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ance of pupils. The constitution of the State expressly permits the enactment of laws to prevent parents and guardians from allowing their children to grow up in ignorance. When it is considered how much has been spent in the erection of school buildings, and how much is annually expended for the payment of teachers' salaries and other educational purposes, and when it is considered how far the social and economical welfare of the State depends upon the education of its citizens, it seems but reasonable that some effort should be made to induce parents to grant their children the benefits of an education. Some authority will very probably be needed, because of the fact that education is least appreciated by those who stand in greatest need of it. So long, however, as public sentiment remains as it is, it would be difficult to enforce such a law.

SCHOOL FUNDS.

With the exception of a few hundred dollars, all the money expended for school purposes is raised by taxation. The whole amount was $62,456 more than in the previous year. Nearly one-half of the school funds was derived from levies made by cities, counties, and districts. There is great need of additional funds to lengthen the school term and to increase the salaries of teachers, for it can not be expected that teachers of a high order will be content with an annual salary of $150 or $175; but, on account of the financial difficulties of the State, it is impossible to increase the rate of taxation, especially in the rural communities.

TEACHERS.

There are many teachers in Virginia who will compare very favorably with those in any section of our country in all that constitutes an adequate moral and intellectual equipment for the schoolroom. In intellectual force, in scholastic attainments, in general culture, in elevated personal character, in tact, energy, earnestness, and enthusiasm, and in a clear comprehension of the great ends to be reached by education, there are many entitled to high rank. There are many who, at no inconsiderable sacrifice, readily avail themselves of every means and every opportunity within their reach to improve themselves in their profession. But there is another class of teachers quite different from the one just described. May y of them are incompetent and careless, and only think of the pay to be received. It would be well if a larger number of persons who had received a collegiate or higher education than that given in the public schools " were employed. At present only 1,030 out of 7,423 teachers are graduates of incorporated institutions. A collegiate education “broadens the mental horizon, gives higher ideals, elevates character, tone, and purpose.” To obtain the higher education, however, requires several years of study and the Óutlay of considerable money. Those who have made these sacrifices can usually obtain positions paying much better salaries than those of teachers.

As States become more thickly populated and their citizens better educated the proportion of female teachers increases. The delicate sensibilities and sympathetic nature of woman render her peculiarly fitted for taking charge of small children, and it is often found that she can discharge the duties of more responsible positions equally well.

SUPERVISION.

It is a recognized fact that in many of the schools the teachers are incompetent or inexperienced, that they are unacquainted with the new and improved methods, and that the children can not there acquire high ideals of school work. It is impossible to obtain a full supply of efficient and intelligent teachers under existing conditions. There are two normal schools for white teachers and two for colored teachers, but these can not at all supply the necessary number, even if they were entirely devoted to training teachers for their special work. It is possible, however, to obtain a full supply of competent supervisors. Although some persons seem to regard the work of supervisors as of little advantage, there can be but little doubt that a capable, active, and skillful county or city superintendent can do much towards elevating and improving the schools in his charge. It is very important that he should have had some experience as a teacher himself. In counties where there are more schools than one person can supervise, inspectors might be appointed to visit a number of schools.

PHYSIOLOGY AND HYGIENE.

It is recommended that instruction in physiology and hygiene be given in the schools, as it is very important that children should know something of the structure of the human body, and how it can be kept in a condition of health and vigor. Many of the teachers employed at present would not be qualified to give such instruction, but if it were included among the subjects of examination they would soon become acquainted with it. The instruction should not be given entirely from text-books, but by familiar talks upon important subjects connected with the preservation of health.

COURSE OF STUDY.

In some of the States there has been adopted a uniform plan for the organization and classification of ungraded schools, as well as a regular, systematic, and progressive course of studies for each grade. By this arrangement teachers can enter upon their work by a uniform plan, and there will be a continuous progression of pupils from year to year without regard to changes of teachers.

ARBOR DAY.

In twenty-six States and Territories Arbor Day is now observed, and in seven others the school officers will bring the subject to the attention of the legislatures. The observance of such a day would be of great value in different ways. Many trees would be planted about schoolhouses and at the homes of pupils, children would be instructed as to what kinds of trees it is best to plant and how to plant them; but, what is better, their attention would be called to the importance of preserving forests and to the benefits to be derived from them.

