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mind as one image, when our eyes see it; we do not, | so that the Germans have but one word for that which be it repeated, see youth, blackness and that which to the English appeared as two different ideas; but the characterises a horse from other animals, separately and English word faith expresses often something for which disjunctively; nor are these ideas conveyed separately the German has a different word, namely treue, so that into our mind where, being joined, they might produce here the German idiom has two words for the English the entire and undivided image and idea of a young one. These interesting inquiries into the division of black horse. When thus the image of a young black ideas, and the difference of this division in different horse stands in our mind, we may separate the idea of languages, by which we discover a different affinity blackness, but leave those of youth and horse un-ana- and affiliation of thoughts and notions, a different lyzed, and say: a black coll; or we may separate the perception of things and a consequently different ramiidea of youth, and leave those of blackness and horse fication of ideas-in short a different logic of nations, together, as the Germans have a word for black horse, may be continued without end. They show us, frenamely Rappe, so that they would say: ein junger quently, the most delicate affinities of thought, and the Rappe (a young black horse). Thus the Germans acutest perception of the various phenomena within have a distinct word for a white horse; they have, ourselves or without, uncover deficiencies, and disclose however, also a word for colt, and may express the idea a blunt want of feeling or perception, where, previously, of the case before us, precisely like the English; a we had felt no want or suspected no barbarism-no black colt.
looseness of expression. I will give but a few more This dissecting of one image we best call the division instances of a different division of ideas, that, perhaps, of ideas—the most important subject, perhaps in the I may induce one or the other reader to approach by whole province of the philosophy of languages. In the this means, the wonderful workings of the human mind, case, I just used to illustrate this subject, we have seen and to lift the veil which covers the subtlest organizathat different languages may proceed on a different di- tions of language and with it the delicate operations of vision of ideas. They actually do so in most cases, the mind; for language is the cast of the soul. and on this very point rests, mainly, the great advan. A father is or ought to be a friend to his child; friends tage of studying foreign languages, as we shall see pre- feel or ought to feel for one another as tenderly as a sently. I shall oniy add here a few more examples. father feels for his offspring; in short between a father
We might say: the young one of a female of the and his son and between two friends exists or ought genus bos ; instead of which we say the calf of a cow. to exist, the lie of good will. The inhabitants of Lord The English language has left the image of the calf North's Island, therefore, have but one word for father and of the cow un-analyzed and provides us, therefore, and friend, (Vocabulary, appended to Holden's Narwith separate and distinct words for each. When we rative of the Shipwreck on the Pelew Islands, Boston, speak of a hare, we have no such specific words, because 1836). This is a representation of ideas, or as we, when the mind receives the image of a hare, it receives accustomed to designate father and friend by different no striking sign along with it, which would indicate, words, would say, a connexion of ideas, which is not whether the hare is male or female, young or old; but much more surprising to a German, than that the when the phenomenon consists of an individual of the English or Americans, disliking the words lover and genus hog, the marks of the male are striking and we sweetheart, apply the word friend to one who loves a have a word for it: boar. In many cases, however, girl, with the view of marrying her ; nor more surprisprevious division of ideas has provided the mind with ing, perhaps, to an Englishman, than that the unedu. generic words, by the combination of which a more cated Germans are in the constant habit of using the specific case, or an individual phenomenon can be clearly word friend instead of relation; though there is in Gerdesignated. The English language has the words old man a distinct word for this idea. Friendship is thus and man, and the combination of the two words desig- used for all the relations in the aggregate. nates an old man. Yet other idioms have for this idea It cannot be denied that this un-analyzed idea of father one distinct word, which, consequently, produces a more and friend, with those barbarous and forlorn Pelew. definite, compact, and vivid image in the mind of the Islanders, is beautiful and touching; while it will be hearer; for the one word is more energetic than the admitted, that it would be highly inconvenient with a two, as in Latin senex, in German Greis, in French tribe, at all civilized, with whom, the necessity of deriellard; and old woman is in German Greisinn, in signating the two different relations frequently occurs. French viellarde.
