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of the laws therein continually used, are most excellent | Thy lands, said she, are fair to see-thyself art tall and fair, and behoofful for attaining to a knowledge of the law. And in thy breast a heart doth rest that prompts to plan and dare, And of these things this taste shall suffice, for they And thou shalt yield to none, I ween, in prowess or in grace.

And thy right arin shall win success in warfare and in chase, would require, if they should be treated of, a treatise by itself.”

Around thee, men in awe shall bend-thy friends be firm and Thus far runs the enlogy of our quaint old master And old men bid their sons look on and bear themselves as you, in regard to the English University ; and thus would But thou shalt bear a heavy curse upon thy daring heart, his humble student close his remarks by an eulogy on Mark, mark me well, young Guy, I say that curse shall not the law itself.

depart. The spirit of true law is all equity and justice. In a Men may be friends to thee, I said, and women too may seek government based on true principles, the law is the sole To wed thee for thy lands and pels, and honeyed words may sovereign of the nation. It watches over its subjects in

speak; their business, in their recreation, and their sleep. It Do that, and I will wish for thee through life no greater smart !

But if thou wedst, thou wedst a wise without a loving heartguards their fortunes, their lives, and their honors. In the broad noonday and the dark midnight it ministers It is not that thou canst not woo, for none shall breathe the lay

To softer notes, or trillings bland in sweeter accents say; to their security. It accompanies them to the altar and But, mark me well, young Guy, and list to this witch spell of the festal board. It watches over the ship of the merchant, though a thousand leagues intervene; over the The heart of gentle woman, Guy, it never can be thine. seed of the husbandman abandoned for a season to the Young Guy grew up, and first was he in tournament and field, earth; over the studies of the student, the labors of the For none could draw the sword so well or mace so massive wield, mechanic, the opinions of every man. None are high | And lemans clang around him too, and hung upon his breast, enough to offend it with impunity, none so low that it But loved him not, for on his brow the witch's spell did rest. scorns to protect them. It is throned with the king, Sir Guy sunk to an early tomb, albeit a grey haired man, and sits in the seat of the republican magistrate; but (For the darkest locks will whiten beneath sorrow's withering

ban,) it also hovers over the couch of the lowly, and stands

And said, when near the glad time was to quit this weary life, sentinel at the prison, scrupulously preserving to the No woman spake the truth to me, but that weird and old witch felon whatever rights he has not forfeited. The light of the law illumes the palace and the hovel, and surrounds the cradle and the bier. The strength of the law laughs fortresses to scorn, and spurns the intrenchments of iniquity. The power of the law crushes the power of men, and sirips wealth of every unrighteous MSS. OF TH: JEFFERSON.* immunity. It is the thread of Dædalus to guide us through the labyrinths of cunning. It is the spear of

I. Ithuriel to detect falschood and deceit. It is the faith

Monticello, Nov. 31, '10. of the martyr to shield us from the fires of persecution. Dear Sir :-Your third packet is received before the It is the good man's reliance—the wicked one's dread— second had been returned. It is now inclosed, and the the bulwark of piety—the upholder of morality—the other shall go by the next post. I find as before nothing guardian of right-the distributor of justice. Its power to correct but those errors of the copyist which you is irresistible—its dominion indisputable. It is above would have corrected yourself before committed to the us and around us, and within us—we cannot fly from its prcss. If it were practicable to send me the original protection-we cannot avert its vengeance.

sheets with the translated, perhaps my equal familiarity Such is the law in its essence; such it should be in with both languages might enable me sometimes to be its enactments; such, too, it would be, if none aspired of some advantage: but I presume that might be diffito its administration but those with pure hearts, enlarged cult and of little use, scarcely perhaps of any. I thank views and cultivated minds.

you for the copy of Williams. I have barely dipped
into it a little: enough however to see he is far short
of the luminous work you are publishing. Indeed I
think that the most valuable work of the present age.
I received from Williams some years ago his book on

the claims of authors. I found him to be a man of sound

and true principles, but not knowing how he got at them,

and not able to trace or develope them for others. From the Old Provençal.

