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TABLE 2.—Age for free attendance at the public schools; school census, mainly for 1889 compared with the preceding year.

School census.

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| | or | * State or Territory. fre'ttend. Between Number enumerated. Per cent- ance whatages.-- I' Or age of inenumer- i ø. eCrease. Crease or deated. 1888. 1889. "crease. - - - - - -- - - - - --------- - -- - - - - - - : - - - - - - - - - I | 2 || 3 || 4 || 5 6 7 —"—---------...----—'— --- - - • l Per cent. United States............ ...: , ..... • *** ****** |“............: 1........ ..a2.17 North Atlantic Division....................... 2. South Atlantic Division...... '... - - - - - - - - - - - | South Central Division.......................................'........ North Central Division...... t Western Division............... North Atlantic Division: ! Maine........................... 4-21 212,064 New Hampshire 5-21 (b) Vermont........ - - 5–20 (c) Massachusetts... ... No limit. e367,785 Rhode Island..... ..; 5upWards. * Connecticut........ - 4-16 157, 243 New York....... - 5–21 5–21 1,772,958 1,803,667 New Jersey.................. 5-18 5-18 d374,011 e387, 847 Pennsylvania.............. 6-21 [...... - (c) (c) South Atlantic Division: Delaware.................... - 6-21 6-21 gh.42,680 i43,538 Maryland........... - - - 6-21 ............... (c) (c) District of Columbia..... f6-17 f6-17 51,500 h52,590 Virginia................- 5-21 5–21 hk598,962 g610,271 West Virginia.............. tj-21 6-21 256,360 258,934 North Carolina. 6-21 6-21 d566,270 e580, 819 South Carolina 6-18 ............... (c) (c) - - Georgia 6–18 6-18 560,281 h569,375 I Florida............ tj-21 6-21 113,647 h119,090 South Central Divi Kentucky......... - 6-20 6-20 d656, 897 c664,967 I........ 8,070 I........... 1.23 Tennessee...................., 6-21 6-21 d640,014 e652, 508 I........ 12,494 | I.......... 1.95 Alabama....................... 7–21 7–21 h503,770 522.691 I......h18,921 I......... m3.76 Mississippi.................... 5–21 5–21 |.................. d463,964 Louisiana..................... 6-18 6–18 d335,603 e336, 137 Texas...... - 8-16 8-16 528, 110 545,616 Arkansas...................... 6-21 6-21 388,129 404,379 | North Central Division: : Ohi --- 6-21 6–21 | 1,097,242 1, 120,537 Indiana........................ 6-21 6-21 756,989 | 770, 875 I 1.83 Illinois .. - 6-21 G-# 1, ###| 1, #: 1.38 Michigan - 5-20 5–20 629,923 640,069 1.61 Wisconsin..................... 4-20 4-20 567,702 576,967 1.63 Minnesota..................... 5-21 "............... (c) i (c) Iowa. ...... * - 5–21 5–21 639,248 649,606 Missouri....................... 0–20 , 6-21) : 852,430 ; 8:5, 364 Dakota......................... | 7–20 7–20, d108,240 elić, 129 Nebraska..................... 5–21 5–21 298,006 : 316, 805 Kansas.................. - 5–21 5–21 532,010 524, 206 Western Division: i - Montana....................... 4–21 4–21 d23, 165 : c27,600 Wyoming.....................' 6-21 ............... | c) i i ( ) Colorado ....... - | 6–21 6–21 76,212 : 85,824 New Mexico .................' 5–20 5–20 | (b) (b) Arizona 6–18 6-18 hi 10,261 d10,303 Utah 6–18 6–18, 54,953 58,482 Nevada... # 6–18 9,716 9,789 Idaho ...........................' 5-21 5-21 . d19,994 : 624,071 Washington........... # 3i #3; # , 56.8% Oregon.......................... 4–20 4–20 86. 571 . 93,098 California..................... : 6-21 5-17 270, 500 275,302 Alaska......................... ...'..........” "... | @" | Tö a Only the States tabulated in the same column i In 1886. below are included in this summary. j Average annual rate of increase from 1880 b School census imperfect. to 1888. c No school census. k In 1884. d In 1887. l Average annual rate of increase for five e In 1888. years. d f Inclusive. in Average annual rate of increase from 1887 g In 1885. to 1889.

h Approximately.