The law of inheritance alone would render this nonWhat is true with regard to the different division of division of idea extremely inconvenient. Still, we are ideas applied to phenomena of the visible world, is ap- very apt to wonder how it is possible for nations to get plicable, likewise, to the phenomena of the invisible along without certain words, which in our own language world, or to both jointly; it is in fact in a much higher designate quite distinct and different things, altogether degree so. Langue in French means tongue; as the forgetting that there are numberless deficiencies and tongue however is a most important instrument in even barbarisms in our own languages, with which we speaking, the idiom from which the French derived nevertheless contrive to get along, or which we have, the word langue, designated by the same word what perhaps, never felt before. That father and friend should we express by tongue and language, as in fact we, too, be expressed, with the Pelew-Islanders, by the same use the word tongue for language. On the other hand, word, appears to a German indeed not so great a dethat, which our word language designates in many cases, ficiency, as that there are no separate words in the is expressed by a separate word in French, namely English, French or any of the Western European langage. The German word Glaube signifies both that idioms for the German Mensch (homo, the genus) and which is expressed by the English word faith and belief, | Mann (vir, the male of the genus homo) as in Greek
'avpdoroo and 'avng, so the man, homme, ombre, &c. | want of a corresponding word as well as of a corresdesignate both, man, in as much as he is contradistin- ponding division of ideas will be felt. The number of guished to other animals, or to angels, and in as much as instances might be indefinitely increased by simply he is contradistinguished to woman, or child; and it must looking at any dictionary. be left to the connexion of the words, to express which Words describe a circle within which lies their meanof the two very different meanings—the one indicating ing, and there can hardly be found in the different lanthe species, the other the sex-it is intended to convey; guages any two such circles, which cover precisely the and it is expressed by the connexion in many or most same space. The circle of one word may corer half cases with suficient clearness. In fact, as long as one of the circle of the corresponding word in another lanword designates two or three very different things or guage, or the greater part, while part of its own circle ideas, little difficulty arises; but when the same word is covered by another word in the first language, yet designates ideas nearly related to each other, or differ- again by this same word may be covered part of ent shades of the same generic idea, then there exists a the circle of quite another word, with an infinite variety danger of losing the true meaning. If a Frenchman of affiliation of ideas. The French word souvercinité pronounces the sound of sans, which may mean without, signifies frequently what the English language expresses sense, hundred, he feels (for sans, sens, cent and sent are by souverainty, but also something different, else the all pronounced in the same way), there is not much dictionary of the French Academy could not give, as an danger that he will be misunderstood; but if he uses instance, of the use of this word the expression: sourethe word sentir, it may be difficult, in some cases, to rainité limitée. Limited soverainty has no sense in a decide at once whether he mean to feel or to smell. If language in which souverainly signifies that plenitude a German uses the word sein, it will cause no difficulty of power which draws from its own source, and from to distinguish whether he means to be or his, but if he no other. No more striking instance of the diversity uses the word farbe it may occasion some doubt whe- of space covered by corresponding words of different ther he means color or dye; though he might have used languages, and at the same time of a different division for the latter, the word Färbeställ.—The Germans have of ideas can, perhaps, be given than the Latin res, the one word to designate all the brothers and sisters of an English thing for which the Germans have two entirely individual, namely the word Geschwister, as the English distinct words Sache and Ding, and the Greeks apayua language has the word parents to designate both mother and xeñua, which do not in all cases correspond to the and father. The Germans have likewise a word ex- iwo German terms. pressive of the idea of parents, but they have none cor If we take different groups of corresponding words responding to parent, which means the male or female in various languages, such as: Force, Strength, Power, parent indiscriminately. The Arabians have one word Might, Ability, Faculty, Opportunity, in English; for death, another for noble death, i.e. the death on the Vis, Potentia, Potestas, Facultas, Imperium, in Latin; battle field or of pining love. We have no such word. spun, dlký, co xùs, obívos, dúvajes, kpáros, Bia and the We, and most nations have a word for the idea of a many words which express opportunity and occasion, child, which has lost both parents or its father, an orphan, in Greek; Gewalt, Stärke, Kraft, Macht, Herrschafl, but the Swedes and Danes say: fatherless child, and an Obergewall, Twang, Gelegenheit in German, two things orphan asylum in Swedish is barnhus for faderlösa barn become apparent at once; first, that it is impossible for (children-house for fatherless children).