WASHINGTON.
[From Report for 1888–89 of Superintendent J. H. Morgan.]

STATISTICAL SUMMARY.

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POPULATION AND ATTENIDANCE. |
Children of school age.::::......:.....:............................................. - 59,833 72,723 I...... 12,890
Number enrolled in public schools... 38,673 46,751 I........8,078
Average daily attendance...........::.......................... .................... 25, 235 29, 247 I........ 4,012
Average term of schools, in months............................................ 4.6 3.6 ..................
TEACIIIERS AND SALARIES.

Number of men teaching. - - - - - - - - 455 -
Number of women teaching .. 830 -

Whole number .................. . ... - 1, 285 I... Average salary of men per month .... - - - - $45.69 7.66 I........#1.97 Average salary of women per month ....... - - - - - - - - - - - 37.80 39.67 I.........1. 87

SCHIOOLHOUSES. Number built during the year ............ - - - - - - - - - - - - 106 126 I............20 Whole number of schoolhouses........ - - - - - - - - 926 1,044 I........... 118 Estimated value of schoolhouses............... ................................. $722,388 $1,094, 462 I...$372,074 EXPENDITURES.

Teachers' salaries ..................................................... $239,588 $314,594 | I.....375,006 Sites, buildings, and furniture ......................... - - 66,753 272,900 | I.....206. 147 Rents and repairs..................................... ..... --- I 16,695 21, 123 I.......,4,428 Fuel and other expenses......................... 36,963 46,494 I........ 9,531 Total expenditures...................................................................... 364,723 655, 111 | I.....290,388

In order to afford some idea of the educational progress made in Washington, Superintendent J. H. Morgan reports the statistics of different years from 1872 to 1889; but while it may be necessary to return to that year to secure sufficiently long steps or strides in educational data to satisfy enthusiasts of Washington, whose energies are bent upon securing a fortune in the time ordinarily spent in erecting a good school building, and who expect the school system to keep pace with the rapid material progress of the newly-created State, it is only necessary to compare the statistics of 1887 with those of 1889 to satisfy conservative citizens. Even then we find that some of the most important items have doubled, and others more than doubled. In 1887 the whole amount spent for school purposes was, in round numbers, $300,000; in 1889 it was $600,000. In 1887 the value of the schoolhouses was $500,000; in 1889 it was $1,000,000. In the same time the number of children of school age increased from 47,000 to 72,000, the enrollment from 32,000 to 46,000. As the school population and enrollment are increasing so rapidly it is necessary that the other items show a corresponding increase; otherwise there would be a retrogression in the privileges of the individual pupils. As the public-school lands are now available, a large annual income may hereafter be expected from this source.

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One difficulty heretofore has been to find a sufficient number of experienced and capable teachers. Many of those who were qualified were making the position a mere stepping stone to something better, while others were not qualified. This difficulty is being rapidly overcome, however, as is shown by the report of many county superintendents that there was a scarcity of competent teachers in the early part of the year but that during the summer a great many arrived from the Eastern States. There are other ways in which this scarcity can be overcome, as the requiring teachers to attend institutes, reading school journals, refusing to issue a third-grade certificate to a person the second time, forming teachers’ reading circles, and raising the standard of examinations.

The county superintendents report that the law requiring the teaching of temperance and hygiene is very fully and cheerfully complied with, but that the compulsoryattendance law has no effect Whatever.

CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS OF THE STATE OF WASIIINGTON RELATING TO EDUCATION.

ARTICLE VI.-Flections and elective rights.

SEC. 2. The legislature may provide that there shall be no denial of the elective franchise at any school election on account of sex.

ATICLE IX.-Education.

SECTION 1. It is the paramount duty of the State to make ample provision for the education of all children residing within its borders, without distinction or preference on account of race, color, caste, or sex.

SEC. 2. The legislature shall provide for a general and uniform system of public schools. The public-school system shall include common schools and such high schools, normal schools, and techmical schools as may hereafter be established. But the entire revenue derived from the commonschool fund and the State tax for common schools shall be exclusively applied to the support of the common Schools.

