« 上一頁繼續 »
bodies around us are so small, that the distance between mind: 'moral and religious impressions may be con those which are nearest is infinitely great compared veyed, and lessons of humanity taught, to many a cruel with their own size? We may, perhaps, make him heart. If the men of science who accompany the ex. learn, that a gnat when flying, beats the air with its pedition, have but moral culture and benevolent feelings wing a hundred times in a second ; but what will he commensurate with their physical learning,--and if the say, when we tell him that a wave of red light trem- officers and crews of the squadron be animated by the bles 482 millions of millions of times in a second, or a spirit which should distinguish men bound upon an wave of violet light 707 millions of millions of times errand so great as theirs,—the effect of their intercourse in a second. Yet these are things of which he may with the rude people of Polynesia and Australia, will satisfy himself; and surely to cultivate these pursuits, be unmixedly good-will be to soften, to humanize; to will tend to make him not only a wiser, but a better win over from brutality and utter prostration, to a beman.
coming sense of man's dignity, and a just regard for Finally, therefore, let me urge the pursuit of these his rights. Let them exemplify the beautiful and just objects upon you; there is no mystery around them— remark of the Edinburg Review, in speaking of Capt. but then there is no royal road to them. From the ex. Back’s northern journey: that “every line of march, perience of a few short years, I can recommend them traced by a civilized being through a savage land, is a to you as a pleasure in prosperity—a comfort in afflic-rocket or light, which, however rapid its course, still tion. You owe to the future a debt-prepare to pay leaves a few of its sparks behind." Let the progress it. Cultivate the intellect heaven has lent you, remem- of our countrymen through southern wilds be marked bering it is also the property of posterity. Know. by a light not transient or baleful; but steady, cheer ledge offers you wealth and power. Choose then whe- ing, beneficent.—4. Our own commercial interests in ther you will accept them.
those seas, will be promoted by the exhibition there of
our naval strength. For years past, our traders in the [The prize of the class was then declared to have been
gained South Pacific, have been subject to outrages undreamt
East Indies, and the crews of our whale-ships in the by Mr. William H. Goode, of Powhatan county, and was accordingly presented to him.)
of by their quiet countrymen at home. In many of the far southern islands-especially the smaller onesthe crews of our wrecked or captured vessels have repeatedly been murdered, or retained as bondsmen, by
the savage inhabitants: at this moment, many of our EXPLORING EXPEDITION
seamen, if yet living, actually groan in a cruel cap
tivity. In the East Indies,-on the island of Sumatra, TO THE SOUTH SEAS.
all must remember the massacre of two missionaries
from the United States, but three years ago; and the It is known to our readers, that, for a year or more, more extensive, though less horrible outrage, which had the United States Government has been preparing to previously called down the signal chastisement inflicted send out several ships upon a voyage of survey and on the natives by Captain Downes. It is but very observation, if not discovery, in the South Pacific and recently--within the present or the last year--that a South Atlantic Oceans. The squadron, consisting of rajah of that island, in revenge of a wrong, real or the frigate Macedonian, the brigs Pioneer and Consort, supposed, done him by the master of a vessel from and the storeship Relief, has now sailed from Hampton Salem, Massachusetts,-seized another master, an unRoads to New York, there to take on board its last offending man, imprisoned him, with numerous and item of equipment—an apparatus for warming the ships, horrid circumstances of barbarity, and extorted from in the far southern latitudes, to which they are destined: him a large indemnity for the wrong imputed to his and “in all the month of November," as the commander, countryman! It cannot be doubted, that the cruise of Commodore Jones, says in a letter now before us, he an imposing force among those lawless people, will imand his brother adventurers “will bid a long, long adieu, press them with a wholesome respect for our nameto their homes and their friends."
