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children in overcrowded rooms, but many children of taxpayers are excluded altogether from school privileges.

Augusta, which formerly reported for a school year ending in June, presents now a return for the calendar year 1884. This shows, by comparison with the figures last presented, a falling off of 203 in public school enrollment and of 5 in teachers, but an increase of $4,488 in expenditure for the city schools. These schools, according to the current Southern custom, are for both white and colored pupils, the two races, however, having separate accommodations. Roman Catholics, as well as Protestants, are included in the teachiing force, 6 of the city teachers being “sisters” of the Roman Church. The schools are graded from primary to high, one of the two city high schools being for colored youth and graduating annually 8 to 10, who nearly all begin to teach. A normal class for these teachers is held by the superintendent every Thursday afternoon, and one for the white teachers every Tuesday afternoon. A special teacher of penmanship is employed, apparently for the whites alone, his instruction reaching through all the grades. The schools were, according to the return above mentioned, held for 177 days in 1884, in 10 buildings with 40 rooms, valued at $50,000. Besides the public school enrollment, there was an estimated attendance of 1,500 in private and church schools.

Columbus presents a decrease in school population and an increase in enrollment. The schools are graded. Drawing and penmanship are taught by the regular teachers, and music by a special teacher. The school session covered 188 days, in 6 buildings containing 33 rooms, with 1,460 sittings for study, valued, with all school property, at $67,500. Private schools enrolled 300 pupils, leaving, apparently, 1,491 children between the ages of 6 and 18 years not in any school.

Macon shows a falling off of 40 in enrollment and of 100 in average daily attendance in 1884–85. Private schools enrolled about 400 pupils, leaving 1,243 children between the ages of 6 and 18 years not in any school. The schools were taught 175 days, in 7 buildings, with 23 moms for primary schools, 9 for grammar schools, and 2 for high schools, furnishing in all accommodations for 1,520 pupils. Public school property was valued at $66,500.

It appears from the city report that, from want of funds, only one male teacher, the principal of the boys' high school, was employed, and that colored children to the number of several hundred in the southern half of the city were still unprovided for.

Savannah has its schools divided into primary, grammar, and high schools. The first and second combined cover 8 years, and high school studies, 4 years. Corporal punishment is allowed, but the superintendent, while not recommending its total abolition, wishes to see every possible restriction thrown around its use. He says that the work of the teachers has been efficiently done, and that the progress of the pupils for the year has given more than the usual amount of satisfaction. There was much need, however, of more room in the primary grades in both the white and colored schools. There was an increase of nearly 1,700 school youth, of 47 in enrollment, and of 890 in average attendance, while only one more teacher was employed. Public school property, including 7 buildings containing 3,010 sittings for study, was valued at $111,000. În private schools were about 1,000 pupils. PREPARATION AND QUALIFICATIONS OF TEACHERS.

GENERAL STATE REQUIREMENTS. Persons desiring to teach in the public schools of any county of the State must procure a license from the county commissioners, the grade to be determined by the qualifications exhibited. The licenses are of 4 grades. Those who on examination evince the highest degree of scholarship are entitled to a first-grade license, to continue in force 3 years; the next highest get a license of the second grade, continuing in force for 2 years; a third grade is for 1 year; a fourth for 6 months, entitling the holder to teach in subdistricts where children have made but little advancement in school studies.

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NORMAL SCHOOLS AND DEPARTMENTS.

Atlanta and Clark Universities, both for colored youths, present well-regulated courses of normal instruction, the former of 4 years, the latter of 3. The common and higher English branches are included, with Latin, drawing, and music, at Atlanta. It is supposed that some normal training is also still given in the North Georgia Agricultural College, as the faculty, by authority of the legislature, may grant licenses to students to teach in the public schools of the State without further examination. The school systems of Atlanta and Augusta, and perhaps of other cities, have normal classes for the benefit of teachers, meeting weekly throughout the year. Paine Institute, Augusta, opened in 1884, offers a 4-year normal course for colored students. Twelve Georgia scholarships were provided for in 1884 in the Southern Normal School, Nash

ville, Tenn., by the agents of the Peabody fund, the incumbents of these positions to teach in the schools of Georgia at the completion of their course.

For statistics of normal schools reporting, see Table III of the Appendix; for a summary of same, a corresponding table in the report of the Commissioner preceding.

