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The orders of the First Consul had been given to put an end, as by enchantment, to all the little conspi-
those who were the most devoted to his service. The racies of princes which the police were daily discon-
Duke d’Enghien was arrested—carried to Vincennes-certing. However, this is not the matter with which
tried and condemned, before the ministers or the police I pretend to concern myself; I wish only to establish
knew any thing of the matter. M. Real set off for a fact.
Vincennes the 21st of March, at nine in the morning, During the fifteen years of the restoration, numerous
not in virtue of any particular commission that had been works were published on the subject of the trial and
given him, but on the receipt of the notification of his death of the Duke d’Enghien. Some individuals who
arrival, transmitted by the governor of the prison of had become repentant, when repentance was likely to
Vincennes in the daily report which he addressed to the be profitable, denied at pleasure the accusation of having
councillor of state, specially charged with the management more or less contributed to this event. One circum-
of every thing relative to the tranquillity and internal secu- stance to which no attention has been paid, is this, that
rity of the republic. The Duke d'Enghien had ceased the true text of the judgment which condemned the
to exist since six in the morning, and M. Real met, at Prince never appeared in any of these works. The
the barrière St. Antoine, General Savary, who induced reason is plain enough; this text, the authentic minutes
him to return.

of the judgment, was never published because it was
I had written thus far, when on a new examination not in existence.
of the papers relative to the trial and condemnation of A judgment condemning the Duke d'Enghien to death,
the Duke, I discovered two pieces of evidence which was published in the Moniteur, and sold in the streets
appeared to me favorable to the opinion I have just given. of Paris; but this was not the judgment that was ac-

I find, in the first place, in the examination made by tually pronounced, and in virtue of which the Prince
M. Dautaucourt, a captain-major of gendarmerie d'élite, was shot.
acting as captain-reporter of the prince: the twelfth The true judgment was in these words. I copy it
year of the Republic, the 29th Ventose, twelve at night : literally; the blanks existed in the original:
to the question, “ If he knew the ex-General Dumouriez ; “The commission, after the President had read his
if he had had any connexion with him ?” he replied, “No declarations to the accused, asked if he had any thing
more than the other; I never saw him.”

to add in his defence; to which he replied, that he had
The words, “no more than the other,” referred to the nothing more to say, and that he persisted in what he
negative answer, whieh immediately preceded in the had already said.
examination, to a question concerning Pichegru. “The President caused the prisoner to be withdrawn;

I find moreover in the judgment as it was published the council deliberated in secret, and the President colI say published, and not rendered, for reasons that will be lected the votes, beginning with the youngest in rank, afterwards seen:

the President giving his opinion last; the prisoner was "Louis-Antoine-Henri de Bourbon, Duke d'En- unanimously declared guilty

and the ghien, &c. &c.-accused :

article of the law of -, in these words 1stly-2dly-3dly-4thly—5thly.

was applied to him, and in consequence he was con-
"6thly. Of being a favorer and accomplice of the emned to death.
conspiracy contrived by the English against the life of “Ordered that the present judgment be executed im-
the First Consul, and of intending, in the event of the suc- mediately by the captain reporter, after reading it to the
cess of that conspiracy, to enter France."*

prisoner in presence of the different detachments of the
corps of the garrison.

“Done, closed, and adjudged at one sitting, at VinTHE MINUTES OF THE JUDGMENT OF THE

cennes, the day, month, and year above written, and

signed by us.” DUKE D'ENGHIEN.

Such a judgment, it will be easily understood, could

not be published; a new dress was necessary. AcI do not pretend in this place to pronounce an opinion cordingly, the councillor of state, specially charged with on the arrest, trial and condemnation of the Duke d'En, the management of every thing relative to the tranghien ; it is too exciting a question. I am convinced quillity and internal security of the republic, wrote to that the Duke d’Enghien had entered, like all the other the general of brigade Hullin, commanding the grenaprinces of his family, into the vast conspiracy formed diers of the guard : against the French government and its chief; but I am ready to admit, that little disposed to take an active

General, -1 beg you to transmit me the judgment part, he was not at work at the moment of his arrest. rendered this morning against the Duke d’Enghien, as One of the most profound and wisest men of the empire well as the interrogatories propounded to him. has been made to say that the condemnation of the "I will be obliged if you can place them in the hands Duke d'Enghien was more than a crime; that it was a of the agent who carries my letter. I have the honor blunder. The individual to whom these machiayellian to be, &c.

