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demic studies. They had three classes, with a two-years' course in each. There was also a difference observable between the Würtemberg and Saxon schoolregulations in the choice of the authors whose works were to be read. Thus, in prima, grammar, Mimi publiani, Cato, Epistolæ Familiares; in secunda, syntax, Epistolæ Familiares, Virgil's Bucolica, Ovid's Ex Ponto, Tibullus, Rudimenta Græcæ Linguæ, Æsop's Fables, arithmetic, and music; in tertia, Melanchthon's entire Latin grammar with the additions by Camerarius, Cicero's Officia, De Senectute. and De Amicitiâ, Tusculanæ Disputationes, Virgil's Georgics and Æneid, Horace's Odes, Isocrates, Theognis, the Aurea Carmina of Pythagoras, the Iliad, Plutarch’s De Liberorum Educatione, rudiments of Hebrew, dialectics and rhetoric, Quæstiones De Sphæra, and Rudimenta Astronomiæ M. Blebelii. The comedies of Terence and Plautus were annually to be acted by the scholars, in order to accustom them to speak elegant Latin. The teacher, however, is to guard them carefully against the vices which are frequently found in the chief characters of these plays. These Saxon school-regulations were in the year 1773 renewed in a most excellent manner, though with certain modifications.

The school-regulations of Hesse-Cassel and other German states were very similar.


Erasmus had expressed his wish that the grammaticus (student of philology) should possess the varied knowledge which was indispensable for the understanding of the ancient classics, such as mathematics and natural sciences although he thought that absolute mastership in these studies was not required. Melanchthon, also, guided by a similar desire, had endeavored to get a more universal system of education introduced in Tübingen, and continued to work in the same spirit during his whole life. He wished that the best works on physics might be read, was in favor of the study of astronomy, and recommended the work De Sphæra, by Johan de Sacrobusto, as a text-book. In the preface to his edition of Aratus, he declares expressly that natural philosophy ought to be studied from the Greeks. He also endeavored again to introduce mathematics, which at that time was much neglected; the professor mathematicæ in Wittenberg only lecturing on the four first rules of arithmetic. Luther likewise repeatedly advocated the study of history, mathematics, and astronomy. It was, therefore, certainly not the fault of the reformers that these studies did not flourish much till the seventeenth century. Then, when the one-sidedness of formalism had reached its highest point, a reaction of the realists against the formalists set in.

A totally different reaction was inaugurated by Francis Bacon, the contemporary of Shakespeare and Kepler. He is the founder of the realistic method. and in this respect the true precursor of Ratichius and Comenius, the latter of whom especially developed and used Bacon's leading ideas.

Wolfgang Ratichius, ( Ratich.) 1571-1633. and Johan Amos Comenius, 159:1671, by opposing the prevailing extreme views, again went too far and rushed into other extremes. Every method that had existed hitherto was by them declared entirely unmethodical. Their aim was, therefore, not to give one new method. but to create the method itself as something entirely new. Faithful to Bacon's principles, they wanted by appropriate text-books to attain to that mental uniformity which would make the less talented scholar the equal of the talented one if he would only study his text-book conscientiously. Besides memory, the cultivation of which they not unjustly called one-sided, and the value of which they did not fully appreciate, they wished to have the reasoning powers more developed. But by going too far in this direction, they destroyed fancy and the true appreciation of the beautiful. By the artificial and strict calculation which pervaded their whole method they deprived the pupil and his studies of all natural life. Involuntarily they worked for the philanthropists, as they endeavored to make everything easy by the method and expected everything from the latent enthusiasm of the scholar. As, like the Jesuits, they separated instruction from education, they considered all punishments as superfluous, because they maintained that a truly natural method would of itself call forth a love of study. But while implicitly relying on their methodical infallibility, two schools formed themselves almost unconsciously, some following an absolute model of education and, with aristocratic presumption, taking no regard to individuality ; others, with more democratic tendencies, endeavoring to develop individual talent. The great extent in the uses of the Latin language again awakened greater care for the mother-tongue, which at the same time might serve to widen the strong difference between the “studied" and the “unstudied.” They deserve praise for paying more attention to realistic studies; but by neglecting the Latin language, they also lost all true appreciation of classic antiquity and the historic sense. This is to be regretted all the more, as both men have their undeniable merits, and have in many other ways exercised a widely-felt and beneficial influence.