—Movoikos sig. the student, who observes, for the first time, these varinified in Greece one who practised the arts sacred to ous groups, to penetrate their true meaning and corresthe muses, especially those which had connexion with pondence with each other, without deriving much benethe sound; hence, a musician, singer, poet, orator; and fit from it for the discerning faculty of his mind; sepovorký signified not only music, poetry, rhetoric; but condly, that, if his vernacular tongue is English, for inalso all scientific and artistic accomplishment. We stance, he must be lead to perceive entirely new divisions have no corresponding word, and could not, by any of ideas, becomes, in fact, acquainted with new ideas, possibility, call up by any expression, in the mind of for which some of the other idioms have distinct words, our hearer all and the same which presented itself to his own, however, not; ideas, therefore, which never the mind of a Greek when the comprehensive word represented themselves to his mind. povorky) was pronounced. They and we have started This difference of the division of ideas is greater the from different divisions of ideas. The corresponding more independantly of each other two languages have English word to the German Geist is mind, to the Ger- developped themselves—a circumstance still more inman Secle is soul; still, though Geist and Seele mean creased by the fact that the words of all original lanin many cases precisely what the English express by guages, designating phenomena of the internal world mind and soul, they often mean things which cannot be (intellectual phenomena), or abstract ideas are, if not expressed by mind or soul. We see, moreover, that the compounds, faded metaphors. Man is struck first by original division of the phenomenon: internal man, was the sensual world ; his senses must give him notions; different in German from what it is in English; for the at a later period he applies the words, thus gained, in Germans have besides the words Geist and Seele, a thousand different ways, to invisible phenomena, or abthird: Gemüth, which, so far from being superfluous, is stract ideas. These metaphors carry of course certain one of the most indispensable words in the German associations along with them, and retain certain affiliaidiom. This word may serve, also, as an instance how tions, which in fact coincides, again, with the different this branch of comparative philology often shows us division of ideas. deficiencies in our vernacular tongue, for as soon as the From what I have stated so far I intend now to draw precise meaning of the German Gemüth has been un some conclusions. derstood, the necessity of having it and the absolute It is this different division of ideas which renders a
good translation of a work, transcending at all, the limits I have shown the great advantage to be derived from of a bare statement of facts, so difficult. Had we words the study of foreign languages and that the advantage in one language which corresponded precisely to other increases with the essential and original difference of words in another, nothing could be easier than trans- the foreign tongue from our own. It is an advantage lating; for no one would consider it a difficult task to which cannot be supplied by any other study, for it has learn a grammar and acquire an extensive vocabulary. a peculiar and distinct character of its own. It remains It is this, which renders the task of a lexicographer an to show what peculiar advantage there is for us, living extremely difficult one, and a labor which can be solved in the nineteenth century, in studying ancient languages but by a truly philosophic mind. The more the two especially the Greek and Latin. In order to show this languages stand apart, the further they are removed I must recur to my previous observations on the fact from each other by their origin and development, the that phenomena strike our mind as one, whole and engreater the difficulty. Thus is a truly philosophic mind tire thing, un-analyzed, undissected. required to write a dictionary of an ancient language in
I said that if this is the case the natural consequence a modern one; thus it is far more difficult to write a would be that we had words for specific phenomena, German dictionary for Frenchmen, than an Italian; or and thus it is, in a certain degree, with all languages. to translate German into French, than Italian.
We have the words bull, ox, cow, heifer, steer, calf; It is this different division of ideas which renders the we have buck, roe, fawn; we have to smile, to laugh, study of foreign languages so salutary to our mind. to litter, to grin; we have speaking, talking, chatterWe enter into a new logic, we gain from the point of ing, murmuring, muttering, screaming, stuttering, stamview of a foreign language only, a perfectly clear per- mering, uttering, roaring, barking, lowing, cooing, proception of our vernacular tongue; we become better nouncing, singing, whispering, crowing, &c. All these acquainted with the true meaning of certain ideas, and latter words might be analyzed into more general or we sharpen and point our judgment and the discrimi- generic terms. Each of them is expressive of producing nating power of our mind by entering into the new sounds by the mouth in different ways, for different division of ideas and inquiring into the precise extent purposes, with different effects and by differing beings, covered by one or the other word. And all this is which different ways, purposes, effects and beings effected in a higher degree the more distant the studied might be mentioned; and, thus, we would be enabled language is in structure and origin from our own; so to express, by the proper combination of many generic that an Englishman will derive vastly more philosophi- terms, the specific idea of speaking, crowing, roaring, cal benefit from studying German or Greek than from &c. With what trouble, what infinite tediousness the study of French. There is a deep meaning in the however ! saying of Charles V, that we become as often new men We do not only find words, however, which express as we learn a new language.
