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Locke's system was based on sensation ; but in its different portions and in the inconsistencies of its application, it can scarcely be understood except as viewed in connection with the strange circumstances of his life. He viewed everything in education from the stand-point of knowledge acquired through the senses, and was opposed to idealism, fearing its abuse ; and still he was constantly obliged to seek refuge in those supports which, in the proud feeling of seeming independence, he had thrown away. His chief attention was directed to psychology, the great importance of which for education cannot be denied. Mere knowledge seemed of very little value to him. He says, “People make a great ado about a little Latin and Greek, and for seven to ten years a child is plagued with these two languages, which it could have learned easily in less time and in a playful manner.” In his recommendations for learning languages, he follows partly Ratichius, partly Comenius. French is to be studied first, in early youth, paying particular attention to a correct pronunciation, and, in the only proper manner, by speaking; Latin is also to be learned by speaking, but all those who have no use for this language in after life are to be exempt from it. The students are not to be troubled much with Latin grammar; but an endeavor should be made to procure teachers who could constantly speak Latin with the scholars; and if this were impossible, some entertaining book, 1. g., the fables of Æsop, (if possible, illustrated with engravings ;) the scholars should also be supplied with a faithful interlinear translation, study this as well as the original, and learn the declensions and conjugations. Æsop should be succeeded by Justin and Eutropius, also with the aid of a translation. The study of grammar was to be left to the philologists. From the old classics, real knowledge should be gathered about minerals, plants, animals, &c. ; he also recommends Latin conversations on geographical, astronomical, chronological, anatomical, and other similar subjects. He does not advocate Latin compositions. From the classics no large passages, hut only such as were distinguished by particular beauty, should be learne. I by heart. Geography should be studied early; then arithmetic, mathematical geography, and astronomy; in geometry, the first six books of Euclid. Chronology should be studied in connection with geography; history could best be studied from the Latin classics. Later, the scholars should read Cicero De Officiis, Pufendorf De Officio Hominis et Civis, Grotius De Jure Belli et Pacis, and Pufendorf De Jure Naturali et Gentium. For the study of rhetoric he recommended the writings of Cicero; in metaphysics, the Bible was to be the foundation of all study; for the rest of philosophy, especially for logic, he recommended Descartes; and for physics, the “incomparable" Newton. Greek he considered unnecessary, except for professional philologists. Dancing, he thought, could not be taught early enough, while he banishes music. Riding and fencing, he, of course, considers as absolutely necessary for a young man of rank; but, as a general thing, he declares that virtue and wisdom are of greater value than all knowledge.


August Hermann Francke, who carried out Spener's idea that the school should be chiefly instrumental in implanting true piety in the hearts of young men, was born in Lübeck, 1663; studied theology and philology in Erfurt and Kiel; and in 1691 became professor of Greek and Oriental languages in Halle, where he died in 1727. He founded a number of flourishing educational institutions in Halle, of which only the Pædagogium, being a secondary school, will be considered in this place. He commenced this institution in 1695 with three young noblemen, and in 1705 the number had increased to seventy, for whom in 1711-'13 he built a large and comfortable house. The peculiarities of his system now became apparent at once, as soon as the external arrangements had been completed, and a tendency toward more realistic studies showed itself; the institution possessing a botanic garden, a museum of natural history, a physical apparatus, a chemical laboratory, a dissecting-room, turninglathes, &c.

The way for this realistic tendency had been prepared long since, but new lite was infused into it by the necessity of making a bold front toward onesided formalism. The text-books of Comenius had paved the way, and during the seventeenth century it had more and more gained ground. Comenius's books had found their way into almost every gymnasium, especially his Orbis Pictus ; but the aim in view was not yet fully reached. The knowledge of the objects depicted was less thought of than the acquiring of a supply of technical terms, for which the pictures were only to serve as a mnemonical aid ; . but when an attempt was made to introduce, instead of this, the Libellus Memorialis of Cellarius, this was found to be insufficient. Practical life had become a power, and demanded its right in the school.