I believe with you, that the crisis of England is come. There was a knight, a valiant knight, his style was Guy de What will be its issue it is vain to prophecy; so many Maine,

thousand contingencies may turn up to affect its direcAnd on his fair eseutcheon there was ne'er a spot or stain, tion. Were I to hazard a guess, it would be, that they His lands were broad, his castle high, his servitors were brave, will become a military despotism. Their recollections of Yet they could not Sir Guy de Maine from sorrow's thraldom the portion of liberty they have enjoyed will render His liegemen say, and well know they, that when Sir Guy was * In the work edited by Mr. T. J. Randolph entitled "Memoirs, young,

Correspondence, and Miscellanies from the papers of Thomas An cld wilch wife he forced to strife, with woman's sword--the Jefferson," there are several letters addressed to the late Col. tor gue ;

Duane of Philadelphia. The following which are not in that, And that the hag, in anger harsh, put on the boy a spell, and which it is believed have not appeared elsewhere, are now That be “alas and well-a-day” till death remembered well. published from the original MSS.




force necessary to retain them under pure monarchy. | Europe that the English are not invincible at sea. And Their pressure upon us has been so severe and so unprin- if these successes do not lead us too far into the navy cipled that we cannot deprecate their fate, though we mania, all will be well. But when are to cease the severe might wish to see their naval power kept up to the level lessons we receive by land, demonstrating our want of that of the other principal powers separately taken. of competent officers? The numbers of our countryBut may it not take a very different turn? Her paper men betrayed into the hands of the enemy by the credit annihilated, her precious metals must become her treachery, cowardice or incompetence of our high officirculating medium. The taxes which can be levied cers, reduce us to the humiliating necessity of acquiesupon her people in these will be trifling in comparison to cing in the brutal conduct observed towards them. what they could pay in paper money. Her navy then When during the last war I put Governor Hamilton will be unpaid, unclothed, unfed. Will such a body and Major Hay into a dungeon and in irons for having of men suffer themselves to be dismissed and to starve ? themselves personally done the same to the American Will they not mutiny, revolt, embody themselves under prisoners who had fallen into their hands, and was a popular Admiral, take possession of the Western threatened with retaliation by Philips then returned to and Bermuda Islands, and act on the Algerine system? N York, I declared to him I would load ten of their Sara. If they should not be able to act on this broad scale, toga prisoners (then under my care and within half a they will become individual pirates and the modern dozen miles of my house) with double irons for every Carthage will end as the old one has done. I am American they should misuse under pretence of retalisorry for her people, who are individually as respec- ation: and it put an end to the practice. But the ten for table as those of other nations. It is her government one are now with them. Our present hopes of being which is so corrupt, and which has destroyed the nation. able to do something by land seem to rest on Chauncey. It was certainly the most corrupt and unprincipled Strange reverse of expectations, that our land force government on earth. I should be glad to see their should be under the wing of our little navy. Accept farmers and mechanics come here ; but I hope their the assurance of my csteem and respect. nobles, priests and merchants will be kept at home, lo be moralized by the discipline of the new government. Genl, Duane.

The young stripling whom you describe, is probably as George Nicholas used to say, 'in the plenitude of puppyism! Such coxcombs do not serve even as straws to show which way the wind blows.

Alexander is unquestionably a man of an excellent SONNET. TO ZANTE. heart and of very respectable strength of mind: and he is the only sovereign who cordially loves us. Bonaparte hates our government because it is a living libel on his. Fair isle, that from the fairest of all flowers The English hate us because they think our prosperity

Thy gentlest of all gentle names dost take, filched from theirs. Of Alexander's sense of the merits How many memories of what radiant hours of our form of government, of its wholesome operation

At sight of thee and thine at once awake! on the condition of the people, and of the interest he How many scenes of what departed bliss! takes in the success of our experiment, we possess the

How many thoughts of what entombed hopes ! most unquestionable proofs: and to him we shall be How many visions of a maiden that is indebted if the rights of neutrals to be settled whenever

No more--no more upon thy verdant slopes ! peace is made shall be extended beyond the present No more ! --alas, that magical sad sound belligerents, that is to say, European neutrals; as George

Transforming all! Thy charms shall please no moreand Napoleon of mutual consent and common hatred Thy memory no more! Accursed ground against us would concur in excluding us. I thought it

Henceforth I hold thy flower-enamelled shore, a salutary measure to engage the powerful patronage of O, hyacinthine isle ! O, purple Zante, Alexander at conferences for peace, at a time when Isola d'oro! Fior di Levante ! Bonaparte was courting him; and altho' circumstances have lessened its weight, yet it is prudent for us to cherish his good dispositions, as those alone wbich will be exerted in our favor when that occasion shall occur. He like ourselves sees and feels the atrociousness of

PHILOSOPHY OF ANTIQUITY. both belligerents. I salute you with great esteem and respect.