The realism of these two educators also favored the denominational quarrels which since the latter half of the sixteenth century shook the whole social and political fabric of the German nation to its very foundation. The Latin language was frequently only studied with a view to theological disputations; the classical authors were read without choice or order; logic and rhetoric were studied for this express purpose ; while Greek was neglected to such a degree that the scholars scarcely learned enough for reading the New Testament. The whole attention was absorbed by the public disputations and declamations, where young men found an opportunity of satisfying their ambition. Thus, in the academic gymnasium at Dantzig, a solemn public disputation was held every month, and a still grander one every quarter, which the Sunday before was announced in the churches. The same was the case in nearly every German gymnasium and Latin school. Much more harm, however, than by all these methods was done to the German secondary schools by the culmination of the denominational strife, the great Thirty Years' War.

THE PERIOD OF THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR. The general desolation which was an unavoidable consequence of the long religious strife exercised a very baneful influence on education, and more especially on the secondary schools. The following are merely instances picked out at random from among a very large number. The Protestant school at Friedberg, Hesse, was deprived of almost all its scholars, so that it was near extinction in 1630, and was only saved by the victories of Gustavus Adolphus. The Protestant gymnasium at Hersfeld was, in 1629, turned over to a Catholic priest and Jesuit teachers. Tilly here enforced the edict of restitution by force of arms and made a fearful havoc. In 1632 the gymnasium again received Protestant teachers, but in 1634 it was again closed by the imperial general Götz, the teachers flying to Cassel and other places. In 1636 it was opened, soon to be closed again, and so on till the end of the war. The city of Göttingen was besieged for two months in 1626; and Fabricius, the famous rector of the gymnasium, with the teachers and some of the scholars, had to fly to Mühlhausen. In Schulpforta, the scholars had often to be dismissed on account of the war; teachers and scholars were frequently scattered by sudden surprises, and there was often an almost entire want of food. Under such circumstances, the first jubilee of the institution in the year 1643 was a very sad one. Even Wittenberg, which was strongly fortified, could not continue her educational work undisturbedly, and teachers' places remained vacant for years. In Altenburg, the rector of the gymnasium was cruelly tortured by soldiers; but even during the greatest trials never lost confidence in the future of his school, which was attended by more than six hundred scholars. In Glogau, clergymen and teachers were obliged to fly, and the city remained for four years without school and divine service. The gymnasium at Stargard became, two years after its opening in 1635, a prey to the flames during the siege by the imperialists. Teachers and scholars were scattered, and it remained closed till 1646. The famous gymnasium at Goldberg was entirely closed in 1621; and from its remaining funds Duke Georg Rudolf, in 1648, founded a school for young noblemen in connection with the church of St. John at Liegnitz. The gymnasium at Beuthen had to be closed in 1629, as likewise the one at Oels. Many other gymnasia during this period passed into the hands of the Jesuits. These few examples will suffice, although they might be increased indefinitely. The saddest result of all these external devastations was the enormous increase of immorality among the students of all ages, which could not be remedied either by princely mandates or by the serious efforts of educators after peace had been restored.


After peace had been restored, great changes were gradually wrought, both in method and in matter. The Latin language, which had gradually become the second mother-tongue in the German schools, and was, therefore, studied in the same manner, especially by constant speaking, began here and there to fall into practical disuse, and its study was confined to the reading of classical authors. At the same time, the desire for a grammar of the Latin language written in German was loudly expressed, and such a one was in many places introduced, at least in the lower classes. The custom of acting Latin dramas also gradually gave way to similar performances in the German language, at least as early as the last decades of the seventeenth and the first of the eighteenth centuries. Thus we read that in 1740 the scholars of the gymnasium at Glogau acted in German The Lost and Found Young Princes, Theogenes and Charicleia; and later, actus dramatici are reported in the same place of the most expensive character, and lasting three days.