In Francke's system too much stress was laid on this right, and it became a question of mere practical usefulness. Among the subjects of instruction, there were even chronology, astronomy, music, painting, anatomy, rudiments of medicine, besides all the languages and sciences usually studied in such schools, while Greek was very much neglected. ,Francke and his followers completely banished the Greek classics from their schools; all that was read in Greek being the New Testament, the Homilies of Makarios, and Nonnus's Paraphrase of John. While botany is mentioned in the earliest courses of instruction, and since 1714 also oratory and logic, French is wanting altogether. Even instruction in mathematics was of an entirely realistic character; the text-book used being Mathesis Compendiaria, by J. C. Sturm. This work, profusely illustrated with copper-plates, contains, on 79 large-sized pages, general mathematics, practical arithmetic, theoretical and practical geometry, optics, military and civil architecture, cosmography, chronology, gnomonics, mechanics, and chiromancy.

As two peculiarities of Francke's system, we must mention, first, the stricter and more logical succession of studies, and, secondly, the so-called parallel system, according to which a scholar might advance in one study and be promoted into another class, but remain in a lower class in some other studies. This

system prevailed in a great number of gymnasia, in one even as late as 1855, but as a general rule it was abolished in the early part of the present century.

The Pædagogium at Halle was considered for a long time not only as the model gymnasium for the whole of Germany, but likewise as a sort of normal school for gymnasium-teachers; a large number of its former scholars becoming teachers in various parts of Germany.

The Halle system of instruction was introduced in innumerable German gymnasia, but its influence was frequently weakened by theological quarrels. Thus, the rector of the gymnasium in Gotha introduced special Sunday-afternoon services for the students, in ,which they had to recite pieces from the New Testament and deliver orations on theological questions. The same was done in Cassel, and in a number of other places. Thus it must be said that, although the Pietists and their time formed a refreshing oasis in the arid desert of the now apathetic Protestant churches, their influence on the development of education was, comparatively speaking, small.

The most important result of Francke's activity is, doubtless, the establishment of separate real-schools. J. S. Semler, a Halle clergyman and friend of Francke's, distinguished by his knowledge of mechanical and mathematical sciences, announced in 1706 the opening of “a mechanical and mathemnatical real-school.” This is the first time this term is employed. His principle was non schola, sed vitæ discendum.Receiving some financial aid from the city authorities of Halle, he had twelve poor boys instructed in his own house by a man specially learned " in mathematicis, mechanicis et æconomicis.In giving instruction, 63 models of objecta singularia were employed. Semler's school, however, only existed about two and a half years. The first actual German real-school was established in Berlin in 1747 by Johann Julius Hecker, a former Halle student, and for some time teacher in Francke's Pædagogium. This school. properly speaking, consisted of three schools, viz, the German school, the Latin school, and the real-school. Scholars of the first two schools could also participate in the instructions of the real-school. In this school, the course of instruction embraced arithmetic, geometry, mechanics, architecture, drawing, natural philosophy, anatomy and physiology of the human body, botany, mineralogy, &c. Instruction was also given in the cultivation of silk-worms, and the scholars were frequently taken to different workshops. Among the different classes we find enumerated a manufacturing class, an architectural class an agricultural class, a book-keeping class, and a mining class. To show that Hecker carried out Semler's principles to a caricature, we mention the fact that in the manufacturing class 90 different kinds of leather were shown to the scholars.

Hecker's successor, Johann Elias Silberschlag, called the three schools pædagogium, art-school, and German or mechanics' school. The last mentioned was the elementary school, with a special class for mechanics; in the art-school, a foundation was laid in mathematics, Latin, and French; and the pædagogium corresponded with the upper classes of a gymnasium. The art-school finally became a sort of separate special school; the pædagogium in 1797 received the name of Friedrich-Wilhelm's Gymnasium, and was in 1811 completely separated from the real-school. This real-school has in most respects served as a model for all similar institutions in Germany; though, as was natural, the course of instruction was considerably modified and changed in course of time, so as to be better adapted to the demands of the age.


