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SCHWARZBURG-RUDOLSTADT.

[Area, 340 square miles; population, 75,523. ]

One person in every 281 of the population has a secondary education; one secondary school to 37,761 inhabitants.

(1) Classical colleges: There is only one kind, the gymnasium, with 192 students, 16 professors, 6 graduates, and 5,580 volumes in libraries.

One person in every 393 of the population has a classical education; one classical college to 75,523 inhabitants; average number of students to each professor, 12.

(2) Non-classical colleges : There are so-called real-classes; i college, with 76 students and 6 professors.

One person in every 995 has a non-classical college education; average number of students to each professor, 12.

SCHWARZBURG-SONDERSHAUSEN.

[Area, 318 square miles; population, 67,191.]

One person in every 100 of the population has a secondary education; one secondary school to 16,797 inhabitants.

(1) Classical colleges: There is only one kind, viz, gymnasia.

Total: 2 gymnasia, with 265 students, 21 professors, i graduate, and 7,230 volumes in libraries.

One person in every 253 of the population has a classical education; one classical college to 33,595 inhabitants; average number of students to each professor, 12.

(2) Non-classical colleges : There is only one kind, viz, real-schools.

Number of colleges, 2, with 403 students, 24 professors, and 2,637 volumes in libraries.

One person in every 151 of the population has a non-classical college education; one college to 30,595 inhabitants; average number of students to each professor, 17.

WALDECK.

[Area, 466 square miles; population, 56,218. ] One person in every 96 of the population has a secondary education; one secondary school to 14,054 inhabitants.

(1) Classical colleges : There is only one kind, viz, the gymnasium, with 99 students, 11 professors, 4 graduates, and 2,000 volumes in library

One person in every 567 of the population has a classical education; one classical college to 56,218 inhabitants; average number of students to each professor, 9.

(2) Non-classical colleges: There are two kinds, viz, real-classes and higher burgher-schools. Total: 3 colleges, with 481 students and 13 professors.

One person in every 117 of the population has a non-classical college education; one non-classical college to 18,739 inhabitants; average number of students to each professor, 37.

WÜRTEMBERG. [Area, 7,840 square miles; population, 1,818,541.] One person in every 199 of the population has a secondary education; one secondary school to 14,097 inhabitants.

(1) Classical colleges: There are four kinds, viz, seminaries, (boardingcolleges, chiefly for young men who intend to study theology ;) gymnasia; lyceums, (lower gymnasium-course;) and Latin schools, (also a lower gymnasium-course, some of them being combined with real-schools.)

There are 4 seminaries, 7 gymnasia, 8 lyceums, and 70 Latin schools ; making a total of 89 classical colleges, with 5,162 students, 497 professors, and 57,940 volumes in the libraries.

One person in every 352 of the population has a classical education ; one classical college to 20,433 inhabitants; average number of students to each professor, 10; average number of graduates from each college, (6 reported,) 16; and average number of volumes in each library, (14 reported,) 4,138.

(2) Non-classical colleges : There are two kinds, viz, higher real-schools and real-schools.

Total : 40 non-classical colleges, with 3,967 students, 198 professors, 98 graduates, 6,140 volumes in libraries.

One person in every 458 of the population has a non-classical college education ; one non-classical college to 45,463 inhabitants; average number of students to each professor, 20; average number of graduates from each college, (6 reported,) 6; and average number of volumes in each library, (6 reported,) 1,023.

TOTAL OF THE GERMAN EMPIRE.

[Area, 210,035 square miles; population, 40, 107,428.] ' . (1) Classical colleges : 564 colleges, with 108,694 students, 6,951 professors, 2,906 graduates, and 1,661,857 volumes in libraries.

One person in every 377 of the population has a classical education ; there is one classical college to 32,805 inhabitants; the average number of students to each professor is 15; average number of graduates from each college, 5; and average number of volumes in each library, (237 reported,) 7,012.

(2) Non-classical colleges : 481 colleges, with 87,570 students, 4,756 professors, 1,238 graduates, and 264,476 volumes in the libraries.

One person in every 468 of the population has a non-classical college education; there is one non-classical college to 85,360 inhabitants; the average number of students to each professor is 18; average number of graduates from each college (157 reported) is 8; and the average number of volumes in each library (168 reported) is 1,574.

(3) Grand total of secondary schools: 1,045 colleges, with 196,264 students, 11,707 professors, 4,144 graduates, and 1,926,333 volumes in the libraries.

One person in every 299 of the population has a secondary education; there
is one secondary school to 39,290 inhabitants; the average number of students
to each professor is 16; the average number of graduates from each college,
(604 reported,) 7; and the average number of volumes in each library, (405
reported,) 4,756.

GENERAL STATISTICS OF GERMAN SECONDARY SCHOOLS,

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1. Alsace-Lorraine ...... 1, 549, 459
2. Anhalt....

203, 354
3. Baden ........... 1, 461, 428
4. Bavaria.......... 4,861, 402
5. Bremen.....

122, 565
6. Brunswick.......

311, 715
7. Hamburg ......... 338, 974
8. Hesse ............ 852, 843
9. Lippe-Detmold ....... 111, 153
10. Lübeck............... 52, 158
11. Mecklenburg-Schwerin 557,897
12. Mecklenburg-Strelitz . 96, 982
13. Oldenburg............ 316,641
14. Prussia ............... 24, 691, 203
15. Reuss-Greiz ..........