TEACHERS' INSTITUTES. In 1884 there were 3 State institutes held, each continuing 4 weeks, at Dalton, Macon, and Norcross, with an aggregate attendance of 179 white and 103 colored teachers. The institute at Macon is said to have been a success, but the others fell far below the proper standard, from the fact that the common schools in the counties where they were held were in session during the entire term of the institutes. For sustaining these institutes the trustees of the Peabody fund gave $2,000. The State school commissioner recommends that the legislature make an annual appropriation of $1,600 to further such ineans of instructing teachers, and that the public schools be closed during the institute term, so that teachers may attend the exercises.

SECONDARY INSTRUCTION.

PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOLS.

The State law makes no provision for the maintenance of schools of this grade of instruction, but such schools are found in Atlanta, Augusta, Macon, Savannah, and some other cities. Atlanta has one high school for each sex, with a 4-year course for girls and one of 3 years for boys; these schools in 1884 graduated 33 from the full and 7 from the partial course. Tubman High School for girls, Augusta, graduated 22 in the same year, and the colored high school for both sexes, also in Augusta, 10. At Hephzibah, 14 miles from Augusta, in Richmond county, is another high school, conducted in all essentials like the Tubman school. Macon and Savannah each have a high school for each sex, those of the former city graduating 21 girls and 17 boys in 1885, and those of the latter 21 girls and 8 boys in the same year.

OTHER SECONDARY SCHOOLS. For statistics of private academic schools, preparatory schools, and preparatory departments of colleges, see Tables VI, VI and Ix, and for business colleges, Table IV, of the Appendix; for summaries of the same, corresponding tables in the report of the Commissioner preceding.

SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION.

COLLEGES FOR YOUNG MEN OR FOR BOTH SEXES. The University of Georgia, Athens, in its academic (collegiate) department (Franklin College) continued its courses in arts, science, and letters, leading, ordinarily in 4 years, to the degree of A. D., Sci. B., or Ph. B., with an A. M. degree for such students as take, with other studies, all the junior and senior ones of the 10 schools embraceci in the academic department. These departments include Latin language and literature, Greek language and literature, modern languages, belle-lettres, metaphysics and ethics, mathematics, natural philosophy and astronomy, chemistry, history and political science, ar i natural history and geology.

For other studies, see "Scientific and professional instruction,'' further on.

Since 1883 the university has had, from donation of Governor Joseph E. Brown, the Denetit of a scholarship fund of' $50,000, drawing 7 per cent. annual interest, and entitleil the “Charles McDonald Brown scholarship fund,” in memory of a deceased son of the governor who had been a student at the University, said to have been of fiue intellectual and business capacity, and the soul of honor and integrity. The scholarsuistiom this fund are to go, at the rate of $50 to $200 annually, to students of gooil moral character, apt to learn, of reasonable health, and ambitious to prepare themselves för useiulness; each recipient binding himself to repay, as soon as practicable, the sums received, with interest at 4 per cent. from the close of the year in which each payment came to him.

Other collegiate institutions reporting are Atlanta University and Clark University, Atlanta; Mercer University and Pio Nono College, Macon; and Emory College, Oxford. these have 4-year classical and preparatory courses. Atlanta and Clark Universities, for colored youth, give normal and industrial training, teaching young men the elements of agriculture and mechanical trades, and giving young women instruction in nursing, sewing, and general housework. Both have instruction in music, and Clark University ofrers a business courge. Emory College has schools of business, music, telegraphy, and toolcraft and design. (i reel: enters into the first 3 years of the collegiate course, and Hebrew into the junior and senior years. Pio Nono offers, in addition to the usual col

legiate course, a scientific and commercial course, and also a graduate course leading to the degree of A. M. Bowilen College, of more doubtful rank, because imperfectly reported, offers primary, preparatory, collegiate, and normal studies, and has daily mili, tary drill for boys and exercises in calisthenics for girls.

INSTITUTIONS FOR THE SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION OF YOUNG WOMEN. Atlanta and Clark Universities and the branch agricultural colleges at Dahlonega and Milledgeville offer instruction to both sexes. For statistics of schools exclusively for young women, see Table VIII of the Appendix; for a summary thereof, a corresponding table in the report of the Commissioner preceding.

SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL INSTRUCTION.

SCIENTIFIC.

The State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, Athens, offers courses, each of 4 years, in agriculture, engineering,' and applied chemistry, with a partial course in architecture and building. Some scientific instruction is given also in the branch agricultural colleges of the State University at Cuthbert, Dahlonega, Milledgeville, and Thomasville, and in Atlanta and Clark Universities. Special scientific courses of 3 years are found in Emory and Mercer, and in Pio Nono one of 4 years.