REAL." words were ascribed, knows very well that if the arrest

A little while afterwards, another letter was sent from and execution of the Duke were a crime, because in the councillor of state to general Hullin. that extraordinary proceeding all the protecting formalities of the law were violated, at least, and expe- tories of the ex-Duke d’Enghien, for the purpose of

General,-) wait the judgment and the interroga. rience has proved it, it was not a blunder; for his death

visiting the First Consul at Malmaison. Marshal Moneey is happily still alive: he might, if necessary,

“Will you inform me at what hour I can have these be consulted.

pieces. The bearer of my letter can take charge of the



bundle, and wait until it is ready, if the copies are private opinions of the Emperor, gave rise to frequent nearly prepared. I have the honor, &c.

and violent quarrels between Napoleon and his Mi.

nister. At last the judgment is sent, carried to Malmaison, When, after the explosion of the third Nivose, the and submitted to the First Consul. All Paris was en- First Consul returned to the Tuileries, the calm which gaged in discussing the subject of the execution, which he had preserved during the whole evening at the opera, had taken place the preceding night; it was necessary gave place to a terrible fit of passion. His first accusafor the government to explain itself. It was at this tion was, as usual, against the Jacobins, and indirectly, period that the new judgment was prepared, such as it in ambiguous terms, against Fouché himself. The Miwas afterwards published. The members of the mili- nister perceived it, his disgrace appeared imminent, but tary commission were not present, so that their signa- he did not bend; without a moment's hesitation he delures could not be obtained; but their names were fended the Jacobins, and accused the royalists. Even placed under the new judgment, and the former one afterwards, when the truth was known, Napoleon did was cancelled.

not forgive his Minister, not because he had suffered so I find still another piece from the hands of M. Real. dangerous a conspiracy to be consummated, but because "Paris, 2d germinal of the 12th year of the republic.

he had been in the right in opposing him and his secret

affections. “The councillor of state, &c. &c. has received from the general of brigade Hullin, commanding the foot assailed through his department. The Ministry of Po

The Minister, who could not be openly struck, was grenadiers of the guard, a little paquet, containing some lice was suppressed, and that department was annexed hair, a gold ring, and a letter; this little paquet bearing to the Ministry of Justice. This was an error, and a the following superscription: To be delivered to madam, the Princess de Rohan, from the ci-devant Duke d'Enghien. tice, called the Police the disgraceful part of his minis

most serious one. The chief judge, Minister of Jus

try. The Police, wanting, under his management, the It is then true that there exists no authentic and direction necessary to so complicated a department, signed minute of the judgment, by virtue of which the suffered the conspiracy of Georges to break out. Duke d'Enghien was shot.

Fouché always appeared to me the very model of a minister for a government succeeding a revolution. He

possessed, under the consulate and the empire, the FOUCHÉ.

merit, at that time very rare, of having an opinion of

his own on men and things, of daring to support it It seems to be the fate of men placed on thrones, to against a master who suffered little contradiction, and distrust their best friends, and to weary them out with of acting in keeping with that opinion. Fouché alune unjust suspicions. I do not intend to examine into the under the consulate and the empire, was really a minisfact, whether Fouché, soured by his disgrace in 1810, ter ; after his disgrace, there were only clerks, very became a traitor in 1815. The conduct of the minister good for executing or transmitting orders, but incapaat this period is very naturally explained, in an answer ble themselves of any important step. which he gave to a question addressed to him by the In 1809, after the battle of Esling, so fatal to our Emperor, at the moment of his setting out on the cam-cavalry, at the moment that Napoleon, having his paign of 1809.

bridges on the Danube carried away, saw bis army seWhat will you do, Fouché, should I happen to die by parated by that river, and placed in a perilous situation, a cannon ball or other accident ?

which exacted of him prodigies of valor and genius, I would seize as much power as I could, to avoid the information was brought to Paris that Lord Chatham, necessity of being governed by events.

brother of Pitt, at the head of an English expedition, Very good; it is the privilege of the game. having carried Flushing, was advancing upon Antwerp,

What I wish to say here is, that Fouché was the and threatened Belgium. On the receipt of this news, best minister of Napoleon, and the one best placed to the Prince Arch-Chancellor assembled a council of Mibe of service to him. After having suppressed the re- nisters. Fouché, who had returned to the ministry in volution, Napoleon, as First Consul, or Emperor, was 1804, assisted at it. His advice was, to appeal immeengaged in bringing about a reaction. Fouché was the diately to the National Guards, and to send them against only minister who moderated this movement, useful and the enemy. necessary if arrested at a given point, but dangerous if “What would the Emperor and the army say, if pushed beyond.