Manî petimus cælum temerariâ. Col. Duane.

We have seen that Pythagoras was a traveller ; that II.

he had pissed over the greater part of the "terra veteriMonticELLO, Sept. 18, '13. bus nola.” It is true by many authors he is said not to Dear Sir:-Repeated inquiries on the part of Senator have passed beyond Egypt. In modern times this opiTracy what has become of his book, (the MS. I last nion has been supported by Lempriere. How far he sent you,) oblige me to ask of you what I shall say to travelled cannot now be ascertained, nor is it desirable him.

otherwise than a mere gratification of curiosity, that it I congratulate you on the brilliant affair of the Enter- should be. We judge biin not by his pretensions, but prize and Boxer. No heart is more rejoiced than mine by what he has done for the cause of human science. at these mortifications of English pride and lessons to Lcnpriere says, from Egypt he came to Samos;



there particularly did he wish to open his school; to his matics, Pythagoras appears to have imbibed the curren: countrymen was he most willing to impart those secret physical theories. So deeply was he impressed of the siores of wisdom that he had so laboriously striven for, importance of numbers, that he imagined all nature reand so honorably gained. His wishes were disappointed, gulated by them, or as he expressed himself, “things and his want of success offers a painful corroboration of are an imitation of numbers,” which he divided into that famed maxim, that "no one is a prophet in his na- (artioi) equal and (perittoi) unequal. Uniry is the printive land."

ciple of the first, duality of the latter. Unity he asHe was again a wanderer in the islands of the Ægean, sumed as his emblem of completeness, as the number and on the inain land of Greece. At the court of Leon corresponding to the Deity in the physical world, as the of Achaia he first assumed the title of philosopher. The representative of the sun, and in his moral code it stood orcasion of his assuming it, as handed down to us, I for virtue. think by Aulus Gellius, is one of the most delicious Duality is a result of unity and is incomplete. It morsels of the gossip of antiquity now in our posses- is the emblem of imperfection, and is in all things the sion.

opposite of unity. By combinations of the uniiy and Leon, struck with admiration at his universality of duality, were formed the tetrachys, in which all nature's knowledge, asked him which of all arts did he prefer? course was traced. It seems to me, that in this opposiPythagoras answered after this fashion: “No art ortion of the good and the bad, of absolute perfec:ion and trade, oh king, do I follow; to none of them do 1 sub. its contrary, we find enough to prove the oriental origin ject myself, but my business is the art of arts-philoso- of the system, and see embodied the good and evil genii phy.” And to the king's question, “What sort of thing of the Arab tale. is this philosophy ?” he is reported to have answered: Pythagoras, like his predecessors, considered the world "Life is like unto an Olympic game. And as there are as an harmonious whole, (its very name was kosmas, or who visit Elis, some to contend for the victory for glory's order,) sub-divided into imperfect parts, according to sake, and some for the prize alone, and others who his tetrachys, each revolving around a common centre, come to ply their trades, and more whose object is to and following harmonic laws. From their motion he watch the contest, so in life, chiefs and warriors strug- derived “the music of the spheres.” The central five, gle for the ascendancy, merchants and artizans sell their the sun, he called the watch-house of Jove, the most wares, and some few look on as spectators, study the perfect thing in the physical world, the source of heat, wayward theory, despising the animal contest of the and first cause of all vitality. The stars, according to one, and the trickery of the other; yet as the bee of his theory, are emanations of the sun, and are diviniHybla extracts sweet honey from the rankest weed, they ties. The soul of man, adopting the Promethean fable, draw useful morals and sound wisdom from the atten- is likewise an emanation of the sun. Man's soul is tive observance of the actions of each. These morals therefore divine. Here, by his confusion of God and and wisdom are philosophy, and the spectators are its Sol, we see what will induce us to believe, that during votaries.”

his captivity at the court of Cambyses, he became acI know not if memory furnishes aright either the an- quainted with the doctrines of the Guebres of Persia, ecdote or its author; but all will admit its truth to and mingling them with the divine Judaical idea of the whomsoever it belongs.