We find a strong national reaction, which had to undergo severe trials during the eighteenth century, but which could never be entirely suppressed. The last remnants of Roman supremacy disappeared; German became the language of the governments; French the language of diplomacy; while Latin, with the Catholics, continued to be the language of the church. German now also began to be the language of science; and at the University of Halle, founded in 1694, Christian Thomasius was the first who lectured in German. From this period on Latin could only keep its own with great difficulty; for the demand to see German included in the regular course of instruction grew stronger and more universal every day, so much so that the study of Latin seemed to be in danger. The Hamburg school-regulations of 1732 limit Latin speaking and Latin disputations to the two highest classes, but prescribe at the same time that the study of German should be commenced as early as possible—at any rate, not later than in the fourth class ; that in the highest class the works of standard German authors should be read, and their works should be imitated by writing German letters, compositions, orations, &c. This was very generally demanded about the middle of the eighteenth century, at a time when the decadence of the German language had reached its climax, when it was largely intermingled with Latin, and still more with French words. This indispensa ble study of German again led to the dispensing with the study of Greek in the case of many scholars, and gradually even differences of rank became influential in the course of instruction. Thus we find in the gymnasium at Görlitz a special course of instruction for the noble scholars, in which Greek is wanting. Mathematical lessons were also separate for them. It says literally in the regulations, “We distinguish the children of noblemen from those of low birth among the rest by this, that we allow them to have a more intimate intercourse with their teachers, and exempt them from various duties which the other scholars must fulfill.” In accordance with such principles, great attention was, in the study of history, paid to genealogy and heraldry, and dancing was in many gymnasia included in the course of instruction. This strong difference in the treatment of noble and other scholars, which was at variance with the true aim of the gymnasium, led to separate institutions of learning for young noblemen, e.g., the Knights' Academy (Ritter-Akademie) at Liegnitz, (founded by the Emperor Joseph I in 1708;) the Lüneburg Knights' Academy, (founded 1655, closed 1819;) the Brandenburg Knights' Academy, (founded 1704, closed 1848, re-established 1856;) and many others.

But also in other respects did the character of the gymnasia change very much. As subjects of study we find at this time, among the rest, military and civil architecture, astronomy, gnomonics, botany, theoretical and practical philosophy, &c. When Landgrave Wilhelm VI of Cassel transferred the University of Hesse from Cassel to Marburg, he gave to that city in its stead a lyceum (1657–61) for studying the fundamenta philosophie et theologia. There were also included in the course of instruction, history, geometry, and Hebrew. German was studied as far as the fifth class, (the second highest;) instruction in religion was given in the German language. In reality, there was not much progress; the classes were as a rule combined, (making only three instead of six,) and the results were consequently less satisfactory. The study of Greek actually declined; neither Homer nor Demosthenes were read; and in the selection of studies the greatest arbitrariness was displayed.

In some of the states, a thorough re-organization of the school-system was favored by the beneficent influence of excellent and pious princes. This was especially the case in Gotha during the wise reign of Duke Ernst, (1641'75,) who ordered a thorough examination of the gymnasium at Gotha in order to remedy all existing evils. With regard to those young men in the higher classes who intended to devote themselves to scientific studies, it was settled, that next to the exercitium pietatis, the Latin language, as the foundation of studies, should be taught thoroughly; but, besides this, Greek, Hebrew, history, mathematics, philosophy, logic, rhetoric, principles of poetry, eloquence. and music. The works of the ancient classic authors were merely considered the vehicle for the illustration of grammatical and rhetorical rules. All this was changed by Duke Ernst, and the works of the ancient authors were again read for their own sake; in Greek, especially Isocrates, Theognis, and

Esop; and in Latin, Cicero, Jusțin, Nepos, Terence, and Plautus. He knew well the value of a good method of instruction, and, therefore, had a book Instructio, prepared and published, which was to serve as a guide for teachers. He also had quite a number of new text-books prepared, the Janua and the Vestibulum of Comenius, and a Vocabularium Comenianum. Salomo Glassius, the church- and school-superintendent at the time, revised the Compendium Hutterianum, Veit von Seckendorf, chancellor of the duchy, in connection with other learned men, edited a Schola Latinitatis, and a Compendium Historiæ Ecclesiasticæ. The largest number of text-books, however, was edited by Reyher, rector of the Gotha Gymnasium; among which there was also a sort of philosophical and philological encyclopedia, (Margarita Philosophica et Philologica.) The influence of all these efforts, which in most cases were begun by the duke himself, was not confined to Gotha, but was felt throughout the whole of Germany and even beyond its confines.

If there was danger that through the great mass of material and the numerous methodical suggestions and measures this noble educational zeal might be led astray—if in many cases the scholars had to go through literary exercises which were far beyond their power of comprehension, the desire for greater simplicity would naturally produce a reaction. On the one hand, humanism was opposed, and the system was, therefore, again reduced to a one-sided formalism; and, on the other hand, reason was cultivated to excess, thus extinguishing all deeper Christian life. The former tendency favored the introduction of Locke's educational ideas, while the latter produced the pietism of the Halle school.

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