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shown that the only difference between a carver of good leaf-capitals and the producer of heroic human sculpture is in the amount of his knowledge and power."'*

So much space has been given to a description of this building of the National Academy of Design, because it is in itself an exponent of the ideas and purposes of the artists composing the members of the academy. It furnishes an example of the results possible when artistic methods are used; and, whatever may be the verdict upon the building itself, it is certain that, if we are ever to have in this country any school of architects and builders and any worthy buildings for any purpose, it can only come in pursuance of the system adopted and described by the architect of this building. When every child in the public schools is taught to draw, then it may be possible to have artisans who shall also be artists and workmen who will be capable of, and delight in, putting beauty into their work.

YALE SCHOOL OF THE FINE ARTS.

Next in importance as a training-school for artists is the Yale School of the Fine Arts, a department of Yale College, New Haven, Conn.

This department was founded by the late Augustus Russell Street, of New Haven, who erected, upon the college-grounds, a massive stone building, with ample galleries for the exhibition of art-collections and with commodious classrooms and well-lighted studios. Mr. Street endowed the department with $250,000, of which the sum of $200,000 was expended in erecting the building. The objects of the school are set forth as “ ist, the educating of practical artists; 2d, the furnishing of men, desiring a liberal education, an acquaintance with the practice, principles, and history of art, by means of practical work and lectures." The faculty of the school, in addition to President Porter, consists of the following professors : John F. Weir, N. A., M. A., professor of painting and director of the school; D. Cady Eaton, M. A., professor of the history of art; John H. Neimeyer, professor of drawing; Frederick R. Hovey, instructor in geometry and perspective. The chairs of sculpture and of architecture are yet unfilled. There were twenty-four lectures upon the principles, means, history, and philosophy of art given during the course. The lectures of Professor Eaton were finely illustrated from his large and admirable collection of photographic transparent slides, by means of which Greek temple, Gothic cathedral, or ancient statue is at once reproduced

* I am indebted to the courtesy of T. Addison Richards, esq., corresponding secretary of the National Academy of Design, for a copy of the pamphlet edited by him and “published by the order of the council," containing the account of the history of the academy, the description of the ceremonies at the laying of the corner-stone, and the full description of the building by the architect, from which I have compiled the preceding summary of the history of the academy, &c.

+ It was a part of the plan of this paper that it should be accompanied with illustrations of the several art-buildings, giving both the elevations and ground-plans. The Academy of Design, New York; the Brooklyn Art-Association building; the Art Museum, Boston; the Pennsylvania Art-Academy's new building in Philadelphia ; and the Corcoran Art-Gallery, Washington, were desired; but, finding that suitable plates of all these buildings cannot be obtained, it has been thought best to give up any attempt at illustration.

with an effect beautiful and startling—an example of how modern art may be made to illustrate that of the ancients.

The course of study is based upon progressive methods with the human form, as is the practice in the best schools of art in Europe. “It affords the special-art-student a thorough acquaintance with the practice and theory of art and combines with this a knowledge of its history and philosophy. It aims to embrace the widest possible field of usefulness in connection with the knowledge and promotion of art and offers facilities to the art-student that are unsurpassed by any art-school in the country.” Many of the students of the Sheffield Scientific School, another department of the college, are also students in this department. There were one hundred and four students in all in the art-department. The art-building contains two large picture galleries, admirably arranged and lighted. In one is a historical collection of the early Italian school of painting, numbering one hundred and twenty examples, known as the Jarves collection, now the property of Yale College. The Trumbull collection of paintings, by Col. John Trumbull, which is very rich in portraits of revolutionary heroes, is in the other gallery. There are some twenty other paintings belonging to the college, and about one hundred casts of some of the best antique statues, and a few marble statues and busts. There is also the cast from the bronze gates of the Baptistery at Florence, by Lorenzo Ghiberti. This reproduction, made at Kensington, is very grand. The great doors are placed at one end of the gallery containing the Jarves collection. An annual exhibition is held in the summer, when the permanent collection is increased by a loan-collection of pictures contributed by the leading American artists or by private owners. These annual exhibitions have been very attractive and successful. “The proceeds are devoted to the purchase of casts and material adapted to instruction in the school.”