Godlike origin of at least one portion of man's exist. His sojourn at Phlius was not long, and once more ence, he formed so wonderful an Eclecticism for the age he returned to Samos. He opened successfully a pub- in which he lived. lic school of philosophy, and occasionally retiring to a An important role in this philosophy was performed lovely and beautiful cave with his chosen friends and by demons, but the prime mover of all things was God favorite scholars, he imparted with all the mystery of and (ha-te) his will. Pythagoras first ennobled the idea an eastern priest to his bands of Neophytes, those truths of the Deity, by attributing to it the moral properties which the laws of his land, and the opinions of the age of truth and good will to his creatures. rendered it impossible and impolitic for him to discourse The soul is an emanation of the Deity, therefore it of in public.

cannot perish. What then becomes of it? As an anThe mystery with which his Esoterics were taught, swer to this question, he adopted the Metempoychosis. has caused some to rank him among impostors; but What transitions he is said to have believed his own may it not be, that this apparent mystery results from soul to have undergone, is in every one's mouth. From the exaggeration of the excluded crowd. Samos he was bis confounding God with the sun, it was necessary for forced to quit, and Crotona in Magna Grecia had the him to believe the soul material. honor of furnishing him an asylum.

To him we are indebted for the first Psychological From this time his history is that of the country he analysis, which is this : Ist. reason, or (nous); 2d. inhad adopted. His pupils became revolutionists in go-telligence, or (phrenes)—the seat of these two is in the vernment, and it seemed to be the fate of the founder brain; 3d and last, the appetites (thumos) which exist of the first sect, to be forced at the expense of personal in the breast. ineonvenience, to extend his fame and promulgate his Perhaps by this analysis he benefitted mankind more doctrines. Exiled from Crotona, Metaphontum received than by all of his doctrines, physical, political and muhim, and there death relieved him from the persecution sical (for he was said to have been the inventor of of his enemies. He is said to have taken refuge from stringed instruments). It was the first attempt of man a popular commotion in a temple, and there to have to quit the external world for that of thought. died of starvation in the third year of the sixty-eiglich Pythagoras, though teaching himself all branches of Olympiad. (Vide Porphyrius and Jamblichius.) knowledike, had no pupil who resembled him in univer. In the east, that alma mater of astronomy and mathc- sality of pursuit; each devoted himself to a particular

Vol. III.-5


F. S.

study, and assumed a name in accordance with it. They still though earth claims its own, and our bodies must seem to have proceeded on the division of labor sys die, tem, and doubtless they were indebied to it for much of Yet our spirits must live! these death shall defy ! their success. We have now gone through with his And the many bright spots in fond memory's waste, doctrines; and with an enumeration of his most cele. And the blessings of those whose kind friendships we brated pupils and followers, will close this paper.

We know but few of the deductions of the philoso- These from the heart's tablet, may ne'er be effaced ! phers of the old Pythagorean school, and all their ideas were but deductions from the tenets of their master. These philosophers are Aristeus of Crotona, successor and son-in-law of Pythagoras; Teleanges and Menesarchus, the latter his son; Alcmæon of Crotona, a naturalist and physician; Hippo of Rhegium, and Hippusus VERBAL CRITICISMS, &c. of Metapontum, which two last leaned towards the doctrines of Thales, and those of the Eleatic school; Epi

Of a majorily.” This is a phrase which many of charmus of Cos, the comic writer, and perhaps Ocellus, our newspaper editors are fond of using in an improper Lucanus and Timeus, from the country of the Locri manner-thus: “We learn by a gentleman who came Epizephyrii. Among the Pythagoreans of later times, on last night, that in A. county, Squash, our candidate we may enumerate Arehytas of Tarentum, and Philo- for Congress, received two hundred and three of a majority; laus of Crotona, who attained great celebrity for his but, that in B. county Jango had two hundred and fire system of astronomy, and was the first of his school to of a majority; C. county is to be heard from, which we compose a written treatise. (Vide Jamblicus for the fe- learhas gone against us.” Instead of saying " a majority male volaries of Pythagoras.)

