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templative life induced him to return to the Netherlands, where he died in 1489. He considered the gift of teaching as of the greatest importance, as expressed in one of his sayings, “Signum scientis est posse docere."
At the instance of their teacher, Thomas a Kempis, Rudolf Lange, Count Moritz of Spiegelberg, and Rudolf Agricola went to Italy. Lange collected a large library for the free use of his friends, encouraged the establishment of schools like those of Amsterdam and Deventer, and himself became the reformer of schools in North Germany. The great cathedral-school at Münster was completely re-organized by him. In Hamm, Dortmund, Essen, Herford, Soest, Osnabrück, and other cities of Northern and Western Germany, he either himself established schools or had them established by men who had been educated by him. Spiegelberg founded a school at Emmerich, and Ludwig Dringenberg established the famous school at Schlettstadt, in Alsace. Jacob Wimpheling gained a name by his practical method of instruction and by his numerous and excellent educational works. Conrad Celtes, John von Dalberg, and Rudolf Agricola labored in the same direction. All these, however, were thrown into the shade by two men, who not only were themselves great masters of the ancient languages, but who, by their model method of instruction, transmitted their own knowledge as a lasting treasure to future genera. tions. These two men were John Reuchlin, (1455–1522,) and Erasmus of Rotterdam, (1467–1536.) It cannot be denied that the last mentioned was one-sided in certain respects by allowing intellectualism to predominate to such a degree as to prevent him from assigning to the education of the heart its true place in education, and by deprecating the value of instruction in the mothertongue ; but, in spite of all this, it can truly be said that, without his influence and without the thorough study of the Greek and Hebrew languages which Reuchlin inaugurated, the reformation itself would have been impossible.
THE PERIOD OF THE REFORMATION. The revival of classical studies, and the re-organization of the whole system of secondary education produced thereby, was intimately connected with the reformation of the church. In a certain sense, it may even be said that a gymnasium, as it ought to be, cannot well be imagined prior to the reformation. The relation between the Gospel and the ancient languages, defined by Luther's well-known words, has from that time been the basis of all these superior schools, and was everywhere first awakened by the formal and material principles of the new faith. Both of these demanded, not only for the future servants of the church, but for all whose education was to enable them to give a satisfactory account of their evangelical belief, a training that would enable them to understand the Scriptures, and thereby gain an independent knowledge of the great truths of salvation. The whole study of classic antiquity could, on the other hand, only become of true and lasting value by evangelical truth and evangelical science. The great reformers of the church were well aware of this, and therefore both directly and indirectly labored in this direction. They used the ancient classics, which had come to them from Italy, partly for educating a rhetorical taste and as a suitable preparation for the different scientific studies, but mainly as the chief pillar of evangelical faith. These two points of view were not always maintained with equal strength and clearness. In establishing schools, the latter (the religious point of view) became more prominent, dedicating and consecrating these schools to the service of God, but in practical life this was often forgotten. As a reason for founding schools, the necessity for maintaining and sheltering the new faith was specially mentioned; and the League of Schmalkald, in March, 1537, expressly pledged itself to reform the old schools, and to establish new ones. Luther himself, in his “ Epistle to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation,” 1520, and in his “ Epistle to the Mayors and Counselors of all the German Cities," 1524, and Melanchthon, in his work, “ To an Honorable City, of the Establishment of Latin Schools,” 1543, strongly expressed the same views.
The course of instruction which was drawn up by the two German reformers, which was revised several times in 1525, 1528, 1530, and 1538, and which in all its details is most complete in the Saxon Church Regulations of the year 1580, requires that the following subjects be taught in the Latin schools: reading; writing ; vocal music; Latin, dialectics, rhetoric, and religion. The Latin schools in those times all had three classes, and this arrangement has been kept up in many parts of Germany, especially Hesse and Würtemberg, to the present day. The studies were divided in the following manner: first or lowest class, reading, learning by heart of vocables; later, Donatus and Cato's Sententiæ; second class, religion, grammar, prosody and music, Æsop, Mosellan's Pædologia, Erasmus's Colloquia, Terence, Plautus, the Holy Scriptures; third class, Virgil, Ovid, Cicero's Officia and Epistolæ ad Familiares, metrics, dialectics, rhetoric. The scholars of the second and third classes had to write a Latin composition every week, and practice Latin speaking as much as possible. Every class had one teacher. The teacher of the second class, termed cantor or “collaborator," had to give the music-lessons. Instruction was given every week-day for five or six hours, from 5 or 6 o'clock in the morning till 9 a. m. and from 12 m. to 3 p. m. The more important subjects (among these grammar) were taught in the morning, and less important subjects in the afternoon. Scholars were obliged, besides these school-hours, to attend instruction in the Christian catechism every Sunday and twice on weekdays. Great stress was laid on repetition of all studies. The exertion of sitting still uninterruptedly for four hours was even in those times a subject of serious complaints. The scholars belonging to the singing-choir, called currendarii, received extra instruction in vocal music, but were in return obliged to sing Latin and German psalms and hymns in church, to read the gospel of the day, and according to the custom of those times gained their living by singing, accompanied by their teachers, before the houses of wealthy citizens, especially in the time between Christmas and New Year. In some cities this singingchoir was numerous. Thus, in 1653, it consisted in the city of Cassel of 34 scholars of all classes.
