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DRAWING ALREADY INTRODUCED INTO SOME PUBLIC SCHOOLS.
In addition to the introduction of drawing in the public schools of Massachusetts, the free industrial-drawing-classes for adults, and the Normal Art-School
Carvings in ivory? Carvings in wood ? Ancient inscriptions in stone ? Same in metal ?
Ceramics, glass, &c.
Ancient. | Mediaval. Modern.
Paintings, engravings, &c.
Coins, gems, jewelry, &c.
(Specimens.) Gold and silver ware, ancient; medieval; modern ? Coins, Greek; Roman; Saxon and English; of other series ? Medals and medallions ? Gems ? Cameos ? Intaglios ? Jewelers' work, including enamels : ancient; mediæval; modern ?
(Specimens.) Illuminated manuscripts ? Rare specimens of binding and printing?
Specimens of armor and weapons; costumes; laces; tapestry; Chinese and Japanese curiosities ? North American Indian relics, &c.
(Signature of superintendent.)
of Boston, drawing has been taught in the public schools of quite a number of cities and towns in the different States of the Union, both east and west, so that many communities are familiar with the idea of its becoming one of the required studies in the public schools, and in this way a step has been taken towards the general introduction of industrial- and technical-art-training. In all the schools of science in the country, mechanical drawing, at least, is taught.
WORCESTER FREE INSTITUTE.
The Worcester Free Institute, at Worcester, Mass., "offers a three-years course of theoretical and practical training in those branches of knowledge that underlie the industrial arts. All students devote ten hours a week and the month of July to practice in the lines of their chosen profession. The mechanics work in the Washburn machine-shop; the civil engineers, in the field and in the office; the chemists, in the laboratory; the architects and designers, in the drawing-rooms.” Admirable sets of models for drawing-classes are made by the pupils. Drawing in all its branches enters of necessity into these courses of study; and in the school of design, color enters largely, for these designs are for wall-papers, carpets, and all textile fabrics.
LOWELL FREE SCHOOL OF INDUSTRIAL DESIGN.
The Lowell Free School of Industrial Design, at the Institute of Technology, Boston, “is intended to train young men and women in practical designing for manufactures." There is also, in the Institute of Technology, a class of architectural design. These two classes of the institute have been before mentioned in connection with the annual exhibition of the drawings of the free industrial classes of Massachusetts.
WOMAN'S ART-SCHOOL, COOPER UNION, NEW YORK CITY. In the Woman's Art-School of Cooper Union, instruction is given in drawing, wood-engraving, painting, and photography. Instruction is free, the pupils providing all the materials at their own expense, except models or easels.
Admission is by application, with responsible references ; attendance, from 9 a. m. to i p. m. daily, except Saturday and Sunday. Strict compliance with the rules is expected. The school has no museum or collections. In the Free Night-School of Science and Art, Cooper Union, mathematics, chemistry, mechanics, and natural philosophy are taught, as well as architectural, mechanical, and free-hand-drawing, from copy, cast, and life; also, perspective and modeling in clay. The regular course embraces five years. Ladies are admitted to the classes in the school of science, but not in those of the school of art.
PHILADELPHIA SCHOOL OF DESIGN FOR WOMEN. The Philadelphia School of Design for Women-founded in 1847, incorporated in 1853—is under the charge of Miss E. Croasdale, a graduate of the Government Art-Training-School, South Kensington, London. There are two sessions annually of five months each. Classes meet daily, except Saturday and Sunday. The hours of study are from 9 a. m. to 2 p. m. The fee is $20 per session, in advance.
After premising that schools of design are essential in the present competition of skilled labor and that the arts of design are especially suitable for women, the objects of the school are thus stated:
"The aim, then, is the systematic training of young women in a knowledge of the principles and practice of the art of design, to develop and exercise their talents therein, and to qualify them for the practical application of art to the common uses of daily life and in the tasteful shaping and adornment of our manufactures.
“ The several branches of industry to which the skill acquired in our school may be applied are so numerous and varied that an attempt to particularize would expand far beyond our limits. Some are obvious, but it would be difficult to indicate a direction in which it is not in some way available and useful.”
“ The school is divided into three distinct branches of study, only one of which at a time is permitted to engage the attention of the student. They are :
“Class A. Ornament, with its subdivisions into sections.
“ In each class, a section is devoted to color'as applied to the different subjects studied. The order of studies is systematic, each step leading on to the succeeding one in regular progress.”
A supplementary class, for the practice of painting in oil, meets under the instruction of a competent professor three afternoons in the week. Tuition in this class is $20 a term.
This school possesses large cullections of material for art-study, comprising 330 casts from antique sculpture, 30 casts from examples in ornament, (antique, Byzantine, Saracenic, Gothic, and renaissance,) several thousand examples for study in the flat, paintings, prints, and drawings; also, an art-library, numbering 111 volumes.
SCHOOL OF DESIGN OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CINCINNATI.
The School of Design of the University of Cincinnati is supported from the fund bequeathed to the city of Cincinnati for the purpose of building, establishing, and maintaining two colleges for the education of white boys and girls by the late Charles McMicken, deceased in 1858. Under an act passed by the Ohio legislature in 1870, to enable cities of the first class to aid and promote education, the University of Cincinnati was founded, to be composed of such colleges and schools as the directors may from time to time determine.