Among the unfortunate consequences of the Thirty Years' War, the most unfortunate was the fact that national life in Germany had sunk very low. The religious interests had lost their hold on the mass of the people, and the peace of Westphalia had almost sacrificed them to the worldly and political interests, so that they fell into the hands of the learned and became a mass of mere dead formulas. The great chasm between the different classes of society, which has always been a characteristic of German life, had become still greater. The better classes felt attracted by foreign, especially French, education, and had their children instructed, or at least prepared for the higher schools, by foreign tutors. Many of these possessed but little real knowledge, and the consequence was that scholars entered the gymnasium who were not fully prepared for it. This, again, exercised an influence on the lower classes of society, to meet the demands of which schools were started, which prepared young men for the actual duties of life by giving instruction in the mother-tongue and useful knowledge. Many of these schools, however, were of such a character as to hinder rather than to further the general development of education. We learn much about the state of education at that period in the official complaints, by Rector Stuss, in Gotha, published in 1736, together with hints as to how matters could be remedied. But we notice in these complaints vast concessions to the spirit of the times, which is all the sadder, as the period was one of general decadence and degeneration, in which bad taste and pedantry were prevalent among the teachers and immorality among the students. To suit the tendency of the times, geography, history, and mathematics were to be introduced in the second and third class; German and other modern languages were to be studied more extensively; and in the highest class philosophy was to be studied, not according to the principles of Aristotle, but those of the eclectic school. And as the lessons in this class were only calculated for future theologians, it would be desirable to have a teacher teach the elements of natural sciences. Under these circumstances it is not to be wondered at that the Berlin Real-School aimed directly at the education of miners, farmers, mechanics, &c. It can finally not be denied that the powerful influence which Frederick the Great exercised on the whole of Germany, especially with regard to manufactures and industry, was likewise felt on the field of education.

On such a soil the seed of the philanthropists could grow and flourish for a time. The chief representative of this whole school is Basedow, (1723-'90,) and his followers, Wolke, Trapp, Salzmann, Campe, and others. Basedow's school, the model for all similar institutions, was the Philanthropin at Dessau, which was in existence from 1774 to 1793. Some of the schools founded by Basedow's scholars survived the mother-school, and one of them, Salzmann's school at Schnepfenthal, near Gotha, is even at this day in a flourishing condition.

The chief object of the philanthropists' method is the systematic education of a youth to a man in the full sense of the word; but the man who is to be the result of this system of education is man with his present requirements, not man with his higher gifts and higher destination. The philanthropists wanted to do everything by their method, and one of the first demands expressed was, therefore, for a practical teachers' seminary, or normal school. The prevailing method of instruction was considered very defective, especially as so much was learned by heart without being thoroughly understood. The will was to be guided by reason, and only in exceptional cases by punishments. The philanthropists became entangled in contradictions; for while they intended to teach the scholars how to avoid sin by holding it out as a warning example, they feared the Bible and the ancient classics as offering too great a chance for becoming acquainted with certain vices, and, therefore, used extracts from the Bible and the classics. Basedow's own works, however, could not pass the muster of a thorough criticism; and especially his Latin works, his Liber Elementaris and his Latin Crusoe, could in no wise fill the place of the ancient classics. It is, therefore, but natural that the scholars of the Philanthropin were in the study of Latin far outstripped by all other schools. They had not even the dimmest conception of the deep significance and the educational power of this language. Their method finally became entirely dear and mechanical, and text-books served more as teachers than living personalities. It can not be denied, on the other hand, that by their text-books they were of indirect use to education by awakening a more general interest in the subject. This was chiefly brought about by the brief existence of Basedow's institute at Dessau, scattering the scholars into all portions of Germany.


Though the influence of Prussia's great king and the decided tendency of a large portion of the nation toward that kind of knowledge which was useful for practical life only favored the philanthropic ideas, they did not spread very much, for in the German nation there was still left too much love for the ideal.

There still lived and worked in many schools educators, whose activity, though creating but little' noise, was a healthful one, who loved the Gospel as much as they did the ancient classics, and who bore a true and fervent love to the youth intrusted to their care. But, still, there was great danger that, without a new and great revival, shallowness and scepticism, favored by the introduction of French morals and French education, would gradually gain the victory.

This revival was brought about partly by the new life which was infused into the study of the ancient classics, partly by awakening a better understanding of ancient art, and partly by the classic period of German national literature, which just then took its commencement; and it is difficult to say which of these influences was strongest. Since Winckelmann and Lessing had revealed the

*"Humanist-One who pursues the study of the humanities (litera humaniores) or pulite literature."-WEBSTER.

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