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Occurrences During Printing.
SOME months are occupied in printing a volume so bulky as THE WORLD ALMANAC, and it is necessarily put to press in parts or "forms." Changes are in the mean time occurring. Advantage is taken of the going to press of the last form of the First Edition to insert information of the latest possible date, which is done below. The readers of the ALMANAC are requested to observe these additions, corrections and changes, and it would be well to make note of them on the pages indicated. 34. Table of Memorable Dates-Opening of Panama Canal to navigation not likely before May 1, 1914, owing to continued slides in the Culebra cut.
112. Parcel Post-On December 6 the Interstate Commerce Commission granted permission to the Post-Office Department to increase the weight limit for the first and second zones from twenty pounds to fifty pounds and to increase the weight limit in all the other zones from eleven to twenty pounds. The Commission approved reductions of rates in many of the zones.
192 and 450. Interstate Commerce Commission-Commissioner Marble died. His successor not appointed when ALMANAC went to press. Commissioner Prouty resigned.
194-209. Rallroad Systems of United States-William W. Finley, President of the Southern Rallway, died November 25. T. M. Emerson, President of the Atlantic Coast Line, died November 25. William C. Brown, President of New York Central Railroad, resigned and is succeeded by Alfred H. Smith.
210. Rallway Accidents, United States-During the year ended June 30, 1913, the casualties of all classes reported by steam railway companies were as follows: Train accidents, passengers killed, 181; injured, 8,662, other causes, passengers killed, 222; Injured 7,877, total killed, 403, Injured, 16,539; employés on duty, killed, 2,939; injured, 56,619; employés not on duty, killed, 362; injured, 1,178; other persons killed, 1,288; injured, 6,042; trespassers killed, 5.558 Injured, 6,310. Total accidents, involving train operation, 10,550 killed, 86,688 Injured; Industrial accidents to employés, not involving train operation, 414 killed, 11,620 injured. Grand total killed on steam railways, 10,964; Injured, 200,308; on electric railways killed, 422; Injured, 5,406. In fiscal year 1912, 10.585 persons were killed on steam railways and 169,538 injured. Fatal accidents on British railways in 1912 numbered 1,011, while 8,700 persons were injured. Consul-General Griffiths adds that fatalities were 59 less and Injuries 355 more than in 1911. 214. Railroad Speed-On November 25 a special train, consisting of a locomotive and two cars, ran from Washington, D. C., to Jersey City, 226 miles, in four hours, the fastest trip ever made between the two cities. 280. The New York State Legislature, at its extraordinary session early in December, passed a law providing for direct primaries; a law establishing the Massachusetts ballot system; a law providing for the direct election of United States Senators; a law providing for workmen's compensation; and a law providing for a special election in the Spring of 1914, to determine the question of whether or not delegates to a Constitutional Convention shall be elected in November, 1914, at the general election. Lastly, a law was passed to pay the expenses of the Sulzer Impeachment trial; the total cost of the trial being $169,000; of which the lawyers of the State were to be paid $60,000; the lawyers of ex-Governor Sulzer $40,000; the Managing Board $50,000, and there were incidental expenses amounting to $19,000. The sum of $1,600,000 was appropriated also, mostly to pay deficiences in State departments left by former administrations. 325. Running-A. A. U. Junior National Six-mile Cross Country Championship race, held at New York City, November 29, won by S. J. Leslle, Long Island A. C.; time-34m. 428.; second, G. Strobino, unattached, 34m. 49s.; third, A. Roth, Mohawk A. C., 35m. 14s. Team points: New York A. C., 26; Long Island A. C., 48; Mohawk A. C., 51. Senior championship race, same course and distance, December 6, won by A. R. Kivlat, Irish-American A. C.; time33m. 52s.; second, S. J. Leslle, Long Island A. C., 34m. 128.; third, W. Kyronen, unattached, 34m. 578. Team points: Irish-American A. C., 32; New York A. C., 32; Long Island A. C., 58. 336. Rowing-Princeton eight-oared varsity crew defeated Yale varsity eight in 1 5-8 mile race at Carnegie Lake, Princeton, N. J., by one length. Time-Princeton, 9m. 39 1-58.; Yale, 9m. 46 2-59. 347. Tennis-World's covered court championships, held at Stockholm, Sweden, November, final rounds. Singles-A. F. Wilding defeated M. Germot, 5-7, 6-2, 6-3, 6-1. Ladies-Miss H. Aitchison defeated Mme. Fenwick, 6-4, 6-2. Men's doubles-M. Decugis and M. Germot defeated H. Kleinschroth and C. Bergmann, 7-5, 2-6, 7-9, 6-3, 6-1; Mixed doubles-M. Decugis and Mme. Fenwick defeated G. Setterwall and Mrs. Fick, 7-5, 12-10. 352. Boxing-Jess Willard vs. George Rodel, ten-round draw, P. V., Milwaukee, Wis., November 17. "Gunboat" Smith defeated Sam Langford, twelve rounds, R. V., Boston, Mass., November 18. "Packey" McFarland defeated Harry Brewer, eight rounds, P. V., Windsor, Ont., November 26. Johnny Dundee defeated Charlle White, ten rounds, P. V., New Orleans, La., November 27. Joe Rivers defeated Leach Cross, twenty rounds, R. V., Los Angeles, Cal., November 27. Jess Willard defeated Carl Morris, ten rounds, P. V., New York City, December 3. "Packey" McFarland defeated Harry Tremble, elght rounds, P. V., St. Louis, Mo., December 5. Georges Carpentier knocked out "Bombardier" Wells, one round, London, England, December 8. Jack Britton defeated "Packey" McFarland, ten rounds, P. V., MIIwaukee, Wis., December 8. "Battling" Levinsky defeated Jim Flynn, ten rounds, P. V., New York City, December 9. Mike Gibbons knocked out "Wildcat" Ferns, two rounds, New Orleans, La., December 10.
