« 上一頁繼續 »
In the engineering-courses, mechanical drawing is taught. A course in architecture is contemplated, but not as yet organized.
CORNELL UNIVERSITY. Cornell University provides in its school of engineering for a four-years. course and in its school of architecture for a similar course, with a post-graduatecourse of two years additional.
The foundation of a museum of fine arts has been laid by deposit with the university, for use of the faculty and undergraduates, of the following collections: (1) The White collection of historical medallions, including all the casts of Eichler of Berlin, namely, 2,000 copies of antique gems in the Royal Museum, 500 casts illustrating mediæval and renaissance-history and art, and over 400 historical medallion-portraits; (2) a valuable collection of photographs illustrative of architecture and art applied to manufactures; (3) paintings in oil, including portraits, by Carpenter, of Professor Goldwin Smith and George William Curtis, presented by President White; some bronzes and busts, and many portfolios of engravings, including the Arundel Society's publications and the Berlin Museum series.
The Rochester University, which possesses quite a valuable archæological museum, has begun what it is hoped may prove to be the nucleus of an artcollection. It has a few portraits and other paintings, a fine collection of engravings and autotypes of rare engravings and drawings of the old masters, a few casts, a collection of photographs and chromo-lithographs for illustrating lectures on architecture, and a small, well-selected library of valuable artworks.
A course of weekly lectures on art is given to the senior class by President An(lerson. Writing about this beginning and regretting its present inadequateness, President Anderson adds, “ But our institution is young, and my object has been to set afloat the idea of an art-department in such a way as to make, its realization a necessity for my successors, if I cannot accomplish it myself.”
COLLEGE OF NOTRE DAME. The College of Notre Dame, near South Bend, Ind., possesses a collection especially rich in objects of religious art, it being the recipient of many gifts from European friends, comprising choice carvings, metal-chasing, and antique coins, gems, and jewelry. It has also a few pieces of statuary, a few paintings, and many hundreds of engravings.
VASSAR COLLEGE. Vassar College, while laying no claim to be in a “special sense an art-school,” gives much attention to teaching drawing and painting, with lectures on the history and theory of the arts of painting and sculpture and on the principles of decoration. The college possesses, (1) a collection of 500 oil- and water-colorpaintings by living artists ; (2) a collection of plaster-casts of ancient and mod
ern sculpture imported from the house of Antonio Vanni; (3) a collection of photographs from sculptures, paintings, architectural works, and from original drawings of the old masters; and (4) a valuable art-library of 600 volumes.
These constitute the facilities for art-training, and the art-collections possessed by the 323 colleges of the country, as far as is known to this Bureau.
PUBLIC ART-GALLERIES AND MUSEUMS.
It remains now only to consider the public art-collections and the steps being taken towards the establishment of art-museums in connection with art-training, which may be expected to accomplish in a measure for this country what the South Kensington Museum, with its schools, has so notably accomplished for Great Britain and the world.
METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART, NEW YORK.
First in this list, if measured by its present status, stands the Metropolitan Museum of Art of the City of New York, temporarily placed in the noble Douglas Mansion, No. 128 West Fourteenth street, while waiting the completion of the museum-building in Central Park. It is rather by reason of the possibilities of future usefulness suggested than by its own collections that it awakens interest and hope. It has already demonstrated since it opened in Fourteenth street that the general public take interest in art-museums when the collections are worthy of interest and when access to them can be had without charge, as it can to the leading galleries and museums of the continent, the visitors averaging 1,000 a day on Monday, the “ free day,” and 60 a day on other days, when 25 cents admission-fee is charged.
It has also shown in a small way what the Manchester art-loan-exhibition of 1857 demonstrated in a way that amazed those who before supposed that they possessed some adequate conception of the wealth of art-treasures existing in Great Britain, namely, the great and unsuspected wealth of the community in rare, costly, and curious works of art. It is in the Loan-collections of the museum that the public interest has centered; for in these, for the first time to many, opportunity has been afforded to see specimens of the wonderful productions of ancient and mediæval artists and artisans.
The marvelous little bell, made by Benvenuto Cellini, is a revelation of the wondrous skill and beauty of the jeweler's work of that age and makes credible even that artist's estimation of his own skill.
The large and beautiful collection of ceramics was in itself a notable feature of the museum. Here could be seen fine specimens of ancient and modern oriental porcelain, and that of Sèvres, Dresden, and England.