Different from the common city-schools were the higher city-schools, which were established only in a few places, such as Nuremberg, Mühlhausen, Hamburg, Lübeck, Bremen, &c. Besides reading, writing, Latin, and religion, which were taught in the former schools, they also taught Greek, Hebrew, mathematics, and philosophy. The teachers in these last-mentioned schools frequently employed the acroamatic method, which was repeatedly censured as not preparing the scholars sufficiently for the academical studies. It may, however, be supposed that the method in nearly all the schools left much to be desired.
The difference between these two kinds of schools chiefly consisted in this, that in the higher city-schools a sort of special course was added for those studies which were peculiar to them. If a scholar had gone through all the classes of the Latin school, he could attend these extra classes, and was called auditor publicus. There are extant courses of instruction of different gymnasia of this period, e.g., one of Nuremberg. From these we see that the gymnasium originally only had four classes; later, five. The school of St. Lawrence had eight classes. Both commenced with reading and writing, and scholars from both schools immediately entered the university; with this difference only, that the gymnasium almost exclusively admitted sons of the better classes, and was called schola patriciorum, which custom was kept up till the eighteenth century. The higher city-schools were chiefly intended for future clergymen. Grammar was studied more than ancient authors. The course of instruction comprised, besides rhetoric, logic, Latin composition, religion, and music. In Nuremberg, we do not find mathematics, Hebrew, and history till 1624. The number of school-hours were 21 to 22 per week.
In accordance with the spirit of the reformation, most of the convents were used for gymnasia, and all through those countries which had adopted the new faith the convent-schools and cathedral-schools were transformed into gymnasia or Latin schools.
Many of the smaller city-schools were, during this period, changed into secondary schools by introducing Greek, Hebrew, philosophy, and mathematics, and were called by different names, e.g., pædagogia, gymnasia, &c. The scholars of the lower schools as a general thing learned too little, so that attendance at the higher schools became necessary. The former schools confined themselves to the study of Latin and religion. There was a lack of gradation all round, a want of rational methods of instruction, of suitable text-books; above all, a great want of competent teachers and intelligent inspectors. Toward the close of the sixteenth century, the old Saxon school. regulations, which prevailed throughout the whole of North Germany, underwent many changes, especially wherever the grade of the school was changed from elementary schools to gymnasia. Some of the schools aimed even higher, and gradually rose to the rank of universities.
PERSONAL INFLUENCE OF FAMOUS EDUCATORS OF THIS PERIOD. As the reformation could only be realized by the decisive deeds of individual faith, the whole period took its character from certain prominent individuals. There were, therefore, among the immediate contemporaries of the reformers, many excellent educators, whose influence was felt far beyond their own lifetime. As the most famous, the following desene to be mentioned: Michael Neander, in Nordhausen ; Valentin Friedland, called Trotzendorf, after his birthplace, in Goldberg ; Johan Sturm, in Strasburg; Johan Bugenhagen, in Hamburg ; Georg Spalatin, in Altenburg; Cyriac Lindemann, in Gotha ; Jerome Wolf, in Mühlhausen; Georg Fabricius, in Meissen ; Laurentius Rhodomann, in Stralsund; Andreas Boëtius, in Eisenach; Johan Caselius and Georg Calixtus, in Helmstädt; Joachim Camerarius, Eoban Hessus, and Sebald Heyden, in Nuremberg; C. Helwig, in Giessen; Peter Nigidius, Rudolf Goclenius, and Jodoc Jungmann, in Cassel; and many others.
