« 上一頁繼續 »
Class III, b, and Class III, a, (four hours per week :) Rules of pronunciation and orthography, with frequent oral and written exercises ; in III, 6, the whole grammar, including the most common irregular verbs; in III a, the most important rules of syntax. A reader is used for exercises in reading and translating, in III, a; also books like Walter Scott's Tales of a Grandfather ; memorizing of words and of suitable selections in prose and poetry. Written exercises in III, b, after the first three months; in III, a, also occasional exercises in comprehending spoken English and immediate translating.
Class II, b, and Class II, a, (four hours per week :) Repetition of grammar, syntax; various works are read, such as Goldsmith's Vicar of Wakefield, Washington Irving's Sketch-book or Columbus, &c. ; written exercises in II, a, easy compositions, phraseology, memorizing of words, and suitable selections in prose and poetry.
Class I, (four hours per week :) Works such as Macaulay's History of England and Essays, suitable dramas of Shakespeare, &c., are read; brief review of the history of English literature; private reading under the guidance of the teacher; rendering orally into English passages of the works which have been read; grammatical repetitions in connection with the readings; written exercises, extempore exercises, compositions, and short speeches in English.
VI.-GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY.
Class IV, (four hours per week :) Geography: repetition and extension of mathematical geography ; topography of non-European countries and states; the products of the different countries; history as in class IV of the gymnasium course.
Class III, b, and Class III, a, (four hours per week :) Geography: Europe, one year Germany and the other year the non-German countries, special regard being paid to ways of communication, soil, and products; map-drawing. History: During the first year, history of Germany till 1648, with special regard to the history of Prussia, (Brandenburg ;) during the second year, history of Prussia (Brandenburg) in connection with German history.
Class II, b, and Class II, a, (three hours per week :) A more extensive course of mathematical geography; repetition of hydrography and orography; besides this, during the first year the non-European countries, with special regard to colonization and trade; during the second year, Europe, especially Germany, with regard to culture, commerce, and manufactures; distribution of plants and animals over the surface of the earth. History : in II, b, ancient history is repeated and completed by paying more regard to legislation, religion, and social life ; in II, a, the Middle Ages of Germany, with contemporaneous history of France and England; memorizing historical tables.
Class I, (three hours per week:) Geography: repetitions; history of geography and commerce. History: modern history since the reformation, especially German, English, and French history; regular repetitions of former lessons.
Class VI, (two hours per week :) Natural history: object-lessons on wellknown objects of the three natural kingdoms; during summer, exercises in describing different portions of plants, particularly leaves; the most important indigenous trees; in winter, description of common birds and quadrupeds and their mode of living.
Class V, (two hours per week :) Natural history: during summer, exercises in determining plants, botanical terminology, the most important garden-plants; and during winter, birds and quadrupeds continued.
Class IV, (two hours per week :) Natural history : during summer, description of indigenous plants, the most important agricultural plants, hints for making herbaria, excursions; and during winter, mammalia, amphibious animals and fishes, insects and their different species.
Class III, b, and Class III, a, (two hours per week :) Natural history: the Linnæan system ; natural families corresponding with the divisions of the Linnæan system, with special regard to plants used in medicine and poisonous plants; during winter, vertebrated animals and insects; in III, a, a brief review of mineralogy is given, with special regard to the minerals found in the neighborhood.
Class II, b, and Class II, a: Natural history, (two hours per week :) during summer, exercises in determining, without the help of the teacher, the most important families of plants, following some suitable botanical work giving the local flora; natural system of plants with regard to their geographical diştribution; anatomy and physiology of plants; during the winter of one year, systematic review of invertebrates ; during the winter of the second year, internal organization of vertebrated animals; anatomy and physiology of the human body; geographical distribution of plants and animals; antediluvian flora and fauna. Physics and chemistry, (four hours per week :) during one year, magnetism, electricity, and heat; and during the other year, sound, light, and the laws of mechanics; in chemistry, the metalloids and their most important combinations; the most important metals and their combinations ; with experiments.