The gallery containing the loan-collection of modern paintings had fifty-nine masterpieces-better specimens of the leading continental and English artists than could be found together elsewhere in the country—while the fifty-two paintings, which comprised the loan-collection of pictures by the old masters, contained some genuine surprises, notably the Tintorettos and the Titians.
The following summary of the different loan-collections, made by a person familiar with them, will give some idea of their extent and value:
“Account of the loan-collection in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, in the summer and autumn of 1873:
“1. Examples of modern painters of the French, Belgian, English, Spanish, and German schools of art, including Gérôme, Meissonnier, Zamaçois, J. M. W. Turner, Alma Tadema, Madrazo, Troyon, Rosa Bonheur, Boughton, &c., arranged in one gallery.
“2. Paintings by old masters of Italian, French, and Flemish schools, arranged in one gallery.
"3. Old repoussé and enameled watches, of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; antique porcelain and patterns of Italian, French, Chinese, Japanese, German, English, and Flemish porcelain-manufacture; ancient Greek or Etruscan vases; antique carvings in wood, ivory, &c. ; examples of metal-working in gold, silver, bronze, copper, &c., of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; oriental and European enamels upon metal; many specimens of oriental porcelain furnished by Mr. Avery; European porcelain loaned by Mr. William C. Prime.
“4. Flemish, French, English, and Italian illuminated manuscripts upon vellum, of the fif. teenth and sixteenth centuries; early-printed books upon vellum and paper; exquisite specimens of ancient and modern book-bindery, (many of these loaned by Mr. Robert Hoe, jr.)
“5. Old arms and armor.
“6. Engravings upon wood, etchings, and engravings, by artists of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries."
The reflection that naturally follows a consideration of the aggregate treasures collected by these different individuals is that what has been done by these persons singly and without concert can surely be accomplished by a corporation which knows beforehand just what it wants and is in no haste, but can take sufficient time and money to enable it to make such purchases as are desirable, looking always, not to a mere aggregation of numbers, either of collections or of specimens, but adhering to a definite plan and remembering that one perfect art-specimen is worth hundreds of inferior ones. Again, to be of real value, these collections must be so arranged, and knowledge in regard to them must be so accessible, that any one wishing to master a certain department illustrated in the museum can have the facilities for doing it. When that time comes, the people will find that they have a real interest in artcollections.
The Metropolitan Museum at present offers to the public no courses of study, no lectures, no instructors. When it can afford these facilities, and thus demonstrate its practical relation to the interests of the public, it will have developed that vitality which will insure growth. It may well be questioned whether the public funds should be appropriated to making merely a pleasant loungingplace for the public; but that the building-up in New York of an institution similar in its purposes to the Kensington Art-Museum would be a wise thing for the people of New York to do seems well-nigh capable of demonstration.*
* As long as civilization is allowed to pursue its course, however tastes may change and whatever developments may be wrought, the stamp of good, honest, skillful, and cultured artindustry will not only preserve its value, but pay compound interest as well. The best example I know of this is that of the South Kensington Museum and its contents. In 1851, the English schools of design were put under the control of a hard-headed business-man, who grasped the whole subject of art-education and saw its relationship to industrial art. He saw that two things were needed : a museum of industrial art and art-masters to give instruction. Beginning with a grant of $50,000 to purchase works from the exhibition of 1851 and an
One thing has been shown, that, until the museum can procure its own collections, there exists in the community the material and the spirit that makes possible such temporary loan-collections as may from time to time be desired for educational purposes, and that, if the directors are far-sighted enough to desire it, New York has it in her power to establish the art-training museum for America. While speaking of loan-collections, it may not be out of place to suggest that what is true of New York is true of most of our cities and large towns, namely, the existence of a sufficient number of works of art and of curious artisan-work in the hands of private owners to form a valuable and interesting public collection for the delight and instruction of the whole community. In this way, artculture can be readily fostered. The recent charitable art-loan-collection in Baltimore surprised the city by the value and beauty of the treasures displayed and attracted throngs during its exhibition. A large sum was realized from the entrance-fees.
There is hardly a city in the country that could not make a creditable artexhibition.
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, founded by a committee appointed by a public meeting held in New York City in November, 1869, was incorporated April 13, 1870. It was endowed by the liberal gifts of individuals with about two hundred thousand dollars, most of which has been expended for rent, curatorship, &c., and in the purchase in Europe, in 1870, by Mr. William C. Blodgett, of a collection of paintings of old masters. One hundred of these were bought in Brussels and seventy-four in Paris. The pictures are authenticated as genuine and in good condition by two well-known European experts. Among these are many valuable specimens.