procure the restoration of many a captive to his The ends to be answered by this expedition, are family--prevent the repetition of outrage—and obtain various and interesting. 1. The physical sciences will us unnumbered advantages in all our future intercourse. be promoted: Geography-Botany-Natural History Such are some of the benefits to be expected, from Astronomy-Mineralogy-and half a score of others. this long contemplated expedition. May it realize How much remains yet to be done for geography in them all-nay, realize more than the largest hopes those seas, may be conceived from the fact asserted by have conceived !—The auspices under which it sets Commodore Downes,—that in the whole ocean, there out-despite some jarrings, traceable, we are sure are 500 islands actually visited by whale ships, yet not to the Commodore, as the North American Renot set down upon any chart, or else of doubtful loca- view thinks--the auspices are in the main propitious tion: besides some, doubtless, never yet visited by The outfit is handsome, and well nigh complete the white men.—2. Minute and extensive observations attendance of scientific men is ample—the minds of may be made upon language, manners, and character, officers and men are bent eagerly upon the enterprise. so curiously diversified in the vast and strange regions “ As a manifestation of the popularity of the expedition to be explored : and thus a new and clearer light be with the seamen,” says Commodore Jones, in the letter thrown upon several comparatively dark pages in the before alluded to,“ upwards of seventy of the best men great book of human nature.--3. Gleams of useful on board the Java Receiving ship for the Norfolk staknowledge may be imparted to many a benighted Ition, volunteered to join us the other day; but we could
find but one, among our number of over five hundred, who until after our arrival at New York, for which port we shall sail was willing to exchange ; consequently the seventy
at the close of the present week. volunteers were left behind, as we had already more
To the marines, who, like the hardy sailor, have ever been
found true to their country and to their duty, I would say, no dis. than we desired."
crimination will be made to their prejudice ; every indulgence Before sailing from Hampton Roads, the Commodore and every extra allowance granted to the seaman will in like caused the following spirited and animating appeal to manner be extended to the marine. be read to the crews, on board each ressel of the squad. deciding on the character of men according to their conduct.
The only discrimination which I shall tolerate will be that of ron. It was received, we are told, with the enthusiasm Were I to say, that discipline is to be relaxed or punishment natural to the exciting cause, and to the juncture. excluded from the ships and vessels of the squadron, I should
lead you into error, and excite expectations which would surely GENERAL ORDER-NO. 1.
lead you astray. In squadrons, composed of vessels of different To the Officers, Petty Oficers, Seamen, and Marines, composing rates and descriptions, it is not uncommon for many to feel, or
the Crews of the United States' South Sea Surveying and Ez- suppose themselves degraded by a transfer from one vessel ploring Expedition.
to another, or from a larger to a smaller vessel. This impres. After more than twelve months of most anxious suspense, I sion is erroneous, and must not be entertained; the crews of am at length enabled to announce to you, the pleasing intelli- each and every vessel of the South Sea Surveying and Explo. gence of the near approach of the day, when we shall take our ring Expedition, are all upon the same footing-all have signed departure for the distant and unknown regions of the Southern the same articles-all will be fed, clothed and treated alike, and Hemisphere.
as I before said, the only discrimination will be, the rewarding In the prosecution of the voyage we are about to undertake, of merit and the punishment of crime. there is everything to excite interest, to arouse patriotism and to
To you, gentlemen, whose commissions, the reward of long gratisy ambition. It is not only a national undertaking, in which and well tried services, afford such ample guarantee for the the hopes and ardent wishes of a great nation are involved, but faithful discharge of your several trusts in whatever new situa. towards the U. S. Surveying and Exploring Expedition, are tions you may be placed, I am sorry to say, our Government has turned the eyes of all Europe ; and your successful labors, it is not followed the example of those of Europe, which have sent out fondly anticipated, will not only secure great commercial bene. similar expeditions. To you no additional pay or emolument fits and enduring honor to your country, but will enlarge the has yet been offered--but believe not, that your privations will bounds of knowledge and diffuse the blessings of civilization be unrequited or your labors unrewarded. Although I am not and christianity among nations now unknown.
