interest in this matter with the State of Peppsylvania and all the cities have an equal interest, in a national point of view, with the city of Philadelphia. We desire to make it a truly national matter; and we want the interest of the State of Virginia and the State of Massachusetts, and of all the States, in this Exposition to be felt by our people.
With regard to Philadelphia, I need not say that it is a city of some seven hundred thousand people; and we expect the hospitality of that city to be tendered to our own people and to the people of the nation, to the people of the world.
There is no doubt that those who have this matter in charge intend that all who come shall receive ample accommodations, and that there shall not be exorbitant prices charged, as was done at Vienna.
Then, this exposition is to be in a tract of 3,000 acres, perhaps the largest park connected with any city in America or in the world. This has been to a considerable extent improved, and will of itself be an attraetion. I am not minutely acquainted with the plan of the exhibition. building, but I am told that it is superior to either that at Paris, London, or Vienna; and I hope and believe it will have space enough, so that everything that is valuable which is sent to it can be put on exhi. bition. In particular, I hope there will be room enough to represent the educational systems of the country, and I believe it will be so, because nothing now attracts more attention than the subject of education. Indeed, if the people of the Old World come at all, it will be more for the purpose of seeing our school-systems than anything else. I understand there was more desire on the part of the authorities at Vienna that our school-system should be represented there than any. thing else. Indeed, a letter from Baron Schwartz-Senborn said: “Whatever else is neglected, do not leave the matter of education unrepre. sented."
Pennsylvania and the United States have undertaken this exposition, and we cannot go back without humiliation. I was glad to hear Mr. Philbrick, coming from Boston, say he hoped the General Government would appropriate $5,000,000. Why, sir, if it costs Pennsylvania $5,000,000, we cannot go back. The President of the United States has already invited foreign governments to be represented here, and we cannot go back; and in going forward we must endeavor to do credit to the nation. I hope, therefore, that, at whatever expense of time and
labor, we shall go through with it and have such a national Exhibition at Philadelphia as has never been seen and cannot be equaled by any other country in the world.
Mr. PHILBRICK. I said our exbibition in the matter of education at Vienna was comparatively creditable; but I did not say, what I must now say, that the credit, whatever credit there was—and it was that which redeemed us to some extent in the eyes of Europe--was due, in my humble judgment, primarily and solely, to the labors and the plans of the national Commissioner of Education at Washington. [Applause.]
And I want to say another word about that: that what little I did towards it was wholly stimulated, caused, brought about, by the influence of the Commissioner at Washington, and was done with an humble attempt to co-operate with him in the arduous labors he is giving us to promote the cause of education throughout the country.
About that five million : I do not go back on that a hair; I say it deliberately; I put it at the lowest figure.
Mr. BICKNELL. I think we all recognize the great stimulus that will come to the educators of the country from this Exposition, and I heartily concur with Mr. Wickersham and Mr. Philbrick in reference to the cooperation of the General Government and our own States. The benefits will come, not only from activities awakened in our country, but from comparisons of results here with those of the educational fields abroad. Mr. Philbrick has said that, if Sweden comes bere and presents her admirable system, we shall learn what the great mass of teachers cannot learn otherwise, as they cannot go abroad. Those who go abroad are liable to come home with very rosy accounts of the things they have seen. It is natural that men should have their eyes open in regard to matters of all kinds, educational and others, which they see abroad, and that they should come back impressed with the idea that the people abroad are doing ererything and that we are doing nothing.
From our own shores we can compare the work that we are doing with what they are doing much better than abroad. I was glad to hear Mr. Philbrick say that, if in other departments our nation did not gain much credit, here we were redeemed ; and I suppose it was Mr. Phil. brick's modesty that led him not to say the Boston department was more fully represented than any other. I was greatly delighted to see there the model of the Franklin school-house at Washington. The perfection of details about it seemed to me to gain great credit for the Capital of our country.
I am very glad to hear presented to the Commissioner of Education the compliments as to the stimulus he gave to this work; and I think Dr. Hoyt, of Wisconsin, who found everything in confusion and put his hand to the work and arranged the department, so as to make it credit able, deserves to be mentioned also.
I think these two names should be honored for their labors done in this department.
Prof. COMFORT thought the committee might be intrusted with authority to receive or reject whatever might be sent, so as to make the exposition of educational matters harmonious.
General EATON. The department will remember that a permanent committee was appointed by the association in reference to the subject of the Centennial, with this in view, to bring the educators particularly into the field of the representation, to co-operate with the Philadelphia commission; not to exercise any authority, but simply to offer facilities by which results might be brought about. Some time ago the National Association passed resolutions in that direction, and this convention has adopted a similar resolution to participate, and recommend the matter to each State and Territory, the chairman of the committee in each State to be the chief executive officer; that is, in New York, Mr. Weaver; in Pennsylvania, Mr. Wickersham, and so on; he to designate throughout the State such other associates on the committee as he may deem advisable, such as city-superintendents and heads of institutions of learning. The object is to use the supervison of the country, which touches every educational interest and which stimulates every feature of education, and induce it to come forward to participate.
Prof.COMFORT. Mr. Weaver has authority only in reference to common schools. In New York the regents of the university try to organize all the offices of colleges and academies.
The report of the committee and resolutions presented on the Centenvial Exposition were then adopted.
Hon. W. H. RUFFNER, from the committee on national aid to education, reported a series of resolutions for adoption. He said : In order that these resolutions may be understood, I would preface each of them with a few explanatory remarks. We meet with one very widely-spread prejudice against any sort of aid from the National Government, for any educational purpose whatever. I know this prejudice exists strongly in my part of the country and elsewhere. It arises from the fear that there is in the minds of the educators, or possibly of the political men of the country, a desire to establish ultimately a national system of education. Your committee do not believe that there is any such party as that in the country, among either educators or politicians. They think it is an imaginary danger entirely. But, in order to prepare the public mind for entertaining favorably this whole idea of national aid to education, the committee thought it advisable to pass a resolution which would amount to a disclaimer, on the part of this body at least, of any favor towards an idea of that kind. That is the explanation of the first resolution. The third resolution has reference to setting apart of public lands for educational purposes. It is well known that that subject is now before Congress. It is also known that there are different views in Congress with regard to the special objects which should receive the benefit of these public lands, if they should be so set apart. It will be observed that this committee does not propose that the