PROFESSIONAL.

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TAEOLOGICAL studies are very fairly included in the courses of Clark University (Methodist) and the Atlanta Baptist Seminary, both in Atlanta and both for colored students; while in Mercer University, Macon (Baptist), and at Emory College, Oxford (Methodist), there is for whites a similar inclusion of such studies in the collegiate course. At Clark the instruction in this line was under 3 professors, with 46 students in 1884–85, part of them taught by correspondence; at the Atlanta Baptist, under 4, with 35; at Mercer, under 1, with 3 students. At Emory the indications are that the theological training was simply an adding of biblical and Hebrew studies to the collegiate course of such students as were preparing for the ministry.

Systematic theological training in a 3-year course, meant to follow a collegiate one, was continued at the Theological Seminary of the Southern Presbyterian Church, at Colombia, where were, in 1884-'85, 41 students, 3 of them in a special course.

Paine Institute, Augusta (Methodist Episcopal), was opened in 1884 for the training of golored preachers and teachers.

LEGAL instruction is found in the Department of Law of the University of Georgia, Athens, in a 1-year course consisting of two terms. Students may at any time enter either class, junior or senior, if prepared; but to graduate they must remain at least one term of 6 months. Common, statute, and constitutional law enter into the course, special attention being paid to equity, its jurisdiction, principles, ond practice. Lectures are given on medical jurisprudence and parliamentary law, and every Saturday is devoted to practical exercises in conveyancing, pleading, the discussion of legal points, and the holding of moot courts. Graduates are admitted to the bar of the superior courts of the State without further examination, and to all other courts of the State except the supreme court, if properly vouched for as of good character.

Emory College and Mercer University offer each a 1-year course of legal training, and graduates are admitted to practice in the State without further examination.

MEDICAL.—The Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, a department of the State University, the Atlanta Medical College, and the Southern Medical College, Atlanta, all“ regular,” give in 1884-'85 their usual 2-year courses of from 20 to 24 weeks each year. A 3-year graded course is recommended, but not required. The aggregate number of students for the year was 254; graduates, 103.9 No requirements for admission, but for graduation students must pass the final examination satisfactorily.

The Georgia College of Eclectic Medicine and Surgery, Atlanta, formerly the Georgia Eclectic Medical College, offers a 2-year course of lectures, of about 21 weeks each. Daily quizzes are held by the faculty. Each member of the senior class is required to present, orce a week, a thesis on some subject already covered by the lectures, and defend the same. No requirements for admission, but a thorough final examination in the branches taught in the college is said to be required. There were 70 students enrolled in 1884-'85, and 13 graduated.

1 Besides the 4-year engineering course, which leads to the degree of Eng. B., there is a special higher course cf 1 year for graduates of the former. This prepares for the degree of civil engineer. At the first mentioned, 77 matriculates, 34 graduates; at the second, 88,38; at the third, 89, 31.

SPECIAL INSTRUCTION.

EDUCATION OF THE DEAF. The Georgia Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, Cave Spring, in 1884–85 had 96 pupils, of whom 65 were white and 31 colored, all under 6 instructors, 3 of them semi-mutes. Common English branches were taught, with natural philosophy, zoology, and penmanship, the method of instruction being manual and oral combined. The boys are taught gardening and shoemaking; the girls, sewing. The school was founded in 1846, since which time 377 pupils have received instruction. The institution owns 57 acres of land, valued, with buildings, at $10,000. State appropriation for the year, $17,000. Expenditures, $15,814.

OTHER SPECIAL INSTRUCTION.

Of the educational work of the Georgia Academy for the Blind, Macon, there is the same lack of information that has been noticed in 4 preceding years.

For training of orphans in school studies and industries, see Table XXII of the Appendix.

EDUCATIONAL CONVENTIONS.

STATE TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION. It is supposed that this association was duly held in 1884, but there is no reference to it in the State report for that year, nor has information respecting it reached the Bureau from any other source.

CHIEF STATE SCHOOL OFFICER.

Hon. GUSTAVUS J. ORR, State school commissioner, Atlanta.

[Sizth term, December 31, 1884, to December 31, 1886.)

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a This is the number of days in the Illinois school year, instead of the 100 days of some States.
6 This is the number of buildings occupied by schools.
c Escluding the funds of the University of Illinois.
d Excluding the value of the property of the State educational institutions.

(From the published report of Hon. Henry Raab, State superintendent of public instruction, for 1883-'84, and from statistics for 1884-'85, furnished by him in advance of publication.)

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