authorized to offer the officer any allowance at all commensurate But the attainment of the objects of our pursuit, will only be with the extraordinary expenses, which an outfit for this long the reward of strict discipline, perseverance, patient endurance, and arduous voyage must necessarily subject him to ; still, I can. and zealous effort in the prosecution of a voyage fraught with not for a moment suffer myself to entertain the most remote supdifficulty, hardship, toil and suffering. or ihis, however, all position, but that, should the results of our voyage only come of you were doubtless aware, before you entered your names
up to reasonable expectations, a generous people and a liberal and became members of an Expedition, the successful termina
Government will bestow upon us all honors and rewards com. tion of which will assuredly attach high and imperishable honor mensurate at least with the hardships we shall have encoun. to the name of each and every individual who shall faithfully tered, the toils we shall have endured, and the objects we shall discharge the duties of his station.
have attained. To meet and counteract as far as possible, the inconvenience I have said, that in the voyage we are about to undertake, and suffering consequent to a voyage of long duration, in the there is everything to excite interest—to arouse patriotism--and course of which, we may have to encounter every vicissitude of to gratify ambition. Such is the universal sentiment. Throughclimate, every precaution has, or will be taken, to secure com. out the world, a new spirit of enterprise seems to be awakened. fort, and even so to fortify ourselves and our ships, as to be England, France, and Russia have each expeditions afloat ; enabled to resist the effects of the extremest cold, should we by and whether the results of the voyages now being made, shall accident or choice winter in the Polar Seas. Ample supplies be to enlarge the bounds of knowledge, science, or christianity, of good and wholesome provisions have been provided; as or commerce; in every point of view, whether of a moral, po. also will be a most liberal allowance of Hospital Stores, and litical or philanthropic character, the rivalry which has been various kinds of anti-scorbutics,-these will be issued gratui. excited is worthy of all praise ; and that nation which wins the tously, in sufficient quantities, to preserve health and promote prize by pushing her discoveries furthest, by opening the paths cheerfulness, content, and alacrity in every department of the by which the benefits of knowledge and the blessings of chrisExpedition. Extra warm clothing of superior quality, designed tianity and civilization may be extended throughout “the Isles to be used in the highest latitudes, has been provided, and of the Sea,” besides reaping the rich harvests of present and whenever your comfort or necessities require more clothing than contingent commercial advantages, will acquire the proud diswould be drawn on an ordinary cruise, these articles will be tinction of “ Benefactors of the Human Race.” served out without charge or expense to each individual. In a 'Tis true our competitors in this laudable rivalry, have got word, I am authorized to say, that no pains or expense will be the start of us; but let not this discourage, but rather animate spared to supply each and every ship with every description or to increased exertion. In the wide field of polar discovery, there stores, which can tend to personal comfort and to reward those is ample work for all. It may be, that the squadrons of nations services upon the zealous and faithful performance of which must situated at the opposite quarters of the world, may meet in seas depend the success of this our first great national enterprise. now navigated but by the frail canoes of Savage Islanders, or The time which has already elapsed since some of you signed perchance cast their anchors on coasts which as yet the human articles for the South Sea Expedition, having in a few instances eye has never rested on, and we shall hail as a friend and as. already exceeded one full third part of the contemplated dura. sociate, every stranger ship whether she unfurls the Eagles of tion of the voyage, much inconvenience, inquietude and dissatis- Russia, the Lion Banner of England, or the Tricolored Flag of faction would undoubtedly be found in the expirations of your France ; persuaded as we are, that with equal cordiality will several terms of service in distant seas and remote regions, each noble, generous ally, greet the Star Spangled Banner of where you could neither be paid off, nor be sent home for want our own Republic. of suitable conveyances.
In such a cause then as ours, who would be a laggard, or who Under these circumstances, I am authorized by the Hon. would not take pride in having his name enrolled among those Secretary of the Navy, to say, that to each and every petty employed in this our first National expedition ! I trust none will officer, seaman, ordinary seaman, landsman and boy, who will be found so wanting in enterprise or patriotism ; but animated sign new articles to serve the term of three years from the first by one feeling of devotion to our Country, the only rivalry among . day of November next ensuing, a bounty equal to three months' us shall be, who will best perform his duty and most promote pay, according to the station which each one may occupy on the honor and glory of the Republic,-and this being done, if we board his respective vessel at the time of signing the new arti- do not win success, we shall have tried to deserve it, and incles, shall be paid to each individual at the time of his signing dividually at least, will enjoy the sweet reward of an approving the said articles, which, however, will not be offered to you, conscience.