PENNSYLVANIA ACADEMY OF FINE ARTS.

Philadelphia possesses the oldest art-academy in the country. This originated in a meeting held in the year 1805 in Independence Hall, by some seventy of the leading citizens, forty-one of whom were lawyers.

An act of incorporation of the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, obtained from the legislature, was approved by the governor March 28, 1806.

This act recites the erection of a building as then in progress; states that “it is the manifest interest of free governments to cherish and encourage institutions of such nature;” authorizes the use of a common seal and the holding of real estate not to exceed the value of $2,000 yearly rental; provides for the election of a president and twelve directors, and names the persons then holding these positions. The first president, George Clymer, was one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence.

The building, long one of the notable objects of interest in the city, was situated on Chestnut street, between Tenth and Eleventh streets. It was a stuccoed building, in Greek style, with a portico supported by a couple of simple Ionic pillars, and was set back from the street in a little court-yard, which gave it an air of seclusion, in pleasant contrast with the crowded citystreet. Some classic vases and antique statues and busts in the yard and under the portico sufficiently indicated its purpose. Within were stored many valuable and curious works of art.

Before the charter had been obtained, the members of the academy had written to the American minister at Paris, asking him to procure for them, through the courtesy of the Emperor, a collection of the casts from the antique statues then stored in the Louvre. Through the energy of Nicholas Biddle, then, at the age of eighteen, at Paris, as secretary of legation, a very desirable collection of some fifty objects, including copies of the most famous statues, was forwarded early in 1806. In March of that year, these casts having been received and the building finished, the first exhibition was opened by an address from President Clymer. The first of the regular annual exhibitions, however, which have continued so many years, was held in 1811. Judge Hopkinson delivered the oration. The receipts from admission during the season of six weeks amounted to $1,860.

The receipts from admission to the academy's collection have sufficed for many years for the support of its free schools of art. By purchase from time to time, and by gifts, the academy gradually accumulated a most valuable collection of casts, of paintings, and of statuary.

In 1845 the building was greatly injured by fire, and many of its art-treasures, among them a noble Murillo, of undoubted authenticity, were destroyed.

The building was repaired, new art-works were purchased and were given from time to time, and the institution increased and prospered. The academy possesses some 256 casts from the antique, a gallery of ancient and modern paintings of about 150 pictures, some fine pieces of modern sculpture by both European and American sculptors, and a very valuable art-library. It became evident that, if its growth were to keep pace with that of the city and its facilities for teaching with the demand, it must provide for itself ampler quarters. A movement for this purpose was undertaken, and an advantageous sale of the property on Chestnut street was effected, at the price of $140,000.

A supplement to the act of incorporation, modifying the old charter, was obtained from the legislature in February, 1872, and accepted by the stockholders.

The amended charter confers full power to establish art-schools and galleries, to publish books and other works, and,“ by such other methods as in their judgment may seem proper, to promote the knowledge and enjoyment of, and cultivation in, the fine arts in the city of Philadelphia.”

It repeals the previous limitation as to amount of real estate to be held and authorizes the corporation to receive all“ gifts, legacies, and devises” of works of art or of money or of lands given for the purpose of promoting art. It provides for issue of 10,000 shares of stock at par value of $100 each and for the redeeming of the previous stock at rate of $25 per share. The by-laws provide for the establishment of schools and for annual exhibitions.

Through the energy of Mr. James L. Claghorn, president of the academy, large subscriptions of money have been obtained for the new building : 23 citizens subscribed $10,000 each ; 7 gave $5,000 each; 7 gave $2,500 each; and there are many subscribers of smaller sums.

In the arrangement of the new building, Mr. John Sartain, for many years the active secretary of the academy, has given the result of his long experience to secure the best possible facilities for students and also the best arrangement of the galleries for exhibition.

The corner-stone of the new academy-building was laid with appropriate ceremonies on Saturday, the 7th of December, 1872. A letter was read from the venerable Horace Binney, the sole survivor of the seventy who met in Independence Hall to form the academy in 1805.