The museum received a grant of $15,000 for 1873. Its expenses for rent were $15,000; for wages and salaries, $5,500. Only about $1,300 were spent upon collections during the year. It had, however, to move into its present quarters.
Besides the Blodgett collection of pictures, it possesses two pieces of modern statuary and one marble bust. annual appropriation which has increased every year, Mr. Cole has created a museum of industrial art which is one of the joys of the whole earth. Of course, economists would sometimes start up in the House of Commons and oppose the grants to art as a waste of public money, and oppose the appropriation to the museum as extravagant outlay, which would bear no return. I say it with shame, also, that others opposed the expenditure upon the museum. Mr. Cole's answer to his critics was unique; and since it was given, no one has yet had the temerity to find fault. It was this: “Gentlemen, the nation has expended a certain amount of money in buying up majolica plates and Cellini vases, cabinets, and examples of art-workmanship in every material and style and period. If it repents of its bargain, I am prepared to find a responsible committee to take the collection off the nation's hands at the price given for it, and pay interest and compound interest for the money which has been sunk.” This set the economists athinking and inquiring; and they found that so well had purchases been made, and so greatly had masterpieces of industrial art increased in value, that, if the collections were brought to the hammer, the nation would be unnumbered thousands of pounds in pocket, besides having increased the value of its own industrial manufacturing products by about 50 per cent. through the influence of art-culture and the examples displayed in the museum. Since then little has been heard of waste of public money by investing in objects of art for public purposes.—(Art-Education, Scholastic and Industrial.)
The Di Cesnola collection of antiquities, from the Isle of Cyprus, * now belonging to Mr. John Taylor Johnston, is deposited with the museum and has been arranged by Gen. Di Cesnola himself. “It occupies the whole of the eastern side of the building, including the conservatory and the passage which connects it with the picture-gallery on the ground-floor.” This collection comprises some one thousand pieces of sculpture, some twelve thousand specimens of ceramics, and about two hundred pieces of gold and silver ornaments.
MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS, BOSTON, MASS.
Next in importance and in promise stands the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, incorporated in 1870. The twelve corporators who were named in the act, and, in addition, three persons to be annually appointed by each of the following corporations: Harvard College, the Boston Athenæum, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and, ex officio, the mayor, the president of the board of trustees of the public library, the superintendent of public schools of the city of Boston, the secretary of the State-board of education, and the trustee of the Lowell Institute, were made a body corporate, by the name of the Trustees of the Museum of Fine Arts, for the purpose of erecting a museum for the preservation and exhibition of works of art; of making, maintaining, and exhibiting collections of such works; and of affording instruction in the fine arts. The trustees were authorized to hold real and personal estate for the aforesaid purpose to the value of one million dollars. In a pamphlet containing the act of incorporation, by-laws, &c., published in 1870, “the objects of the Museum of Fine Arts” are stated by the trustees to be
“ist. To make available to the public and to students such art-collections already existing in this neighborhood as the proprietors of such collections may see fit to deposit in a suitable building to be arranged for the purpose, under such general provision as to the custody and exhibition thereof as shall be agreed upon, with the sole view to their greatest public usefulness.
“2d. To form in this way the nucleus of what may hereafter become, through the liberality of enlightened friends of art, a representative museum of the fine arts in all their branches and in all their technical applications.
“3d. To provide opportunities and means for giving instruction in drawing, painting, modeling, and designing, with their industrial applications, through lectures, practical schools, and a special library.
* « The Cypriote antiquities were discovered by Gen. Louis Palma di Cesnola, an Italian nobleman by birth, a graduate of the Royal Military Academy of Turin, a soldier of the Italian revolution of 1848, of the Crimea, and of our civil war. In 1865 he became an American citizen, and was appointed consul to Cyprus." He became convinced that Cyprus, as, a central point of the meeting of the old civilizations, must contain valuable relics; and, proceeding to inform himself as fully as possible in relation to the history of the island and the probable location of its ancient cities, he commenced a series of explorations, which have resulted in the most remarkable “ findings” of buried treasures from sites of old cities and from tombs, of which last at Golgas he opened eight thousand. “These treasures consist of coins, glass, statues, inscriptions, bas-reliefs, bronzes, jewelry, terra-cotta vases, and pottery. Here were found the first known works of Phenician art and some of the most interesting vases the modern world has yet seen.” “This collection is the result of seven years' explorations and researches on the island.”