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TABLE 3.—Average daily attendance in common schools, mainly for 1888–89, compared with same for the preceding year, with the enrollment and with the teaching force.

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Average daily & # 5 | ### 5 = tendance. r: -- "3 i £3.3 | # 2 'S - 8: Q -: , E- - *-* * ~ : *- : " : o # # * : #3: = z: State or Territory. 2 : ## 5 2:###| 2 #5 - oo on e- # 3 # £5.5 = | ### 1887–88. 1888–89. c: Q 5 : : ; # 5 - 3 | < 2.5 s Q # * 5 # 5 - ~ : # ": l * # * : ; 3....'. 2 Q*- : l > 5 : 5 £53: $53 E A- | < | < I 2 $ 4 5 e 7 | | Per cent United States a........................ 7. 904,207 8,004, 275 I...100,038 I...... 1.27 65.1 U26.0 North Atlantic Division........... "P. 006, 748 2, 035,251 I... 28, 503 I...... 1.42 67.2 b29.4 South Atlantic Division.................... 1,072,985 1,090, 188 I... 17,203 I...... 1.60 #7 South Central IDivision.............. ... 1,404,219 1,468,794 | I... 64,575 I...... 4.60 68.6 b28. 1 North Central Division .......... 3, 140,011 3,099,845 I). 40, 166 D..... 1.28 t;2.8 b23.1 Western Division.............................. 280,244 310,197 I... 29,953 I......10.68 65.2 | b27.8 North Atlantic Division: r 1. Maine......................................... 100,121 98,641 New Hampshire.. ..] 44,877 : 43,484 | Vermont ................ ... c.45,705 d 16,061 Massachusetts ......... ............ ..... 264,723 270, 851 Rhode Island............ ... 33,583 : 33, 803 Connecticut............ .....; 81.098 82,382 New York ............ - - - 630,595 63:,487 New Jersey.................... ............ c131, 867 (1135, 187 Pennsylvania. - - *- 674, 179 687,355 South Atlantic Division: i Delaware............. * * * * * * * * * * * * * - ce21,565 d21,271 Maryland......................... ..... 94,976 99,220 District of Columbia....... - 26,512 27,619 Virginia. ...................................... 189,416 195,52. West Virginia ............................. 122,020 : 119,990 North Carolina......... ... c.196, 119 d208,657 South Carolina ... 139,557 136,358 Georgia..... ... f226,290 g217,896 : Florida .............."............... - - 56,530 63,652 South Central Division: | Kentucky h ........ - - - - 221,019 222,554 : I..... 1,50: Tennessee i......... - . c.292,029 d203,969 I - | 170, 896 i 172.101 : I..... 1, 205 I...... 7 | Mississippi. 184,018 193,119 I..... 9, 101 I...... 4.95 | Louisiana..... ..f30, 107 g90,551 I.....10,444 I...... 13.04 Texas e ... . . c.323,320 d340,000 : [.....16,680 , I...... 5. 15 Arkansas c... 132,800 | 141,500 I..... 8,700 I...... 6.55 North Central D : i Ohio...........................................] 529,719 530,492 : I..... 773 I...... . 15 68.3 Indiana........... ... - - - 408,775 : 350,752 ; D ...58, ()23 D.....14.19 7.0 ............... Illinois.................... 518,043 : 500,736 D...17,307 D..... 3.34 65.6 l............... Michigan 6................................... 280,930 , 279,900 D... 1,630 | D..... . 38 56. ... 3 Wisconsin ............................ ...... e181, 100 186, 891 I.....e5,791 J...... c3. 19 | .7 Minnesota ................................... 126,468, 111,641 D...14,827 D.....11.72 Iowa........ 291,070 : 304, 856 I.....13, 876 : I..... 4. 74 MissOuri 377.562 376,977 D. '525 | D. i4 Dakota ....................................... ce50,900 d53,211 I....c2,311 I......c4.54 Nebraska - -- 129, 6: 159, £2 #.30,069 1:...23. #9 | Kansas....................................... 245,881 244,697 D... 1, 184 D..... . 48 i Western Division: | 1. i Montana e ................ - - - c8,200 d8,600 I..... 400 I...... 4.88 Wyoming e. - - j3,300 c3,750 I. 450............... Colorado :::::::............................. 31,516 $3,567 ||..... 4,' I...., 12.86 New Mexico e.............. - - f10,370 g12,300 : [..... 1,930 I.....k18.60 Arizona............................. ce3,452 d3,849 I... . . c.397 I.....el 1.51 Utah...... 18,375 eig, 750 I.....c1,375 1...c7.43 Nevada . c5,316 d5, 149 D... , 167 19..... 3.14 Idaho e ............... - - - - 6, 780 8,210 I..... 1, 460 I......21.54 Washington... - - - £3, #3, #3,247 1...e4,012 ||.....i.18:34 ! Oregon .......... 35,473 40,012 : I..... 4,539 I...... 12.80 California.... 133,337; 113,733 i.ii.5% i 3.70 Alaska. e.................. - - - - - - - - - - - - 4. "...” - - 38.5 l..... --- : | a Excluding Alaska. g In 1888.