Such then, is a brief outline of the course I intend to pursue, guile the weariness of a night drive, just after leaving in controlling the destinies of those, whom the laws and the con. the village of Jefferson, in Ohio: stituted authorities have placed under me as Commander of the United States South Sea Surveying and Exploring Expedition.
*The village once had only two taverns; the landFeeling as I do, entire confidence in each individual who has lords of which, after the usual manner of rival landvoluntarily embarked in the noble enterprize, and knowing that lords, were at deadly feud with each other. A Yankee without harmony and perfect concert of action in every depart. one day stepped into one of them, and asked if he ment, all my individual exertions must be unavailing ; and that could be accommodated there, for a few days. He was without mutual confidence and hearty co-operation, we must not hope for even partial success, it will be henceforth, and to readily admitted, though without horse, baggage, or the end, as it hitherto has been, my anxious care to anticipate other visible property to answer for his score. Ala your wants and provide for your comforts ; and then, to a wise week's end, Boniface, thinking it high time to ascertain and most merciful Creator, we will commend our country's the chances of payment --but anxious too, to retain tbe cause, and commit ourselves individually to His keeping, whose guest if he should prove solvent, for the sake of tricommand " the winds and seas obey." (On board the Frigate Macedonian, off Craney Island.)
umphing over his rival in business,-respectfully is(Signed)
quired, if it was convenient to the customer to pay his THOS. AP CATESBY JONES, week's board ? Jonathan paused - At length he owned, Com'g S. S. S. & E. Es
he had not a copper ! Oct. 5th, 1837.
As soon as Boniface had recovered from the sbock of this avowal, he expostulated with his guest upon the impropriety of thus living at free cost upon a poor mas
like him, and the immorality of swindling in general: WESTERN DIRECTORY,
but concluded by offering to cancel the claim, if his
guest would only go over to the other tavern, and serve STEAMBOATS, &c.
Mr. Rubicund just such a trick, by quartering on him
a week, Jonathan listened attentively-walked to The Western Address Directory, with Historical, Topographi- wards the door-but there made a stop. cal and Statistical Sketches, (for the year 1937,) of the prin. “ What!" said Boniface,—“Why do you stop? cipal cities and towns in the Mississippi Valley. Intended as a Won't you pay what you owe me, either one way or guide to travellers. By W. G. Lyford. Baltimore. 1837. pp. another ?» 449.
“I can't pay you that way,” said Jonathan, pointing This book proves, that a work, as regards literary towards Rubicund's. merit, may be far beneath criticism, and yet be well “Why not ?" worth buying,-nay, even reading. It contains such Jonathan looked sheepish, scratched his head, and blunders as “the speed of boats vary”—“steamboats on answered,--“Because I staid with Mr. Rubicund a the western waters are constructed very different from week, before I come here; and as I could not pay him, those on the Atlantic waters"_" data” in the singular he told me the same as you-to come and stay with number (for dalum)&c. &c. It is also extremely un- you a week, and I should be clear—so I have done it!" satisfactory in some of the information it pretends to Our author gives a useful caution to persons who degive. Yet, to one who either has travelled or who design voyaging down the Ohio from Pittsburg or Wheels signs to travel, as Mr. Lyford did, from Baltimore, by ing,--to ascertain, before they mature their plan, that way of Pittsburg, through Ohio and the other western the river is boatable. The navigation is usually instates--or by any other route ;-or to one who has a practicable by reason of low water, he says, from friend or friends on such a journey--few books will be about the middle of July to the middle of September. better worth three or four stillings (Virginia currency) (We should rather fix the period, from the first of Authan this is. Besides some amusing and many useful gust to the first or middle of October.]—It is also closed items of Mr. L.'s own experience in such a tour-par- by ice, from about Christmas until sometime in Februticulars of personal adventure, calculated to show a ary. This period, however, is frequently anticipated, stage or steamboat passenger what vexations he must by a freezing up in the latter part of November—which expect, and what he had best do in various emergen- lasts commonly a week or ten days. ces by flood and field,--the volume contains historical, The statistics of the four great western cities--great statistical, and topographical sketches of all the conside. in prospect, if not already and in fact—which have rable towns on the Ohio and upper Mississippi, and in sprung up so like exhalations of the morning, though the state of Ohio-lists of the chief merchants, manu- destined apparently to no such transitory existence-facturers, attorneys, and other men of business, in each are very striking: but we can only select a few partown, with copies of their cards accounts of stage ticulars: routesman alphabetical list of steamboats on the wes The population of Pittsburg in 1800, was 1,565. tern waters, with their tonnage, and values the rates In 1836 (including the suburbs) it was 30,000! It conof passage, both in stages and steamboats, &c. &c. tains 30 churches.