The new building stands on the southwest corner of Broad and Cherry streets, with a front of yoo feet on Broad and a depth of 258 feet on Cherry, with a street on each of its three sides and an alley and open space most of the remaining side, so that it has abundant light and is free from risk of burning buildings. It is meant to be fire-proof throughout. It is to be built of brick, with stone dressings and sculptural decorations in terra-cotta. The front on Broad street will be imposing, with a grand central arched window above the main entrance and with large arched windows on either side the entrance. It will be further enriched with carved polished marble columns, with sculptures, basreliefs, and with ornamental tiles inlaid in mosaics. The architects' plan of the elevation shows a very noble and beautiful building, worthy to be the home of art. The architects are Messrs. Furness and Hewitt.

The building, with its fittings, will cost, it is estimated, $400,000. The land cost $100,000. The lower story is devoted to the uses of the schools, and is admirably planned, with every facility for drawing-, modeling-, and paintingclasses. Here the valuable collections of casts will be placed. A large hall is provided for lectures. The upper story is devoted to galleries, of which there are seventeen. One of these will be called the Gilpin Gallery and will be devoted to the works purchased by the income of the fund, now amounting to nearly $200,000, left for this purpose by Henry D. Gilpin, a former president of the academy.

Besides the collections formerly belonging to the academy, several additional collections have already been given, so that the academy will open its new galleries with much greater treasures than it had when it left its old hall.

The art-schools, which were formerly most flourishing, have been of necessity mostly suspended until the academy can occupy its new quarters, which will be by the close of another year, when Philadelphia will possess unquestionably the finest building devoted to art-purposes in the country and will offer to artstudents unequaled facilities.

It will thus be seen that the future of art-education in Philadelphia is most promising

COLLEGE OF FINE ARTS, SYRACUSE UNIVERSITY.

The Syracuse University, under charge of Chancellor Winchell, has, during the past year, opened the College of Fine Arts as a department of the university, in which it is proposed to give a thorough training both in the theory and practice of art. The course includes free-hand-drawing, architectural drawing, oil-painting, photography, with lectures upon the general principles of esthetics, art-literature, history of the fine arts, classical mythology, and Christian archæology. The faculty consists of George A. Comfort, A. M., dean and professor of esthetics and history of the fine arts; Archimedes Russell, professor of architecture; Joseph Lyman Silsbee, A. M., professor of architecture; Henry C. Allewelt, professor of decorative art ; Sandford Thayer, professor of painting; George K. Knapp, professor of painting; the chair of drąwing is not filled at this date; Ward V. Ranger, professor of photography. At present, courses in architecture and painting only have been organized, but it is proposed to include instruction in all the fine arts.

The beginning of an art-collection and of an art-library has been made. With the aid of a very powerful lantern, Professor Comfort illustrates his lectures by transparencies of the chief buildings and works of art.

Although lacking, as yet, the ample foundation which the Yale Art-School possesses, it aims at similar purposes and results.

Several of the colleges of the country have introduced some instruction in the history of art and have made a beginning in the way of an art-collection, believing that some knowledge at least of the history of art was requisite if their graduates were to possess an education that could be properly termed liberal.

HARVARD UNIVERSITY.

Harvard University, at Cambridge, Mass., possesses a very valuable artcollection in the Grey collection of engravings, given it by Francis Colley Grey, of Boston, in 1856, who also provided means to defray the expense of its care and increase. The endowment-fund is now $19,155.49. This collection comprises about 6,000 choice engravings by the most eminent Italian, Dutch, and German masters. Many of the prints have been photographed, and sets of these photographs can be purchased and are very desirable. The collection is in charge of a curator and is deposited in one of the rooms in the college-library.

UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN.

The fine-arts-collection of the University of Michigan was commenced in 1855. It comprises a gallery of casts from the Louvre and from Berlin; some two hundred reductions and models in terra-cotta and other materials, specimens of antique art mostly, from the Musée Bourbonica, Naples; architectural engravings and photographs from Greece and Italy; the Horace White collection of historical medallions, comprising, first, 450 casts from antique gems in the Royal Museum at Berlin, illustrative of ancient history; secondly, over 500 casts illustrative of medieval history and of the renaissance-period; thirdly, about 400 medallion-portraits of leading personages in modern history. There are also two modern statues by Randolph Rogers, “ Nydia” and “Ruth Gleaning ;" several copies of modern statues, busts, and reliefs by Michael Angelo, Canova, Thorwaldsen, and others.

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