SEC. 3. The principal of the common-school fund shall remain permanent and irreducible. The said fund shall be derived from the following-named sources, to wit: Appropriations and donations by the State to this fund; donations and bequests by individuals to the State or public for common schools; the proceeds of lands and other property which revert to the State by escheat and forfeiture; the proceeds of all property granted to the State, when the purpose of the grant is not specified or is uncertain; funds accumulated in the treasury of the State for the disbursement of which provision has not been made by law; the proceeds of the sale of timber, stone, minerals, or other property from school and State lands other than those granted for specific purposes; all moneys received from persons appropriating timber, stone, minerals, or other property from school and State lands other than those granted for specific purposes, and all moneys other than rental recovered from persons trespassing on said lands; 5 per cent. of the proceeds of the sale of public lands lying within the State which shall be sold by the United States subsequent to the admission of the State into the Union, as approved by section 13 of the act of Congress enabling the admission of the State into the Union; the principal of all funds arising from the sale of lands and other property which have been and hereafter may be granted to the State for the support of common schools. The legislature may make further provisions for enlarging said fund. The interest accruing on said fund, together with all rentals and other revenues derived therefrom and from lands and other property devoted to the common-school fund, shall be exclusively applied to the current use of the common Schools.

SEC. 4. All schools maintained or supported wholly or in part by the public funds shall be forever free from sectarian control or influence.

SEC. 5. All losses to the permanent common-school or any other State educational fund, which shall be occasioned by defalcation, mismanagement, or fraud of the agents or officers controlling or managing the same, shall be audited by the proper authorities of the State. The amount so audited shall be a perimanent funded debt against the State in favor of the particular fund sustaining such loss, upon which not less than 6 per cent. annual interest shall be paid. The amount of liability so created shall not be counted as a part of the indebtedness authorized and limited elsewhere in this constitution.

t ARTICLE XIII.—State institutions,

SECTION 1. Educational, reformatory, and penal institutions; those for the benefit of blind, deaf, dumb, or otherwise defective youth; for the insane oridiotic; and such other institutions as the public good may require, shall be fostered and supported by the State, subject to such regulations as may be provided by law. The regents, trustees, or commissioners of all such institutions existing at the time of the adoption of this constitution, and of such as shall thereafter be established by law, shall be appointed by the governor, by and with the advice and consent of the senate; and upon all nom£ #le by the governor the question shall be taken by the ayes and noes and entered upon

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ARTICLE XVI.-School and granted lands.

SECTION 1. All the public lands granted to the State are held in trust for all the people, and none of such lands, nor any estate or interest therein, shall ever be disposed of unless the full market value of the estate or interests disposed of, to be ascertained in such manner as may be provided by law, be paid or safely secured to the State; nor shall any lands which the State holds by grant from the United States (in any case in which the manner of disposal and minimum price are so prescribed) be disposed of except in the manner and for at least the price prescribed in the grant thereof, without the consent of the United States. SEC. 2. None of the lands granted to the State for educational purposes shall be sold otherwise than at public auction to the highest bidder. The value thereof, less the improvements, shall, before any sale, be appraised by a board of appraisers, to be provided by law. The terms of payment also to be prescribed by law, and no sale shall be valid unless the sum bid be equal to the appraised value of said land. In estimating the value of such lands for disposal, the value of improvements thereon shall be excluded: Provided, That the sale of all school and university land heretofore made by the commissioners of any county or the university commissioners, when the purchase price has been paid in good faith, may be confirmed by the legislature. SEC. 3. No more than one-fourth of the land granted to the State for educational purposes shall be sold prior to January 1, 1895, and not more than one-half prior to January 1, 1905: Provided, That nothing herein shall be so construed as to prevent the State from selling the timber or stone off of any of the State lands in such manner and on such terms as may be prescribed by law: And provided further, That no sale of timber lands shall be valid unless the full value of such lands is paid or secured to the State. SEC. 4. No more than one hundred and sixty acres of any granted lands of the State shall be of. fered for sale in one parcel, and all lands within the limits of any incorporated city or within two miles of the boundary of any incorporated city, where the valuation of such lands shall be found by appraisement to exceed one hundred dollars per acre, shall, before the same be sold, be platted into lots and blocks of not more than five acres in a block, and not more than one block shall be offered for sale in one parcel. SEC. 5. None of the permanent school fund shall ever be loaned to private persons or corporations, but it may be invested in national, State, county, or municipal bonds.