45,094
16. Reuss-Schleiz...... 89, 032
17. Saxe-Altenburg....... 142, 122
18. Saxe-Coburg-Gotha... 174, 339
19. Saxe-Meiningen ...... 187, 884
25. Saxe-Weimar ......... 286, 183
21. Saxony ............... 2, 556, 244
22. Schaumburg-Lippe ... 32,051
23. Schwarzburg - Rudol-

stadt................ 75, 523
24. Schwarzburg-Sonders-
hausen...

67, 191
25. Waldeck ...

56, 218
26. Würtenberg.......... 1, 818, 541

Total............... 41,058, 196

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* In this table all the secondary schools have, for brevity's sake, been termed colleges, viz: the gymnasia
and the kindred institutions, classical colleges; and the real-schools, higher burgher-schools, &c , non-
classical colleges.

215
6 E

PROF. ALLEN ON GERMAN SCHOOLS.

The following extracts from communications to this Office by Prof. Nathaniel T. Allen, LL.D., principal of the school at West Newton, Mass., a well-known educator, are of interest in connection with the subject matter of this circular, since they give the conclusions reached in regard to the working of the German system of education by a competent American observer.

German system. The system of education usually denominated the Prussian system is not justly so called; for an equally perfect system, not copied from the Prussian, exists in Saxony, Nassau, and other parts of Germany. In fact, these two nations claim that in certain particulars their system is superior to that of Prussia, offering in proof the less percentage of illiteracy in Saxony and Nassau than in Prussia ; also, the fact that at the public examinations of the University and Military School in Berlin the students from Saxony proved superior to those of Prussia. The systems in Weimar, Hamburg, and other portions of Germany are equally good; therefore I term the system, as a whole, the German system.

Difference in the underlying ideas of German and American systems.-In order to understand and appreciate at its true value the German system, it is necessary to fully comprehend and to bear constantly in mind the radical difference in the ideas underlying that and the American system : the one adapted to perpetuate a free democratic, the other a despotic government; the one intended to produce intelligent, freedom-loving citizens, from whom all power in government emanates; the other, to make faithful, contented subjects of a sovereign in whom is vested all power and liberty to express thought. The German system is arranged with special reference to the fact that none of the children educated under it are ever to come into possession of manhood, as we understand true manhood, with its broad and intelligent freedom. There is much in the German plan of education which would be rejected by the intelligence and free thought of a democracy, and which men of advanced thought in Germany are anxiously striving to expunge from their system.

School-law and schools.-In Germany, all children must enter school at the age of seven and continue until fourteen or fifteen years of age, or until confirmation. Attendance is compulsory. School-buildings are erected; teachers selected, employed, and paid; text-books, course of study, &c., decided upon, without the least reference to the will of the parents or their representatives, and parents are not invited or allowed to visit the schools. Even at the annual examinations they are never present.

Boysschools.—The Dorf-Schule (village-school) of the country and the BürgerSchule (citizens' school) of the city or large town are intended for the children of peasants, humble workmen, and mechanics. The course for these is thorough, though not extending beyond the common branches; well fitted for those whose future condition must, with rare exceptions, continue the same as that of their parents. The course comprises reading, writing, arithmetic, geography, history, correct use of language, some rudiments of natural history, with the Lutheran catechism thoroughly committed to memory, occupying much time during the whole school-course.

The Volks-Schule (people's school) of the cities and large towns are for the children of the lowest and poorest classes of artisans, day-laborers, servants, &c. In these schools, the tuition is usually free, and they were, until two years ago, the only free schools. The course and extent of study in these schools is limited. The plan is as follows: first year, poetry committed to memory, reading, writing, arithmetic, and instruction in religion; second year, same as the first, with penmanship and practice in conversation added ; third year, same as the second, with the addition of Bible-history, geography, and natural science. The remaining four years, the full course is : religion, Bible-history, reading and conversation, penmanship, arithmetic, geography, history, natural science, singing, and frequently instruction in various handwork, basket-making, straw-plaiting, &c.

Real-Schule.—This class of schools is designed for those who can afford the expense of tuition, 30 to 35 thaler, ($21 to $24 per annum,) and who desire special preparation for commercial, mechanical, or other pursuits. The entire course extends from seven to sixteen or eighteen years of age, though many leave at fourteen, after confirmation. Students remaining through the full course are prepared for the higher professional schools of agriculture and commerce, teachers' seminaries, technical and polytechnic schools. One of the best schools of this class is the Friedrich-Wilhelms Real-Schule, Berlin, under the able direction of Dr. Ranke, brother to the historian Ranke. There are 630 students, from seven to eighteen years of age. Its study-plan is as follows:

Languages: German : reading, spelling, writing, and German history and literature very thoroughly. Latin : from the first year through the entire course. French : from the second year through the remainder of the course. English: from the fourth year through the remainder of the course.

Mathematics: Through the entire course.
Geography and history: Generally combined through the entire course.
Natural history: From the first to the year before the last.

Physics and chemistry: The last three years, with laboratory-experiments the last year.

Mechanics: The last year.
Drawing: Through the entire course.
Religion: The first seven years, until confirmation.
Singing: Through the course.
Turning, (gymnastics :) Through the course.

The pupils have, during the first year, 32 recitations per week, of 50 minutes each; during the second year, 33 per week; during the third year, 34; the remaining years, 32 ; until the last year, when the number is 34. This is about the number of recitations required in the Real-Schule, though in some instances it is exceeded. No student can be excused from the full number of studies prescribed. The Höhere Bürger-Schule of Nassau and the Gewerbe

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