Instead of being the tiresome farrago, which one In 1800, CINCINNATI contained 750 inhabitants: in might expect such a mass of statistics to be, the author 1936, (according to Mr. Lyford) 30,000: but according has so blended narrative, historical allusion, anecdote, to the estimate of its own citizens, 35,000. Churches, and description, with business details, as to make a 30. The city is divided into ten school Districts, in very readable work. The following story may excite each of which is a large, neat, and commodious twoa smile—as it tells one of the most diverting we have story building, with a cupola-for the public schools. seen, of the many tricks imputed to Yankees. is Each building has four apartments; each of them contold by a fellow stage-passenger of our author, to be- taining a large school, with its separate instructor. In
these schools are 3,000 children. Cincinnati moreover and toll at the Louisville and Portland canal—a toll of contains two Colleges—besides a Medical one, and a 66+ cents per ton, at each passage. This, however, Theological Seminary.
expresses hardly half the number of tons weight that LOUISVILLE, in 1800, had 600 inhabitants. In 1836, a boat will carry: and it is the latler number which is 25,000; and 12 churches. “On the subject of Educa- commonly spoken of, as her tonnage. Thus, the Motion,” drily remarks Mr. Lyford, “I can say nothing." ravian, which is registered as of only 324 tons, actually And sorry are we to agree with him, respecting a carries, and is popularly rated at, 800. The Henry town so high in our regard as Louisville, that she has Clay and Homer, registered at 424 and 410 tons redone nothing worth mentioning, to promote education spectively, carry 900 or 1000: and so of others. The among her people.
boat of the largest measured tonnage is the MediterThe population of St. Louis is not given, at any ranean, of 600 tons. Next is the St. Louis, of 571. earlier date than 1831. It was then 6,000. In 1836, it The Sultana is of 440; the Persian, 439; the United was supposed to be 15,000. There are 8 churches ; States, 420; the Ben Franklin, 194. The ill-fated numerous Primary schools, a Nunnery, and a Female Ben Sherrod was of 393. Others measure as low as Academy. St. Louis is at present the most rapidly 80, 70, or even 50 tons. Let travellers who prize comgrowing of the four cities we have mentioned; and fort, cleanliness, and civil treatment, avoid all steambids fair to surpass them all.
