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THE PRESENT STATUS OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN GERMANY–Continued. Page.
Arithmetic and mathematics
Teachers, their qualifications, duties, salaries, and pensions
DARY INSTRUCTION-PROTOCOL OF THE DISCUSSION
General statistics of German secondary schools...
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, BUREAU OF EDUCATION,
Washington, D. C., October 20, 1874. Sir: The subject of secondary education is attracting increased attention from American educators, leading to quite a general demand upon this Bureau for information in regard to the history and present condition of secondary education in Germany, where it has received special attention, and in which different German states have greatly excelled.
In endeavoring to supply this demand, I have had the following papers prepared:
ist. The History of German Secondary Schools, by Dr. Lübker, which is contained in Schmid's Educational Encyclopedia, and is generally accepted as an authority
2d. Extracts from the “Rules and Regulations for the Higher Schools in Prussia," by Dr. Wiese, privy counselor in the royal ministry of public instruction at Berlin, as showing the present condition of these schools.
3d. The protocol (minutes) of the debates of the conference of educators, held in Berlin, in October, 1873, which was presided over by Dr. Falk, the Prussian minister of public instruction.
4th. Statistics of German secondary schools from Dr. E. Mushacke's German University and School Almanac for 1872, prepared from official sources.
5th. Observations made by Prof. N. T. Allen, A. M., of West Newton, Mass., during a residence in Germany, upon the school-system; of great interest as the views of a competent observer and well-known practical American educator.
The translations from the German have been made by Mr. Herman Jacobson, the official translator attached to this Bureau. The statistics, which in the originals are scattered, have been collected, arranged, and tabulated with great care by him especially for this circular. I respectfully recommend the publication of these papers. Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
JOHN EATON, Commissioner. Hon. C. Delano,
Secretary of the Interior.
Approved and publication ordered.
C. DELANO, Secretary.
SECONDARY EDUCATION IN GERMANY.
Secondary education, or, as it is usually termed in Germany, “higher education,” (das höhere Schulwesen,) is undoubtedly the glory of the German educational system, being of older date and more harmoniously developed in all its different branches than any other part of the system. Its general aim is to give to young men a thorough classical or realistic education, and to form the connecting link between the primary school and the university; as well as, more recently, the higher technical institutions.
SUBDIVISION OF GERMAN SECONDARY SCHOOLS. All the German secondary schools, differing in name in the different German states, may be grouped under two heads, viz : (1) those in which special attention is given to the ancient classics'; and (2) those in which natural sciences and modern languages are taught. The former, which embrace gymnasia, progymnasia, lyceums, (Würtemberg, Baden,) Latin schools, (Bavaria, Würtemberg,). pædagogia, seminaries, (Baden,) may well be called “classical colleges ;” and the latter, embracing real-schools and higher burgher-schools, (höhere Bürgerschulen,)“non-classical colleges." In some cases, the two are combined, having the two or three lower classes in common, and then branching off into two distinct courses, a gymnasium course and a real-school-course. Institutions which are arranged on this so-called system of bifurcation are called Real gymnasia.
HISTORY OF GERMAN SECONDARY SCHOOLS.*
THE EARLIEST TIMES.
As the gymnasium up to the present day has unswervingly followed its beautiful object of uniting and harmonizing human truth with Christian depth, it is not astonishing that it has first been established and has principally been developed among the nations of the Germanic race, among whom the purely human development has been of the most healthful character, and where there has been the greatest congeniality with evangelical truth. The different nations of the Germanic race have each developed the institutions for higher nstruction in accordance with their national peculiarities; but the most characiteristic type of such institutions is undoubtedly found in Germany.
* In this History of German Secondary Schools the excellent article on the subject in Schmid's Educational Encyclopedia, by Dr. Lübker, late rector of the Gymnasium at Flensburg, has chiefly been followed.
13., 7., 141
The first man who gave definite shape to German superior education was Charlemagne, whose clear and comprehensive mind saw and understood the wants of the growing generation. His two leading thoughts were to extend higher education beyond the clergy, and to educate suitable teachers. His influence in this direction was felt far beyond the confines of his empire; and his work has been the firm basis on which the educational edifice of a thousand years has been built. The center of his activity was the oldest school in his empire, the Court-School or Schola Palatina. The flourishing condition of this school is owing chiefly to the untiring exertions of the Anglo-Saxon Alcuin, who, in the year 793, was called over from England. He gradually succeeded in educating talented men as principals of similar schools, thus enabling Charlemagne to carry out his favorite idea of establishing schools throughout the whole of his vast empire. With regard to the method of instruction, the dialogue-form gradually gained ground; and as regards the matter taught, it was no longer confined to theological subjects, but extendedo t all branches of science. The existing mass of knowledge had been sifted and arranged suitably for instruction in the important writings of Boëthius (455-524) and Cassiodorus, (480-570;) in the Satiricon, (especially the first two books, De Nuptiis Philologiæ et Mercurii;) of Marcianus Capella, (470;) and the Origines of Bishop Isidore, of Seville, (died 636.) All through the middle ages, the artes liberales were divided into the trivium and quadrivium; the former comprising grammar, rhetoric, and dialectics; the latter, the four mathematical sciences, arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy. Alcuin did not add anything to these, but only gave them new names, calling the trivium ethics, and the quadrivium physics.
CONVENT, CHAPTER, AND CATHEDRAL-SCHOOLS. All the schools did not rise to the dignity of these artes liberales; many merely teaching reading, writing, arithmetic, singing, and grammar. These were merely parochial schools, corresponding to the modern elementary schools. Wherever it could be done, the study of the Scriptures was added; sometimes, also, the ancient classics; of the Greeks, only Homer, but of the Romans, Horace, Virgil, Statius, Sallust, Terence, Cicero, and Seneca. Greek, though not pursued extensively, nevertheless formed a favorite study. Thus we know that Charlemagne appointed teachers of Greek in Salzburg and Ratisbon, as also in several other cities. The difference of rank and occupation in life as marked by a different degree of education, peculiar to the German nation, soon made itself felt. Charlemagne, like Alfred the Great, endeavored to obliterate differences of rank in educational matters, but was not as successful in this as the English king. There was from the beginning an unavoidable difference between ecclesiastical and secular schools. Candidates for the priesthood were instructed in the trivium and quadrivium in scholis intrariis seu claustris, (convent-schools;) while laymen acquired the same knowledge in scholis exterioribus seu canonicis. In many of the convents, however, no instruction worth the name was given, but all that was aimed at was to prepare young men to assist in the rites of divine service.