b This summary embraces on y the States tab

ulated in the same column below.
c In 1886-87.
cl In 1887–88.
e Approximately.
fIn 1887.

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Average daily attendance. - The average number of pupils attending the common schools, according to the returns made to the Bureau, was 8,004,275, there being a total gain of 100,068 over the corresponding reports of a year previous, or at the annual rate of 1.27 per cent. This rate of increase was less than that of the enrollment, 1.83 per cent., which indicates a decreased regularity of attendance. In fact, the average number of pupils attending for each 100 enrolled was reported last year as 65.7; this year, 65.1. The number of States showing a decrease of average attendance is remarkable. Six States of the North Central Division-Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, and Kansas-report a decrease in average attendance simultaneously with an increase of enrollment. In the States of that division there was a net decrease in average attendance of 40,166; and the average number attending for each 100 enrolled fell from 65 to 62.8; the enrollment itself increased 80,486. This condition of affairs, especially in Indiana, is anomalous and naturally suggests imperfections in the statistics as reported, especially as all the remaining divisions show an increased ratio of average attendance over the preceding year. Yet the circumstance that so many of the North Central States are affected and participate in this abnormal decline, points to some agency tending to diminish school attendance in that section of the Union not yet brought to the notice of the Bureau.

TABLE 4.—Total attendance in days upon common schools, mainly for 1888–89, compared with the enrollment; average length of public-school year in days, mainly for 1888–89, compared with same for preccding year.

Average | Average : Increase | # |'' Of '' or de• **** *-*- : * ~ * number of days' at- ays the crease State or Territory. days' attend- tendance of public since preance. a each pupil schools ceding enrolled. were kept: year. I | 2 s 4 5 | | Days. Days. Days. United States b........ --- - - - - - - 1,076,613,716 87.6 134.5 I.......c.9 l North Atlantic Division.... 334.352,532 110.5 164.2 | D... .2 South Atlantic Division .......... - - ... 109,378,042 63.9 100.3 | I.... c. 6 South Central Division........ - 133, 107,785 62.2 90.6 I.... c. 6 North Central Division... ........ - - - - • * * * * 456,659, 757 92.5 147.3 | I... 1.2 Western Division.................................................... 43, 115,600 90.7 139.0 ! I... c.7.6 North Atlantic Division: Maine.............................. 10,998,471 . 76.9 111.5 D... .. 5 New Hampshire... - ---- 5, 111,490 . 85.0 113.9 | D... .6 Vermont d.................................... • - 6,310,409 | 92.2 137 D.... 2 Massachusetts........, - - 46, 315,521 127.5 171 I..... 2 Rhode Island.......... - - 6,523,740 125.7 189 D... 2 Connecticut...... ... - - - - - - - - - - 1 14, 855, 122 116.9 180.32 I..... 1.24 New York........ - - - - - - - 115, 314,096 111.6 178 D... 2 New Jersey d. •- -- - - 25,955,904 | 115.7 192 I..... 2 Pennsylvania.................. - - - 102,905,779 107.9 149.8 I..... .2 South Atlantic Division: | Delaware d...................................................... 3, 470,657 106.6 161 I.....c1.5 Maryland................................... - - 18,454,920 ! 102.8 186 : I..... 2 District of Columbia..................... - 4,986.012 . 139.4 181 | D... 2 Virginia......... .......................... - - 23, 267,475 69. 1 119 | 0 West Virginia............................... - 12,238,980 65.3 dić . . p. 5 North Carolina d.... 13,228,854 39.2 63.4 I:... 3.4 South Carolina........ 9, 272,344 47.7 68 D... 4 Georgia.f.......................... - - - 14,911, 000 : 46.4 c68.4 ............. Florida............................... * - - - - 9,547, 800 111. () 150 i. 10.7 South Central Division: t Kentucky.......................................................... 20,920,076 63.2 94 0 Tennessee d............................... 24, 408,551 55.9 79 I..... 2 Alabama.......................... - 13,036,651 48. 3 75.75 I)... 3.7 Mississippi.... - - - 17, 628, 764. 55.2 (191 I..... 7 Louisiana f........... 8, 421,243 67.1 93 1..... 3.6 Texas.................. ... -- d38,080,000 ('86.3 112 D... 4.2 Arkansash....................................... - - - - : 10,612,500 49. l. 75 l........ -