of' two hundred and three,” and “a majority of two The doctrines of Pythagoras had a vast influence hundred and five." This corruption is unaccountable over the most eminent philosophers of Greece, over

and inexcusable. Plato particularly, by the road it had opened to thought

" Tri-wechly." This Americanism has, I fear, beby the direction of his views and choice of his objects. come too firmly established to be cradicated

Newspa(In later times, they attributed to the old Pythagoreans per publishers, whose papers appear three times a week, all that Plato, Aristotle and others afier them had writ- call them “ the tri-weekly papers :” but tri-weekly canten. And to this heterogeneous mass of opinions, they not mean thrice a week, but once in three weeks, just as added crowds of superstitious ideas. (Vide Tenneman, tri-ennial means once in three years. The proper exSchlegel und Tiedeman.)

pression, if one must be coined, would be ter-weekly, which would convey the idea the publishers intend to convey by tri-weekly.

A writer in a Magazine published in the city of New York in the year 1918, notices with censure, “a very

uncouth and inaccurate form of speech,” which he says, THE LAPSE OF YEARS. “has lately crept into our language.” He describes it

to consist “in improperly using a noun in the nominative 'Tis sweet, sadly sweet on the long lapse of years, or objective case, where the clause itself in which the To muse at still eve-on life's smiles and its tears; noun is used or some other noun stands in sense and To live o'er again each oft forgot scene,

ought to stand in grammatical construction as the nomiAnd to think too how chequered life's pathway hath native or objective.” From a number of examplesgiven

by him of this vicious usage, the following are selected : It is sweet to remember the gay sportive joy,

“1. The possession of the goods was altered by the That gladdened our heart ere it caught earth's alloy ; owner taking them into his own custody.” (Alarshall When the rich perfumed flowers that scented the grove, on Insurance." First taught our young hearts, nature's beauties to love: The meaning of the writer certainly is not that the When from the bright heavens, at noon and at even, owner was the means by which the possession of his We caught the first glimpses of God and of Heaven! goods was altered, but that his taking them into his own And when we first merged on life's turmoil and strife, cusloily, was so. In grammatical construction, however, And we shared in those cares with which it is rife ; the language expresses the former meaning and no How dim seemed above us those bright sunny skies, other." Which erst beamed on our hearts, and gladdened our “ 2. In consequence of the king of Prussia invading eyes!

Saxony and Bolienia, the Aulic council voted his conAnd to think on those loved ones, now aye from us duct to be a breach of the public peace. (Edinb. Ency.” torn,

“The fact which the historian intended to state, is in Whose friendships long lost oft make the heart mourn; substance, that in consequence of the invasion of SaxoWhose hearts were our sanctuary, and whose love, it ny and Bohemia by the king of Prussia, the Aulic council seemed given,

voted, &c. But according to the grammatical purport To cheer us on earth, and direct us to heaven! of the sentence as it now stands, the words “invading They are gone! but their memory, yet is most dear, Saxony and Bohemia,” express merely an incidental And we hallow it oft with affection's still tear! circunstance, which might have been thrown into a paBut soon ruthless time shall hurry us too,

renthesis or a distinct clause: and the whole sentence From all that we love, and that now meets our vicw; I might, without any material alteration of the sense as


Ripressed by the writer, be para phrased thus: “In con-| the future author for this art, and its cultivation, was sequence of the king of Prussia who, by the bye had doubtless owing his sensibility to the beautiful in the invaded Sixony, &c., ihe Aulic council voted his con- natural world. He was designed for the law, and studuci to be a breach of the public peace.” If the para- died under eminent professors, history and philosophy phrase is nonsense, it is the nonsense of the original. forming also a part of his studies; but in poetry he

"3. The secretary wearing a su ord and uniform, was was his own teacher, at least he drew instruction for a circumstance which added greatly to his natural awk-himself from the rich fountains of antiquity. Anacreon wardness. (Notices of Nir. Ilume."

and Ilorace were constantly in his hands; he amused “The meaning expressed by the words is that the his leisure hours by translating fragments from Homer Secretary (who happened indeed to wear a sword and and Pindar, and took an active part in the translacion uniform,) was himself the circums:ance which added to of Anacreon by a gifted countryman. This joint verhis own natural awkwardness. The fact intended to be sion was printed, but without bis knowledge, in 1746. communicaied is that his wearing a sword, f.c. was that Three years after, he published a small collection of circumstance.”