the main characteristics of the various phenomena in It is for this reason that the study of foreign poets one word; but also the various relations, in which a becomes so necessary; for the poets use purposely the certain thing may stand, or with the expression of words with their various associations of ideas, in order which we may be desirous of accompanying the idea to say much by few words, to call up feelings, reminis- of certain actions. Patris, terræ, express not only the cences, ideas with the wand of one word in the mind idea of father and earth, but a certain relation in which of the hearer or reader. On the other hand it is equally they stand—relations which we have to indicate by necessary to study the philosophic works of foreign separate words. And here again a difference of the literature, because the philosopher has to define dis- division of ideas appears; for when the Roman wished tinctly and acutely. And hence we see the division of to indicate that a certain thing—the subject-acted ideas of a foreign language with greater perspecuity. upon another-the object—he indicated this relation by Thirdly it is necessary to acquaint ourselves with a change in the object, e.g. pater amat filium. There translations of works in our own language into foreign are, however, idioms which express indeed this relaidioms, because by them too we see how the foreign tion; not however by a change in the object, but in translator has been obliged to contrive by a variety of the subject, as some of the South Sea Island languages means to give with his words, founded upon a differ- do. They therefore show, not the being acted upon, as ent division of ideas, the true meaning of our mother the Romans did, but the acting upon. They would tongue.
show this relation in the above instance by an inflexion It is the different division of ideas in the different of pater not of filius.—When the Greek wanted to exidioms, which affords us so great a pleasure in study. press the idea of being about to strike, and that the ing a foreign tongue, for we discover entirely new individual, about to strike is of the female sex, he said manifestations of the human mind. This pleasure is rútovoa, in one, single word. We want a number of greatly enhanced when we succeed, at last, in making words to express it, and only can arrive at the idea, in the foreign idiom our own, when we can speak it, a very circuitous and a very conventional manner, write it, think it. It is a true victory of the human which the juxta-position of the words: to be about to mind. Hence, too, the great attraction of the study of strike, certainly is. such languages as the Greek, or Sanscrita.
It is not necessary here to investigate whether those Hence, finally, the fact that some languages are more grammatical forms which indicate one whole phenomefit for one or the other purpose, one for description, non or relation with one word, whilst we are obliged to another for lyric poetry, another for the intercourse of arrive at the same end by a combination of many words men, one for metaphysics, another for politics, another only, were originally likewise a combination of several still for disquisitions of a scientific kind, and still ano- words, and grew simply out of a fusion of them. This ther for commerce or technological terms.
inquiry, which has occupied many philologisis, would
lead us far from the object of these remarks; nor would of human languages and their influence upon the intelit be pertinent in this place.
lectual development of mankind-an essay of the deepof all the known languages, none, as far as I know, est interest, by William von Humboldt, first read in contain so many words expressive of an entire phe- the Berlin Academy, and now reprinted in Vol. I, 4to, nomenon, which appears to us, as soon as it strikes of his philological essays, published by Alexander von our mind, to be analyzed into various ideas, and which Humboldt in 1836). This is not a happy word—be it we express, therefore, by different words, as the lan- said with sincere reverence for that truly great philoguages of the North American Indians.