381. Bicycle Racing-Six day bicycle race held at Boston, Mass., November 1-8, won by Joe Fogler and Iver Lanson, with 1,359 miles, 5 laps; second, Frank McNamara and Ed. Root; third, Percy Lawrence and Harry Magin; all tied at finish, decided by mile sprint race. Six day blcycle race held at New York City December 8-13, won by Joe Fogler and Alfred Goullet with 2,751 miles second, Magin and Lawrence; third, Root and McNamara; fourth, Drobach and Halstead; fifth, Verrl and Brocco; sixth, Hill and Ryan, all tied at finish, decided by mile sprint race. 401. Billiards-William Hoppe defeated Calvin Demarest in 18.2 balk line championship match, at New York City, November 17, 500 to 294 points. High run-Hoppe, 121; Demarest, 115; average, Hoppe, 21 17-23; Demarest, 12 18-23. Benjamin Allen defeated Charles Weston in pocket billiard (pool) championship match at Kansas City, Mo., December 3-4-5, 600 to 411 points. 426. Heads of Governments-On December 11 Dr. Arthur Hoffmann was elected President of Switzerland for 1914. President Victoria, of the Dominican Republic, resigned November 28.
OCCURRENCES DURING PRINTING-Continued.
427. Ministries of Principal European Countries-The French Ministry resigned December 2, and on December 8, Senator Gaston Doumergue, Radical-Socialist, succeeded in forming the following new ministry: Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs-Gaston Doumergue; Minister of the Interior-Rene Renoult; Minister of Justice-Bienvenu Martin; Minister of War-Joseph J. B. E. Noulens; Minister of Marine-Ernest Monis; Minister of FinanceJoseph Calllaux; Minister of Public Instruction-Rene Viviani; Minister of CommerceLouis J. Malvy; Minister of Public Works-Fernand David; Minister of the ColoniesAlbert F. Lebrun; Minister of Agriculture-Maurice Raynaud; Minister of Labor-Albert Metin. 540. College of Cardinals-Cardinal Oreglla died December 6. Cardinal Rampolla died December 16. 661. Record of Events-On December 15, by a vote of more than two to one, the House Immigration Committee favorably reported the Burnett Immigration bill, with its stringent provisions barring from entry into the United States all Asiatics, militant suffragettes, advocates of sabotage and anarchists. The literacy test, requiring altens to read or write one language, was also included. (See also "Immigration" on page 180.)
664. Death Roll of 1913-On December 5, Lieut.-Col. David du Bose Gaillard, director of the engineering work in the Culebra Cut division of the Panama Canal, died at Baltimore from cranial disease, aged 54 years. On December 6, Phoebe Couzins, first woman lawyer in the United States, died at St. Louis, Mo., from debility, aged 72 years. On December 6, Cardinal Luigi Oreglia, of the Sacred College, died at Rome, aged 85 years. On December 6, RearAdmiral Kossuth Niles, U. S. N. (retired), died at New York from heart disease, aged 64 years. On December 16. Cardinal Rampolla, of the Sacred College, died at Rome, aged 70.
The State of New Jersey in April, 1913, passed "An act to promote home life for dependent children." The first section of the act will give an idea of the general scope. "1. Any widow who is the mother of a child or children under the age of 16, and who is unable to support them and to maintain her home may present a petition for assistance to the Court of Common Pleas of the county wherein she resides."
In connection with country-wide discussion of the education and best development of the child has come within the past few years many definite steps for preserving to the child the benefits gained only from proper home influences. In the belief that separation of mother and child necessarily works to the detriment of the child's development, many States have enacted legislation that will enable mothers too poor to maintain their children, to keep them at home Instead of placing them in various institutions. This is being done through a pension or allowance system. Thirteen State Legislatures have passed these so-called "widows' pension" laws, the greater part of them within the last year. A number of cities have provided similar aid by municipal ordinances. The first bill introduced in the New York State Legislature passed the lower house, but failed in the Senate. In Illinois the provision, which is a section of the juvenile law, was passed two years ago, and went into operation July 1, 1911. California and Colorado followed. Since January 1, 1913, eleven more States-Washington, Utah, South Dakota, Idaho, Minnesota, Iowa, Nebraska, Ohio, New Jersey and Pennsylvania-have passed similar laws. In addition, Missouri has authorized Kansas City to adopt the system. Wisconsin, without definite enactment, has been conducting a similar enterprise in a limited way, and in three other States city ordinances or the powers bestowed upon State boards have established therein the principal of widows' pensions. Similar laws are now being considered by other States.