The most influential of all these men was doubtless Johan Sturm, both according to the unanimous testimony of his contemporaries and his own writings. He was considered superior to all teachers of ancient and modern times, the very ideal of a true pedagogue, in the full sense of the word. Especially did his method find numerous admirers and imitators. His most important works are, De Literarum Ludis Recte Aperiendis, 1537, in which he gave the organization of his school at Strasburg; (Economia Scholæ Lavingianæ, De Educatione Principum, and Epistolæ Classicæ, published in 1565, in which he gave a full description of his method. The results of his teaching were brilliant. His school at Strasburg became the most famous school of the kind in Europe. In 1578 it numbered several thousand scholars, among whom there were two hundred noblemen, twenty-four counts and baronets, and three princes. Besides Germans, there were among the scholars numerous Danes, Italians, Portuguese, Poles, Spaniards, Englishmen, and Frenchmen. Besides the school at Strasburg, he either personally founded several other schools, 1. 8, at Lauingen, Trarbach, Hornbach, &c., or had them established by his scholars, e. g., at Augsburg by Schenk, Memmingen by Crusius, &c. His course of instruction became the model for all higher schools of the period.
Piety, knowledge, and eloquence were to him the objects of all education, “sapientem atque eloquentem pietatem finem esse studiorum.” The educated man was to be distinguished from the uneducated one by sense and eloquence, *ratione et oratione.” Knowledge and a pure and ornate speech were to be the aim of all scientific education, “ rerum cognitio et orationis puritas et ornatus." From the seventh to the sixteenth year he demands a regular school-education ; then a freer education, by attending lectures, to the twenty-first year. The gymnasium was divided into three classes, (ordines, curiæ, tribus;) three years to be spent in each class. Of these, seven years were to be applied to the acquiring of a pure Latin speech, (orationis Latinæ atque dilucida ;) the two remaining years to acquiring ornate speech. The five academical years were to be spent in learning to speak with greater facility and to the point, apte. The two best scholars of each class were to receive premiums annually. Twenty-seven years later the gymnasium was divided into ten ordines instead of nine.
In the tenth or lowest class, the foundation of all knowledge was to be laid. There children were to learn the alphabet; this was to be followed by reading, which was practiced better in learning the Latin declensions and conjugations than by the catechism. The catechism was to be learned in German and not in Latin.
In the ninth class, the scholars were to be grounded more firmly in the declensions and conjugations, adding the irregular ones; many Latin words were to be learned by heart, especially names of every-day objects.
In the eighth class, the scholars must be able to decline and conjugate all the substantives and verbs; they were to be instructed in the eight partes orationis, and special care was to be taken that they did not forget what they had learned in the lower classes. Some select epistles of Cicero were to be read with constant regard to grammar. Compositions were to be written during the last months of the scholastic year, while during the first months there were to be oral preparations for this by forming Latin phrases and changing given ones.
In the seventh class, Latin syntax was to be taught in few rules, but with good, especially Ciceronian, examples. This was to be practiced further by the daily reading of Cicero's Epistles. Pliny was right when he said, “Multum legendum esse, non multa ;” but on this grade the only road to the multum led through the multa. The subjects for composition were to be taken from what had been learned before, so that at the same time they might tend to strengthen and refresh the memory. Wearisome disquisitions were to be avoided. The teacher should orally and by writing on the blackboard show the scholars how this was to be done.
In the sixth class, longer epistles of Cicero were to be translated into German, also poetical pieces, such as Veni Redemptor Gentium, Martial's epigram, Vitam Quæ faciunt Beatiorem; Horace's Rectius Vives, the Andria of Terence, and some fables of Æsop. A beginning was made in Greek.
In the fifth class, the scholars were to study metrics and mythology, and read Cicero's Cato and Lælius, and Virgil's Eclogues; and in Greek the Educatio Lingue Græcæ, and the Sunday gospels, with explanations; a number of words with regard to virtues and vices, manners and life of men, &c., were to be learned; and the Latin style was to be further cultivated. During the last months of the scholastic year, they were to be practiced in writing verses. Latin orations were first to be translated into German, and then, during school-hours, extempore translated again into Latin. On Saturdays and Sundays one of St. Paul's epistles was to be interpreted, which is to be continued in the higher classes.
In the fourth class, the scholars were to hear, interpret, and learn by heart as much as possible, but nothing beyond their power of comprehension. The following were to be read: Cicero's Sixth Speech against Verres; the speech Pro Marcello; Terence's Adelphi; select odes, epistles, and satires of Horace; in Greek, grammar and the Volumen Exemplorum.
In the third class, the rhetorical ornaments and figures were to be explained and illustrated by examples; the Rhetorica ad Herennium was to be studied; and the following to be read : Cicero's speech Pro Cluentio; in Greek, some of the more famous orations of Demosthenes, and Homer, (first book of Iliad or Odyssey;) Greek speeches were to be translated into Latin, and vice versa ; odes of Pindar and Horace to be translated into different meters; original poems, letters, and compositions to be written. Comedies of Terence and