boats of less than 100 registered tons; or which are But the wonder and glory of the Ohio and Missis- proclaimed in their own handbills, or said by the comsippi, are their steamboats. There are 370, naviga- mon people, to be of less than 175 tons. ting the Mississippi and its branches! The names of The engines used in the steamboats on the western nearly all these are given by our author, as we have waters, are very different from those on the eastern. said, alphabetically. Among them, we recognize seve-The latter are on the low pressure ; the former, all on ral with which we are personally acquainted, and the high pressure, plan. The chief reason is, that the which, now that we see them thus mentioned, stir us high pressure, being much lighter and less bulky, is up like the sight of an old friend after a long separa- better suited to the narrow keels and shallow draught, tion. Nothing in a western traveller's life is more requisite for stemming the rapid currents, and gliding wonderful than the sort of affection he conceives for over the frequent sandbars, of the western rivers : the gallant boat--so very “a thing of life"--which has while the low pressure, being far safer from explosion, borne him safely and pleasantly, or unpleasantly either, is preferred in the deep and spacious bays and streams a thousand miles, with a hundred fellow adventurers, next the Atlantic, where bulk and weight, both, are each endeared to him by common perils and hardships. immaterial. We meet, on this list, the hobbling and miserable We will try to give our readers some further idea “Huntress," of 97 tons, on board which we shivered of the differences between the two sorts of steam enand starved during an icy and stranding voyage of 130 gines : miles in six days: the hospitable though crowded
1. The Boiler of the low pressure engine is one, huge “Gen. De Kalb," which picked us up out of the leaky kettle, rather cubical, though somewhat rounded, in its skiff to which, quitting the Huntress, four of us had shape. Sometimes there are two of these to a single entrusted our persons and baggage on the broad Ohio- engine, placed on opposite sides of the boat; sending when our hands and arms were sore with rowing and their steam by iron pipes, into the case, or cylinder, bailing, and our gloves stiffened with ice: the “Ben wherein the piston works. The high pressure boiler Franklin,” in which we lwice enjoyed all the luxuries consists of several cylinders, from 16 to 24 feet long, of the best hotel, heightened by rapid motion and and two or three feet in diameter, laid horizontally, agreeable society: the “Moravian," that carried us close beside each other, lengthwise with the boat ; near 300 miles, during two or three days of rare enjoy and connected by iron tubes, through which the water ment from comfortable quarters and capital company, can flow, as the boat tilts, out of one into the others. to land us, at two o'clock in a night of polar cold, upon These cylinders (or boilers as they are often called), are one of the bleakest and most in hospitable strands of from two to eight in number, according to the size of Illinois: the “Henry Clay,” the “Homer," the “Sul- the Boat: and are placed upon brickwork, forming the tana,” outgoing, ten-fold, all our previous conceptions furnaces, which open towards the bow, or forepart of of steamboat magnificence: and at least a dozen others, the vessel, showing their fires distinctly, to any be. that seem familiar as so many of our schoolfellows. A holder in front. kind, a heartfelt greeting to them all! And if destiny 2. The Piston, with the cylinder in which it works, call us to voyage again by steam, may it be in some in a low pressure engine, is upright, or vertical; in the one of them-except the Huntress! No-not in the high pressure, is horizontal. These positions are perHuntress-not in the Huntress, good misses Fate ! - haps not essential in the two cases; but they are inva“Prosit mihi vos dixisse puellas !"
riable, within our observation.
3. The high pressure engine, with all its appendages, The tonnage of steamboats is a worthy subject of is fully exposed to view, on the lower deck of the western curiosity, not unfolded by Mr. Lyford so fully as was boats. The low pressure, with its more complicated desirable. We learned, while on the Ohio lately, the apparatus, is carefully encased in an apartment whence following rule for ascertaining the tonnage by measure passengers are in general strictly excluded. This is ment: Multiply the length of keel by the width of merely because the latter has so much nice and intribeam, then by the depth of the hold: and divide the cate machinery incident to it, that there would be danlast product by 96. The quotient is the tonnage. By this, the boat is registered; by this, she pays wharfage,
* Our author mistakenly says, 60 cents.
ger of mischief from heedless or meddlesome curiosity : different from those on the Atlantic waters. The cy. while the former is so simple as to defy that danger. linders are generally in a horizontal position." Something, however, must no doubt be ascribed to the If, in his next edition-should the public demand more daring and reckless characters of the western peo- one-he do not say more, and something more satisple.
factory, on steam engines,--we shall attribute his si 4. High-pressure throws off the steam, uncondensed, lence to the same cause whence the superciliousness of as fast as it is used-except a portion, sent by a small engineers and steamboat captains, generally proceedstube into what is called the heater, to aid in heating IGNORANCE. And with this warning, we take a friendly water for the boiler. The low pressure, as soon as the leave of him. steam has done its duty upon the piston, has it condensed by a jet of cold water; and then returns it to the boiler, along with the condensing jet, which, by mixture with the steam, is heated almost to boiling.
LIVES OF The condensed steam, and the water thus heated, supply the boiler. This condensation causes the reverse VIRGINIA BAPTIST MINISTERS. movement of the piston. 5. High pressure blows off the waste steam with a By James B. Taylor, Pastor Second Baptist Church, Richmond.