a When not reported the aggregate attendance in days has been obtained by multiplying the average daily attendance by the average number of days the schools were kept.

b Excluding Alaska.

c This summary does not include the States not tabulated in the same column below.

Q in 1887–88.

e Estimated.

fIn 1888.

g Country Schools only.

h Approximately.

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TABLE 4.—Total attendance in days upon common schools, etc.—Continued.

Average Average | Increase Aggregate number of number of or deTerri number of days' at- days the crease State or Territory. days' attend- tendance of public since pre all CC. C. each pupil i schools ceding enrolled. were kept. year. 1 2 $ 4 5 North Central Division : Days.

Ohio..................... 87,531, 180 112.6
Indian 46,299,264 88.5
Illinois... 80,041,817 104.9
Michigan. a42, 544, 800 100.4
Wisconsin, 30,795,046 89.3
Minnesota 14,066,766 51.4
46, 947, 824 96.0

53,266,590 87.1

5,640,366 60.1

18, 204, 888 78.4

31,321,216 77.2

M Ontana ".....","..........." *-*- 1, 092, 200 79.0

Wyoming.................................. ---- c 446,250 '.................. Colorado....................... - - - 6,046,390 101.9 New Mexico ef.................................... 703,560 42.7 Arizona b....................- - - - •- 519,615 78.5 tah....... •- * * * * * * * * * • * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * e2,666,250 77.9 Nevada b........................................... - - 75, 330 ; 116.5 daho................................................................. 659,200 52.0 Washington................................................... 2,690,724 57.6 Oregon..................................................... 4, 361, 308 76.9 California......................................................... 23,054,773 106.7 Alaska..................................................................... e72,000 e69.2

l

e Estimated.
f In 1888.
g Average increase for two years.

a Approximately.
b.In 1887–88.
c In 1886-87.
d In 1880.

Aggregate number of days’ attendance.—This is a fundamental quantity of great value for statistical purposes, which needs to be more generally considered. The data for directly obtaining it may be found on most school registers. It is only necessary to add up the number of pupils present each day to get the aggregate days' attendance for the year for any school. The aggregate number of days’ attendance of a school for a year divided by the number of days the school was kept during the year, gives immediately the average daily attendance of that school for the year. Here are two radical quantities of prime importance determined for each school, (1) aggregate attendance in days, and (2) average daily attendance of pupils, which may be consolidated for any number of schools by simply adding up. The city and country schools may be kept distinct, as well as the white and colored schools. When they have been consolidated for a township, for instance, the average number of days the schools have been kept in the townships may be directly obtained by dividing one of these quantities by the other. So for a county or State, and in any classification desired. How the aggregate attendance was obtained.—The aggregate number of days' attendance, as tabulated in column 2 of Table 5, has been obtained for each State, when not reported directly to the Bureau, by an inverse process, i.e., by multiplying the average daily attendance by the average number of days the schools were kept; this process of evolving a simple quantity from composite ones is obviously the reverse of the natural order, but was the only method that could be pursued in order to obtain it. The aggregate number of days' attendance upon the common schools of the United States, as obtained by this process of computation, is found to be 1,076,613,716, as given in column 2. This quantity is approximate, but may be considered sufficiently accurate for most purposes. How the length of the school term was summarized.—The summaries of column 4, Table 5, being the average number of days the schools were kept in the United States and in each of its divisions, have been obtained by the rule given above, i. e., the aggregate days’ attendance of the division in question or of the United States has been divided by its average daily attendance, This method, in effect, gives to each State or other aggregation a weight proportionate to its average number of pupils and not proportionate to its number of schools. The pupil is considered as the unit and not the school, as heretofore. Accordingly the large city Schools with their long terms have their due influence in determining the average school term; one of these schools may count as much as a score of country schools, as