Class I: Natural history, (two hours per week :) crystallography and mineralogy, with constant regard to the knowledge acquired by the scholars in stereometry and chemistry, geognosy and geology; brief systematic review of the three natural kingdoms. Physics and chemistry, (four hours per week :) physics; mathematical geography; popular astronomy; mechanics; simple machinery; optics; heat; electricity, &c.; chemistry: the most important processes of inorganic chemistry; also select portions of organic chemistry ; exercises in the chemical laboratory.
VIII.-ARITHMETIC AND MATHEMATICS.
Class VI and Class V: The same as in the gymnasium-classes.
Class IV, (six hours per week :) Arithmetic: repetition of the lessons of the two lower classes, with exercises especially in mental arithmetic; proportions ;
decimal fractions. Geometry: commencement of systematic instruction; definitions; angles; parallel lines; triangles; Pythagorean problem.
Class III, b, and Class III, a, (six hours per week :) Arithmetic: repetitions ; mercantile calculations; square and cube roots; proportions; equations of the first degree with one unknown quantity. Geometry: repetition of the lessons of class IV; squares, circles, &c.
Class II, b, and Class II, a, (five hours per week:) Arithmetic and algebra: equations of the first degree with several unknown quantities; roots; equations of the second degree; logarithms; exercises in mercantile calculations. Geometry: circles; stereometry and plane trigonometry; commencement of algebraic geometry.
Class I, (five hours per week :) Arithmetic and algebra : during the first year, equations of the second degree with several unknown quantities; equations of the third and fourth degree; numerical solution of equations of the higher degrees; progression; binomial theorem ; during the second year, chain-rule; Diophantine equations; permutations; combinations; rule of probabilities. Geometry: during the first year, after practicing plane trigonometry, analytical geometry; conic sections ; during the second year, descriptive geometry and elements of spherical trigonometry; also systematic repetition of the lessons of former classes.
OTHER COURSES OF INSTRUCTION.
The two courses of instruction (of a gymnasium and a real-school) given above are by no means closely followed out in every institution. Their essential features are preserved, but various deviations from them are made to suit local circumstances. The gymnasium-course of instruction is more closely adhered to than the real-school course, the one given above being a complete course as followed in a real-school of the first order.
The real-schools of the second order generally have the following course :
The higher burgher-school has the following course of instruction :
In some cases the real-schools are combined with a gymnasium, the so-called plan of bifurcation being followed in their course of instruction. This class of schools is of comparatively modern origin, but finds great favor in many parts of Germany, and the number of such schools is constantly increasing.
The two lower classes are mostly in common, and in the fourth class the two studies branch off into two directions. The general course of instruction in such combined institutions is, therefore, the following:
Classes and number of hours per week.
Studies in common.
In nearly all secondary schools, oral examinations are held at the end of every year by the rector in every class to determine whether the scholars are fully qualified to enter the next highest class. These examinations are held in the presence of the respective teachers, and embrace the subjects taught in each class. Scholars who do not pass such examinations have to remain another year in the same class, and if, at the end of the second year, they again, in spite of all the exertions made, fail to pass the examination, they are dismissed from the school, after the parents or guardians have been duly notified. This will in most cases not be surprising to them, as they are, by either quarterly or half-yearly reports, made acquainted with the exact standing of the boy in his class.
At the end of the whole course, a rigorous final examination is held. (Abiturientenprüfung, or Maturitätsprüfung.) This examination is held by an examining comittee composed of the rector of the gymnasium, the teachers of the upper (generally three) classes, a member of the board of trustees wherever such a body exists, and a delegate from the provincial school-board. Students are by no means obliged to undergo this examination, but if they wish to pursue higher studies at a university or polytechnic school, they must produce a certificate of having passed it. Students wishing to undergo this examination must notify the rector two or three months before the end of the course, and the teachers in conference with the rector then decide whether a student is in every respect qualified to undergo the camination. In case students apply