WISCONSIN.
NEW LEGISLATION.

Among the laws of 1889 relating to the public schools are the following: 1. Authorizing school boards to purchase and place in each schoolroom a flag of the United States, and to provide for its preservation. 2. Authorizing the State superintendent (a) to prescribe rules for management of school libraries; (b) to publish and distribute circulars, bulletins, and courses of study for ungraded and for high schools, with needed comments thereon. 3. Amending the town-school library law; (a) authorizing town treasurers to withhold an amount equal to 10 cents for each person of school age in the town; (b) authorizing town clerks to purchase books with the money withheld by town treasurers from the school-fund income; (c) providing per diem for town clerks for time spent in connection with school libraries; (d) authorizing the State superintendent to suspend the law in any town for any year. 4. Forbidding the enumeration in school districts of any child residing in or held or cared for at any charitable or penal institution in the State, and authorizing the State superintendent to take special means to prevent such enumeration. 5. Making provision for annual distribution of 5,000 mounted railroad maps of the State among the public Schools. 6. Repealing the provision requiring the School districts applying for a loan from the trust funds of the State to vote a tax equal to one-half of the loan applied for, to be collected in two years. 7. Authorizing the governor annually to designate a day to be observed as a treeplanting or Arbor Day. 8. Authorizing the State superintendent to appoint a supervisor of free high schools to assist in organizing and inspecting such schools. 9. Appropriating $1,000 annually to maintain a summer school for teachers in connection with the University of Wisconsin. 10. Providing that the full sum of $50,000 may be annually used in maintaining free high schools. 11. Providing for compulsory attendance at school of children between seven and fourteen years of age for at least twelve weeks annually, and relating to employment of Such children. This law is given in full on pp. 507–9.

CHAPTER XXIV.

REPORT OF THE GENERAL AGENT OF EDUCATION FOR ALASKA TO THE TERRITORIAL BOARD.

LETTER TRANSMITTING THE REPORT OF THE GENERAL AGENT TO THE COMMISSIONER OEN EDUCATION.

TERRITORIAL BOARD OF EDUCATION.
Sitka, Alaska, December 16, 1889.

SIR: The Territorial board of education in Alaska has the honor of transmitting to you the annual report for 1888–89 of the general agent of education in Alaska, with the following recommendations:

First. That the Territorial board be authorized to appoint at their discretion local school committees, and that the present methods be so changed that the local and incidental expenses of the schools can be audited by the local committees, and that salary vouchers can be paid upon the certification of the general agent, or, in his absence, of the district superintendent, that the service has been rendered according to the agreeInnent.

Second. That the United States Commissioner of Education be recommended to contract with some missionary society for the establishment of a boarding school at Point Hope, Alaska.

Third. The Territorial board of education, at their session August 30, 1889, having recommended the appointment of a district superintendent for the Sitka district, do hereby recommend to the United States Commissioner of Education as a suitable person for that position the name of the Hon. James Sheakley, United States commissioner at Fort Wrangell, and a member of this board. And the board further recommends that his salary be $400 per annum, together with necessary traveling expenses.

Fourth. The Territorial board of education, considering it important that the general agent should visit San Francisco and Washington for the furtherance of Alaska educational and other interests, do hereby request of the United States Commissioner of Education that his necessary traveling expenses be allowed.

Fifth. That the United States Commissioner of Education be recommended to contract with the Moravians for the establishment of a school at Togiak, Alaska.

Sixth. That the United States Commissioner of Education be recommended to establish schools and erect school buildings at Belkofsky, Yakutat, Prince William Sound, and some point on Cook’s Inlet, to be hereafter selected.

By order of the board.

LYMAN E. KNAPP,

President. SHELDON JACKSON, Secretary. Hon. W. T. HARRIs, United States Commissioner of Education. 753

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