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should be the case when it is so many times as large.

The general effect has been to

give the summaries of the average number of days the schools were kept in the present report larger values than previously. Such decidedly urban systems as those of Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, and the District of Columbia, especially, receive their due weight in making up the average.

There have been some considerable changes in the length of the school term of the individual States, in two cases exceeding twenty days, if correctly reported, and in four others between ten and twenty. The average change for the United States has been an increase of nine-tenths of a day.

TABLE 5.—Private school enrollment, mainly for 1888–89, compared with the preceding year; also, total enrollment in all schools, public and private, compared with the preceding year, with the private school enrollment, and with the population 6 to 14.

r- o * :- 9 * * -. 5 8 # O =# # | < | ### - - | £) - ! © - * * T5 :0 • us 2: 3 wn . 2 2 : : tre 2 : 3 ~ : 9 : 3. C & co- #3 5 ... * # 3 5 ‘57:3: ## ## ## F.2 £ P. ## ### - 2 : # 80 : T : #5 # * £ # £5.5 State or Territory. 5: 3.5 i 3 : - : "o.: a £ 5 3: £5 £5 9 : "S 2. : 5 i £3 .#33 '## £3 #3 | #5 £3 ## 5 #3. - © Q so Ś d". 9 : - *... t. " d # 5 Q: 3 : # 5. 2: o 3 + 3 5 - £10 – 23 <> p 2: 5 - * $2 3 * : * : - O = in $2 Q) ~5 ū P- # QP < *- : |: : 2- E- K- - : 1 2 $ 4 5 | 6 7 Ś Per cent. Per cent. | Per cent. United States......]1, 122,000 ........ I... a7. 10 | 13,413,259 i.................. I...a3.07 North Atlantic Division .......................... b432,000 i.................. I... a 9.86 || 3,458,460 !..................! I. al.21 G12.5 South Atlantic Divi- sion ......................... b98,000 i....... 1,809,082 a5.4 South Central Division b103,000 |.. 2 a4.6 North Central IDivision b453,000 |.. 5, 391,474 as, 4 Western Division........ b36,000 l * a 7.1 North Atlantic DiviSion: | Maine........ - •- I - **** •- *...: * - - - - New Hampshire ... 7,514 | I]..... 138 : I.2..... 1.30 D.. 2. • 11.1 Vermontc.............. 6,972 D..... 53 • * * , D.. 4. 9.2 Massachusetts ...... 7, 620 ! I...... 7, 530 I......25 I... 3. 9.4 Rhode Island.. 7,974 I)..... 912 I)... | D., 2.82 13.3 Connecticut... 18,269 : I...... 1,090 I..... I... 1.48 12.6 New York .... - 151,336 I...... 9,096 : 1, 185, 149 i I..... 9, 640 ! I... .82 12.8 New Jersey c......... 46,475 i I......8, 645 270,873 I..... 8,93 I... 3.41 17.2 Pennsylvania........!...... • * * * * * * * * 1 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * **** | * - - - - • * * * * * * | * * * * * * * * * * - - - - - - - - - --South Atlantic Division: I Delaware c............ 740 - - - - - 33,292 i......... .........'............“ 2.2 Maryland .............. * - * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *-* * * * * * - - - - - - - ..................'...............'........ ...... District of Colum- : - i i l ia c...... --- 7,900 '..................'......... - * 8.2

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a These summaries embrace only the States tabulated in the same columns below.
b Fstimate for the whole division on the basis of the States reporting.

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