NOTIFICATION TO THE PRESIDENT-ELECT AND VICE-PRESIDENT-ELECT OF THEIR ELECTION.
THE DETERMINATION OF THE RESULT OF THE 1912 PRESIDENTIAL ELEC. TION WAS AS FOLLOWS:
Feb. 12, 1913, the two Houses being assembled in the Hall of the House of Representatives for the count of the electoral vote, and the count having been duly made and certified to, and the announcement thereof made to the two Houses assembled, the statement of the Tellers closed in these words:
This announcement of the state of the vote by the President of the Senate shall be deemed a SUFFICIENT DECLARATION OF THE PERSONS ELECTED PRESIDENT AND VICE-PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES, each for the term beginning March 4, 1913, and shall be entered, together with a list of the votes, on the Journals of the Senate and the House of Representatives.
"The count of the electoral vote having been completed, and the result announced, the joint meeting of the two Houses was dissolved; and "The Senate returned to its Chamber."
The Currency Bill.
THE main provisions of the proposed currency bills as perfected at the time the ALMANAC went to press by the two factions in the Senate Banking and Currency Committee, were as follows: The Democratic bill: Authors, Carter Glass, Congressman of Virginia, Chairman of House Committee on Banking and Currency, and Senator Robert L. Owen of Oklahoma. Eight regional reserve banks, governed by directors, of whom a majority shall represent the member banks. The stock to be subscribed by State and National Banks and Trust Companies. A Federal Reserve Board of nine members, including the Secretary of the Treasury, having power to remove any director or officer of a regional bank.
Redemption of circulating notes in gold and lawful money at any regional bank, or in gold alone by the Federal Reserve Board.
An Organization Committee to divide the country into regions and inaugurate the new system. The Republican and Hitchcock bill:
Four regional reserve banks, governed by nine directors, of whom the Government shall name
Organization Committee abolished and its work conferred on Federal Reserve Board,
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More people in this country are drinking our good, pure American wines than ever before. More people are learning how to use wines as they should be used, and that is-daily at table with our meals. This is the way wines are used all over Europe, where practically everyone-men, women and children-drink wine as freely as we do tea or coffee, and there you find the most temperate people in the world.
GOOD WINES FOR GOOD HEALTH Wine, the fermented juice of the grape, is one of the best natural aids known for good health. And why? Because, for one thing, you get in wine food elements which you do not get in any other beverage. For another thing, you get in wine mineral substances and fruit acids, all of which have medicinal properties of great and recognized value. Thus, the mineral elements of wines-the compounds of potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, iron and manganese-are combined in such a manner as to be absorbed by the blood, which in turn goes to nourish the various parts of the body. Then there are the fruit acids, such as tartaric, malic, citric and succinic acids. These acids have a stimulating effect upon the digestive organs, starting an increased flow of the digestive juices; they cause the decomposition of uric acid compounds, and by stimulating the liver, kidneys and other secretory organs, the fruit acids act the same as the best medicinal remedy. As an eminent authority has well said, all these facts combine to make wine one of the best-if not the best-diatetic beverages which, when properly used, will not only tend to conserve health, but even perform the functions of medicine. DIFFERENT KINDS OF WINE The three kinds are: Dry or sour wines; Sweet wines; Champagne or sparkling wines. A wine is called "dry" when the sugar in the grape juice has been fermented out, and then the fruit acids make it taste sour. At first some people find such wines a little too tart. A good way is to put a little water in the wine until you get accustomed to the dry taste. A wine is called "sweet" when more or less sugar remains in it. The sugar disguises, of course, the taste of the fruit acids. Sweet wines are often called after dinner or dessert wines, that is, they are generally used at the end of the dinner with the dessert and cake. Champagne is made by being bottled before the natural fermentation is finished and then, during a subsequent fermentation, the gas is absorbed by the wine in the bottle, so that when the bottle is opened the gas is set free and it produces that sparkling effect which is so pleasing to the eye and palate. American champagnes are now made by exactly the same process and with the same care and skill as the French champagnes. They are equal in every way to the latter and can be bought at half the price.
Those who would like to know more about our good American Wines should send for the following valuable booklets: "The Food Value of Wines," by Prof. E. H. Twight; "The One Best Drink-Wine," by Louis James; "Temperance with Drinking Wine," by Rev. R. D. Sawyer; "How to Use Wines," by L. J. Vance. Sent free by writing to the
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