lyrics, which he had previously submitted to the judg"If any one can doubt the justice of these strictures, ment of his friend Gleim. In the claborate biography he may bring them to a very simple and decisive test, by prefixed to his works, an amusing account is given of substienting pronouns for nouns in each of the passages his platonic attachment to the sister of an intimate cited. Thus: The possession of one's goods is altered by friend, and the letters and poems addressed to the obkin taking them into his own custody.” “The Aulic ject of his love, till her final marriage with another. council roted the king's conduct to be a breach of the Uz himself never married; perhaps on account of his publie peace, in consequence of him invading Saxony." early disappointmeni, though bis own excuse was that He wearing a sword and uniform, was a circumstance he was unable to maintain a wife till too old to get one. which added to his natural awkwardness."

He afterwards formed a sentimental friendship for a This awkward usage has since the year 1318 been re- lady, whom he celebrates in his poems under the name ceived with such general favor, that it is impossible to go of Chloe. through a book of any considerable size without meet In Romhild, he composed his best productions; seveing with it. The last book I have read, Capt. Bisil ral poetical letters, odes and songs, and the “Sieg des Hall's Schlop Hainfeld, abounds with insiances. Here Liebesgottes," a mock heroic poem in four cantos, which are a few :

has been praised by contemporary critics as a most "As difficulties might arise however on the score of valuable addition to German literature. The letters her being a Protestant, or from the castle being no longer are on various subjects, and addressed to diferent in. in the possession of the family, she thought it prudent,” dividuals. The didactic poem,“ Die Kunst stets frohlich &c. &c. Page 43.

zu seyn,” printed in 1760, bas striking passages, which "Instead of the estate being put up for public sale, it recommend moderation in desires, and set forih the wis quietly arranged that the next heirs, tivo nephews, pleasures of knowledge, and the advantages of patience should come at once into possession.” Page 47. and confidence in the providence of God, and a belief

- All the German world know that so far from Sunday in the inimortality of the soul, as so many means of being kepe holy as respects travelling, it is universally promoting the happiness of this life. Harmonious and selected as the fittest day in the whole week for that poetical expression, united with truth and vigor, is purpose.” Page 118.

unanimously accorded to the compositions of Uz. His "Od Joseph, however, who was a good Catholic, best poems are of an instructive and philosophical cast, thinking I suppose it might do no harm to give his mis. and if they want the brilliant fancy and captivating tress's soul a chance, took advantage of my back being imagery of other writers, they possess solid merit enough turned, and stuck a lighted candle into the old lady's to entitle their author to the gratitude and veneration hand a few minutes before she breathed her last." Page of his countrymen. 192.

The death of this poet, calm and quiet as his life, took place on the twelfth of May 1796.

The Victory of Cupid, (Der Sieg des Liebesgottes) his principal poem, is analogous in design and in style to

Pope's Rape of the Lock, though not, as was erroneJOHANN PETER UZ. ously stated by the publisher in one edition, an avowed

imitation of that production. Its descriptions are pictuBY MRS. E. F. ELLETT.

resque and its satire is happy. Cupid is represented as Some account of this clever writer, and of his works, incensed by the coldness of Selinda, a rural maiden, sa latite known in this country, may not be unvekome who, protected from the shafts of the boy-god by an to the readers of this Viagazine. He was born at Ans. aitendart sprite, has the presumption to defy his power. pach, on the third of October 1720. His father, whom The fair coquette has two lovers in her train, who, he lost early, was a goldsmith, and supported limself mortified by her insensibility to their devotion, prefer by his trade; yet notwithstanding the humble origin their complaints agninst her to Love himself. Cupid and occupation of his parents, the subject of our article resolves to vanquish the lady, who has the boldness to wis educated with care, and manifested, even in child. resist his sway, and for this purpose enters Lesbia's hol, his disposition to painting and poetry. The talent garden in pursuit of her, where he finds her with a for painting, indeed, was hereditary in his family; numerous company. His arrows are turned aside from many of his relations being eminent artists, and his her lrcast by the watchful spirit, who is meant to perbrother devoted to it as a profession. To the taste of sonate the vanity of woman; and the offended deity is

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