loger, equally distinguished for acute penetration and In the Mohegan language netáchgan means brother, lofty, comprehensive views—if applied to these forms, but gegapan, an unmarried brother, as the French use for glueing together means fastening by glue things garçon for an unmarried male adult; or the English which were separated before. This, however, is taking bachelor and spinster for unmarried male and female a partial view of the matter; those words appear to adults respectively. The younger brother always ad- us glued together because our language designates the dressed the elder one by netachgan, and him who is ideas contained in their words, separately; but they younger chesem as the French have ainé and cadet for do not appear so to them. It is but one idea which eliler and younger among brothers. Thus the younger they express We are the analyzers, not they the sister called the elder mees, but the elder sister called joiners; they would have the same right to call our the younger chesem. Tachamokku meant to give some process of expressing one idea, e. g. giving something to thing to eat, nucklegan meant I have but one child. eat by four different words, laceration. Below, above, within, &c. are in this language as in the Still the word ought to be retained in comparative other Indian idioms never to be found separate but philology, but in order to designate that process by always as verb, i. e. to be above, to be below, &c. which expressions are formed, such as: church-yard, The same is the case with regard to most adjectives horseman, Löffelgans, port-hole, heart-felt, bed-ridden, and substantives. They could not say good, but must respublica, horse-reddish, roi-citoyen, pater familias, codvapsay I am good, or he is good, &c. the idea of the subject, xia, Weingeist, inkstand, peacefull, peuple-roi, Obstbaum, and, consequently, of the pronoun not having been sepa- womanlike, úrórdeos, imaotótapos, evayyidcov &c. In all rated by them. There is no verb for to be, but for to be these cases, two separate words have been joined, in present, to be absent, &c. In short the verb is the main order to designate a third object. So it might be said word of the language; it carries every thing within its that such words as womanhood, dukedom, freedom, were bosom. Nothing is imagined without the idea of action formed by agglutination, because hood and dom were or of being, as, indeed, nothing can appear to us except originally separate words. Whether the two agglutiin a certain state of being or action. They were not nated words be written in one, as horseman, or in two without some division of ideas, as we have shown that as church-yard, makes no difference. This has only being without this would aniount to being without lan- reference to orthography, and is purely conventional; guage; still so foreign is the division of ideas, of abstrac- with regard to language there exists no difference tion to the spirit of this language, that though a certain whatever. sound is regularly added to the idea of a verb, for in Mr. Duponceau, the venerable, learned and success. stance that signifying child to that of chastising, still this ful philologer at Philadelphia, has named those peculiar sound does not appear independantly to designate the words by which is expressed, what appears to us a child, but is found only fused with some verb or other complexity of ideas, by a far more significant term, Thus sasametsháha is punish the child, and nucktegchan He calls them polysynthetic words, and languages in I have but one child. It can be easily seen how great which they appear frequently or of which they form a difficulty was thus thrown into the way of those who the main body of words polysynthetic languages. The endeavored to communicate to them things and ideas opposite extreme to polysynthetic idioms are languages beyond the circle of their limited activity of mind, as which consist but of single words, without inflexion, or for instance missionaries; for every object within was grammatical synthesis, and which contrive to express designated by a word intimately fused with another ; the different relations, which other languages show by all words had a specific meaning, designated we might inflexions or synthetic means, merely by the position almost say, a concrete case. Sasametschaha is punish in which the different words are placed, as for instance the child, and nsasamtschana we punish him. These the Chinese language. We will call this process of instances are taken from M.S. No. 1579, in the library expressing ideas by mere juxtaposition of words paraof the Philosophical Society in Philadelphia ; it con- thesis, and languages founded upon this process paratains a grammar &c. written by Ioh. Jac. Schmick, thetic idioms. (The term Parataxis would not do so a German, probably a missionary. Other Indian lan- well
, as it had already with the ancients a distinct guages have arrived at a higher degree of division of and different meaning.) The English language has a ideas. I refer here to a highly interesting article on strongly parathetic character, for it expresses very few Indian Languages of America, in the Appendix to Vol. things or relations by inflexion or a change in the root VI of the Encyclopædia Americana, for which work, my or any other part of the word, nor does it allow extenfriend John Pickering, L. L.D. of Boston, had the great sively of the synthetic process. If I say: "When I kindness to write it. The article has met with due ac- shall go to the garden of my father in law," there are knowledgment in France and Germany, where a trans- twelve words without any inflexion whatever, and relation of it has been published.
ceiving their meaning from their position only. Many This way of expressing whole phenomena or entire languages, e.g. the Greek, would have expressed the relations of a very modified kind, by one word, has been whole of: when I shall go, by one word; "to the garden” called agglutination. (On the variety of the structure would likewise have required but one word in many
languages, and so would the whole complex of ideas: it has come to a conclusion but produces still some efof my father in law.— Forms like “l” “I've” for I fect, whether it relates to the grammatical subject or will, I have, are produced by the polysynthetic or, at not, which is the sex of the person to whom it relates, least, by a dyosynthetic process.