The catalogue of the School of Design for 1873-'74 sets forth the purpose of the school as follows:
“SCHOOL OF DESIGN.*
“ The special aim of this school is not merely the study of painting and sculpture, but also the improvement of the industrial arts, by affording to the citizens of Cincinnati, and particularly to the operative classes, a thorough technical and scientific education in art and design, as applied to manufactures, thereby imparting to them such taste and skill in the form and finish of their works, whether large or small, as will always command remunerative employment and a ready sale for the products of their industry.
* Catalogue of the University of Cincinnati, 1873-'74, pp. 40, 41, 42.
“The advantages which will be derived from this school (if properly sustained by our people) can scarcely be overestimated. Schools of design, which in foreign countries (and in France especially) have long been liberally sustained at the expense of government, have given great superiority to their manufactures in many of the most important branches of industry. This is proved, not only by the results of the great competitive expositions, but by the contents of our own stores and shops. There can be no doubt but that the workmen of this country possess a fertility of invention and an expertness in the application of their knowledge which will enable them to excel in whatever they have the opportunity of thoroughly learning.
“The course of instruction in this school is intended to continue four years and has been framed upon a plan which the best practical experience proves to be necessary to that high degree of excellence which alone can command success.
"COURSE OF INSTRUCTION.
"First year. “Training of the eye and hand commenced by drawing lines straight and curved; drawing from the flat, (or plates,) beginning with simple forms and progressing to the more complex, (such as parts of the human face, head, and figure,) and terminating with the entire figure, from the flat; shading from flat examples; perspective and anatomy; with illustrations on the blackboard.
“Second year. “Drawing and shading from round and solid models; drawing and shading from casts (from nature) of flowers and fruit, and from casts of ancient, medieval, and modern architectural ornaments; lessons from the human figure in its parts and entire, from plaster-models and casts of antique statuary in the gallery of the school; composition and design, according to the proficiency of the student.
“Third year. “Lessons in drawing the human face and form from life; anatomical drawings of the human form; drawing animals, birds, flowers, &c., from nature; composition and design continued, including (for those who desire it) study of color in its various applications, and any branch of the special studies which may be provided for in the school.
“Composition and design and special studies, continued.
“(To be provided for as fast as the resources of the school will permit and in such order as the board shall direct.)
“1. Painting in oil.
“5. Decorative design; designs for patterns for furniture, textile fabrics, oil-cloths, and paper-hangings; ornamental work in metals; wood-carving, &c.
“6. Architecture in its principles and history; also, architectural designs, including plans, elevations, and perspective drawings for buildings; working-drawings for the guidance of mechanics, &c.
“7. Mechanical and scientific drawing, (for machinery, bridges, &c.)
Pupils are admitted free, preference being given residents of Cincinnati; (non-residents may be admitted if there is room.)
Applicants must be fourteen years of age, must give evidence of certain preliminary education, and must be recommended by two responsible persons.
The terms begin on the third Monday of September and close on the second Saturday of June, with a week’s vacation at Christmas.
Sessions are held on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, from 9 a. m. to i p. m., and on the evenings of the alternate days, from 7 to 9 o'clock. A public exhibition is held at the close of each term. Prizes are awarded for superior merit to each class at the close of each term. These awards are made by a jury of three competent persons. One school is under the charge of Mr. Thomas S. Noble, teacher of drawing, with Messrs. W. W. Woodward and William H. Humphries, assistants.
The catalogue of pupils in the school of drawing and design during the year 1873–74 gives the names of 319 students—214 males and 105 females. During the past year a new department, that of wood-carving, has been added to the studies of the School of Design, under the superintendence of Mr. Benn Pitman.
“The opportunity thus afforded to students who had attained some proficiency in drawing to put artistic designs into permanent form has been eagerly seized, and wood-carving has been prosecuted with an earnestness and intelligence that has been alike gratifying to the students and friends of the school.
"Instead of confining the students to an indefinite repetition of the forms adopted by other people and periods, an attempt has been made, by studying, copying, and adopting the infinitely varied forms of beauty to be found in our woods and gardens, and treating them naturally or formally, according to their position and employment, to develop what perhaps might not inappropriately be regarded as pure American art, that is, an art-expression representing the thought and culture of this age and nation.”
One hundred and twenty-one pupils attended this department—97 females and 24 males.
The catalogue of the sixth annual exhibition of the School of Design, June, 1874, contained a list of 604 specimens of the work of the pupils, divided as follows:
Antique class, (day,) 46 specimens. Most of the day-pupils are ladies. Antique class, (night,) 50 specimens. Most of the night-pupils are males. Flatclass, (day,) 112 specimens. Flat-class, (night) 70 specimens.
Original designs, 18 [for cabinet-work, book-covers, frescoes for ceilings, card-case, napkin-ring, store-front, bridge, &c.]
Ornamental design, 29 specimens, of " studies of the character of lines ;" 43 specimens of “elementary studies for decorative design ;” 167 specimens of wood-carving, illuminated lettering, &c.; 68 specimens of “ drawings and paintings from life."
Speaking of the exhibition of specimens of ornamental design the committee remark :
“The course and the object to be attained in the special instruction in the art of ornamental design:
“ 1. Study of plant-form, consisting of how to treat flowers, buds, ferns, leaves, branchingfruit, &c. “2. Analysis of form, character of lines, general principles and construction of ornament.