Annual Report of the Board of Education

1st-72nd include the annual report of the Secretary of the Board.


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第 67 頁 - ... city or town, having no lawful occupation or business, not attending school, and growing up in ignorance ; and...
第 184 頁 - One great object of. the school is to foster a higher appreciation of the value and dignity of intelligent labor, and the worth and respectability of laboring men. A boy who sees nothing in manual labor but mere brute force despises both the labor and the laborer. With the acquisition of skill in himself, comes the ability and willingness to recognize skill in his fellows. When once he appreciates skill in handicraft, he regards the skillful workman with sympathy and respect.
第 72 頁 - Every town may, and every town containing five hundred families, or householders, shall, besides the schools prescribed in the preceding section, maintain a school to be kept by a master of competent ability and good morals, who, in addition to the branches of learning before mentioned, shall give instruction in general history, bookkeeping, surveying, geometry, natural philosophy, chemistry, botany, the civil polity of this Commonwealth and of the United States, and the Latin language.
第 64 頁 - That the selectmen of every town in the several precincts and quarters where they dwell, shall have a vigilant eye over their brethren and neighbors, to see, first, that none of them shall suffer so much barbarism in any of their families, as not to endeavor to teach by themselves or others, their children and apprentices so much learning, as may enable them perfectly to read the English tongue, and knowledge of the capital laws, upon penalty of twenty shillings for each neglect therein...
第 59 頁 - the education of the human race," consisting in action, conduct, self-culture, self-control — all that tends to discipline a man truly, and fit him for the proper performance of the duties and business of life — a kind of education not to be learned from books, or acquired by any amount of mere literary training.
第 178 頁 - Free-Hand Drawing, designed to educate the sense of form and proportion: to teach the eye to observe accurately,. and to train the hand to rapidly delineate the forms either of existing objects or of ideals in the mind. 2. Mechanical Drawing, including the use of instruments; geometric constructions; the arrangement of projections, elevations, plans and sections; also the various methods of producing shades and shadows with pen or brush.
第 183 頁 - ... of various kinds. The particular shapes are given with the intent to familiarize the pupil with the customary styles and methods of construction. The different sizes of the same tool (chisels, for instance) require different care, and methods of handling; and the means of overcoming irregularities and defects in material form another chapter in the instruction to be given. With the introduction of each tool, the pupils are taught how to keep the same in order. They are taught that sharp tools...
第 181 頁 - The scope of a single trade is too narrow for educational purposes. Manual education should be as broad and liberal as intellectual. A shop which manufactures for the market, and expects a revenue from the sale of its products, is necessarily confined to salable work, and a systematic and progressive series of lessons is impossible, except at great cost. If the object of the shop is education, a student should be allowed to discontinue any task or process the moment he has learned to do it well....
第 158 頁 - The system of apprenticeship of the present day, as a general rule, amounts to very'little for the apprentice, considering the length of H O O r1 I time he must devote to the learning of his trade. He is kept upon such work as will most profit his employer, who thus protects himself. If the apprentice should be thoroughly taught all branches in the shortest time, he would be likely to leave as soon as he could do better, letting his employer suffer the loss of time devoted to his instruction. Now,...
第 196 頁 - The ancient guilds grew and acquired their legal status upon this usage as their very foundation, and a seven-years' apprenticeship formed the one necessary qualification for the possession of the right to exercise the following of any occupation or employment, art or craft, recognized among the handicrafts of the time. With the extension of trade and the wider use of machinery the number and power of the adult employed workmen increased, and with their increase of power came a jealousy, on the one...