1837. pp. 444. small 8vo. much louder and uglier noise, than low. It is like the regular coughing of a horse; only, twenty times louder. There is one thing in this book, that we like particu. People living on the Ohio or Mississippi, know the larly: it is, that it divides among eighty persons, a cough of a steamboat, with which they are familiar, at volume such as we loo often see devoted to the biogra. the distance of more than a mile. “It is the Elk,” we phy of a single man, no whit more worthy of comheard a man say; “I know her by her cough.” And memoration than seventy-nine of these eighty. It is a the Elk it proved to be. Western hunters are said, in praiseworthy triumph over the epidemic cacoethes of like manner to know the sounds of their own and their book-making: and we hereby tender our acknowledg. friends' rifles.
ments to the amiable and pious author, for not having 6. A high pressure engine applies a power equal to made each of these his deceased brethren, the subject 100, or 140 pounds, on each square inch of the surface of a separate tome, as large as this which he has conof its piston. A low pressure engine, only about 15 structed to their united memories. May his example pounds. The immense surface of the piston in the be followed by many hereafter, when tempted to palm latter, suffices to account for the difference. Its diame- upon the publie their five hundreds of pages, about the ter is often 50 or 60 inches; while that of the high single lives of good people, who while they lived were pressure engine is only from 15 to 24 inches: so that never heard of a day's journey from home, and whose the aggregate pressure upon the one, is hardly less than memories are as barren as those of Pope's Parish Clerk, upon the other.
or Johnson's Broomstick. A scientific engineer would perceive these explana Several of the men spoken of in these 'short and tions to be contemptibly superficial and puerile. We simple annals,' were known to us, either personally, or have aimed to make them popular : and in so doing, by reputation : and we grew nearly to man's estate have, as far as possible, avoided all technicalities. They under the ministry (though not in the church) of one are such explanations as we should have been glad to among them. This circumstance, and our liking, fosreceive, in our noviciate on board a steamboat: and we tered by early, and frequent, and kindly intercourse, hope they may be acceptable to other novices. for many of their persuasion, and for some parts of
It may be proper to add, that the high pressure, ex- their worship,—make the present volume rather interclusively, is used for propelling carriages on rail roads: esting to us. Some of the biographies—those of Shufor the same reasons that gain it a preference on the bael Stearns, Robert B. Semple, Abner W. Clopton, western rivers; namely, the less weight and bulk of its Samuel Harris, and Lott Cary, for instance-even inmachinery, and apparatus. Especially, the impractica- dependently of such associations, might interest almost bility of carrying along enough cold water, to condense any thinking and benevolent mind. the steam at every stroke of the piston,-is a para To convey an idea of the matter and manner of the mount objection to the use of low pressure engines in book, we present an abridgment of the first life it conland movements.
tains; with some extracts. There are passages, which It is a great fault in the various works published as fastidious readers may deem of loo nasal a tone; and “Guides” for travellers, that they do not devote a few some occurrences are described, in which other readers pages to the steam engine, so momentous now to every will perhaps discern a strong affinity to the phenomena tourist, who needs one of the said “Guides." An ac- of animal magnetism. count of it, somewhat in the manner of the preceding SHUBAEL Stearns, whose name (his biographer inexplanations --only more elementary and accurate-forms us) “will be had in everlasting remembrance," illustrated by plates, would be a positive gem to many —and certainly, it is a remarkable name was born in an inquisitive Johnny Raw (such as we till very lately Boston, in 1706. His father too was named Shubael; were), who worries ignorant firemen and supercilious his mother's maiden name was Larriford. Of his early engineers with vain cravings after information. All life, little or nothing is known. About 1740, an er. that Mr. Lyford deigns to say on the subject, is com- tensive revival of religion occurred in New England, prised in these two sentences:
through the agency of Whitefield and others, who, “The steamboats on the western waters are all what with their followers, were called New Lights, and is termed "high pressure," and are constructed very) Separates.' These Mr. Stearns joined, 1745. Soon