or whether it has no sex; farther adding the idea of In as far as the term, first introduced by Mr. Du- locality (as the Sanscrit locative does), of instrumenponceau, applies to expressions—be they grammatical cality (as the Sanscrit and Sclavonic casus instrumenforms or not-which consist of several elements, pre- talis or the Latin ablative do), of abstraction, of dimiviously separated, it is not only correct but fully ade- nution or increase, of endearing or the contrary (as the quate to the object. It matters not whether these ele- Italian affix accio), of repetition (as the German In ments are ever used as having an indeperdant meaning added to verbs does), of absence or presence (as the of their own, separate and for themselves, or always in Lena Lenape does), &c. &c. What a crowd of ideas connexion with other words, yet always conveying the is not expressed by a single, brief word like éderounv, same meaning, as, for instance, the pronoun is in some or the word devatabyarcanaparo (deorum-cultui-addictus), languages of the American Indians, always found, not which I take from an extract of the Sanscrit song of only connected, by way of affix or prefix, but fused with Nalus by Sloka, appended to Francis Bopp's Critical the very body of the verb. Still the term polysynthesis Grammar of the Sanscrita Language, Berlin 1834. expresses a composition of previously separate parts, With regard to the meaning of the words, therefore and we cannot designate by it those words which ex- languages have: press that, which to others, accustomed to analytic lan 1. A holophrastic character; if they abound in hoguages, appears as a complex of ideas, or that which actu- lophrastic expressions, or ally is a complex of ideas, that is to say, which formed 2. An analytic character, if analytic words prevail. itself originally in the human mind by the composition of With regard to the means used to arrive at the exseveral ideas. Words, then, which express a complex pression of a complex or a series of ideas, languages of ideas we will call holophrastic words-words which are: express the whole thing or idea, undivided, un-an 1. Synthetic, alyzed. I know well that all holophrastic words are, if 2. Polysynthetic, compared to still more comprehensive terms, analytic 3. Parathetic, or in their character, but in all cases of a similar kind, 4. Inflective. we must content ourselves with terms of comparative
Shades exist between each of these classes, as sevemeaning. If we have seen that the Mohegans have a ral languages make use of several or of all of these word for giving something to eat, I would call it a holo- means. phrastic word, though it has an analytic character, if we Both holophrastic and analytic words are more conconsider that it only expresses to give something to eat, venient for one or the other object of speech. And, and not ucho gives to whom, on what conditions, whether again archolophrastic and compound holophrastic words he who gives was asked for, gave it willingly, or com are each in their way preferable for different purposes. pelled to do so, and whatever else might be connected I will mention here but a few instances. with the idea of giving something to eat. Words as the Energy of style requires holophrastic words, for Latin res, the English to beat, the Greek lóyos, I would energetic writing or speaking makes it sometimes necall poly phrastic.
cessary that we express briefly and promp:ly a whole Words may have an originally holophrastic charac- complex of ideas, that we pour, as it were, a mass of ter-they may be archolophrastic, e. g. the Arabic word ideas into the mind-the heart of the hearer ; at other for noble death; or they may have acquired their times, that we individualize, with equal brevity, one holophrastic character by composition, and this compo- particular thing, excluding all others with a distinct, sition again may have been effected by compounding sharp line; that we force the mind of the hearer to one words which had a meaning of their own, or by syn- precise spot, concentrate it on one single point. Who thetically uniting or susing elements, which had no in- would miss words like clenching, plodding, quivering, dependant meaning of their own, with roots which do clinching? The Germans have a word versiegen, used have such a meaning. Or, finally, words may be for the gradual diminution and final stopping of any holophrastic by way of inflection. The Sanscrit, He- liquid, which previously flowed freely, as the stream of brew, Latin and Greek verbs and declensions afford a well. The syllable ver indicates the gradualness of numberless striking instances of all these classes. It is the cessation of flowing, which will and must lead to sufficient to glance at a single paradigma in a Grammar final entire cessation. It will be easily seen with what of any of these idioms to be struck with the complex energy this word may be used either directly and posiof ideas, which they have it in their power to express tively, or metaphorically--whether applied to faculties, by single words, modifying the meaning of the root in powers, eloquence, affections, or the energy of nations ; a variety of ways by adding to it the ideas of time, and that it can be used in a thousand cases where our activity or passiveness, desire (as the Greek optative drying up is inadmissible. Indeed this latter word does), number, whether one, many or two act (as by never expresses exactly the German versiegen, though the Greek and Sanscrit dualis), of praying (as the we are obliged to use it as a corresponding term. Sanscrit precative does), of ordering (by the impera- Those nations which have distinct words for the differtive), of intensity (as by the Hebrew Piel or the Sans- ent kinds of love, e. g. for parental, filial, erotic, uncrit potentialis), of reciprocity, reflectiveness, of the happy, happy, passionate love, and the love of animals condition of the action itself, whether it has been for their offspring, can speak, sing or write far more brought to an entire end, or not, whether it had come energetically and eloquently of love than others, who to a conclusion at the time we speak or not, whether are obliged to use the same word for the love of God