France, defended by them abroad, should suffer her The Emperor was inclined to see only enemies among hearths to be insulted while waiting their assistance ?" those over whom he had immediately triumphed. He Such were the words of the Minister of Police. The forgot that those very persons had themselves conquered Arch-Chancellor replied: others, and that those others would not pardon him for “Monsieur Fouché, I do not wish to have my head having finally profited by the first victory.

cut off. I have despatched a courier to the EmperorFouché was convinced that the royalists were the we must await his answer." true enemies of the Emperor. He took care of, and “And for my part,” replied the Minister of Police, defended the Jacobins, over whom his former connec- “I will do my duty while awaiting it.” tions enabled him to exercise a very great moral influ. On that very day, while the Arch-Chancellor, the ence; and he oppressed, with the whole weight of his Minister of War, and the Minister of the Interior hatred, the royalists, whom he had learnt to appreciate guarded silence, the Minister of Police addressed his correctly. This conduct of Fouché, contrary to the manifesto to the bravery of Frenchmen, and ordered

the National Guards throughout the empire to march. are seen in various places, and into which we look down near a From this circumstance one may see what a man Fouché hundred feet--being less generally than a foot in width the whole was—what energetic impulse he was capable of giving subterranean fire has once existed in this region. Trap or ba

depth--lead to the well-grounded supposition, that a volcanic, to public affairs. The seventeenth day after the circu- salt rock is generally supposed, by the Plutonian theory, to be lar of the Minister, the department of the north set in thrown up by fire, and we find in these rocks additional corrobo. motion the last detachment of a levée of 14,000 men, in ration of such supposition, by the burnt appearance of the stone, uniform, armed and equipped. M. de Pommereuil was

in some places assuming appearances like the pummice stone Prefect of this department. The department of Mo- of Vesuvius, filled with spherical cells, indicative of the action

of heat. Amygdaloid and beautiful agales are also found here; selle equally distinguished itself on this occasion: it and some of these precious stones are transparent crystals, as had M. de Vaublane for Prefect, who has since lived richly empurpled as the most exquisite amethysts we have ever through the whole Restoration on his reputation of a

seen; all pointing out the same formation. This basaltic for. good Prefect under the empire. The English expedi- mation also, as is shown by the excavations for canals around tion retired precipitately before the French militia, to unconsciously, contributed, on a gigantic scale, to the investiga.

their base, cut by enterprizing manufacturers (who have thus, whom Fouché had given the Prince of Ponté-Corvo fortions of the geologist,) and as is also seen at the Pallisadoes, chief, much as he was out of favor at that moment. reposes,-curious as it may seem,-on horizontal strata of red

The Emperor either could not or dared not blame the sandstone. The impressions of corals, or perhaps ferns (most Minister of Police; but he openly expressed his dissatis- tion of this sandstone beneath the superincumbent trap, was an.

probably the former,) which these contain, prove that the forma. faction that, in his empire, any single minister had suf- terior to the existence of animal life or vegetation, and yet posficient power to raise and to arm the whole country. terior to the older formation of trap. The latter must, therefore,

The secret of the second disgrace of Fouché is, per- have been thrown up by volcanic action from below the sandhaps, to be found in the great service which he rendered stone on which it now reposes. This trap is composed of hori.

zontal strata of perpendicular columns, or hexagonal pillars, the to the Emperor in 1809. It was deferred for a year, and regular outlines of which are in many places discernible, and attributed to an entirely different cause—to a cause to would he more so, were it perfected into basalt

, like the remark. which the Emperor, in full council of ministers, gave able Giant's Causeway in the north of Ireland ; so that the mass all the gravity of a charge of high treason, but which, of Trap Rock is in perpendicular formations, resting on the perat bottom, had nothing serious in it, if it was not a farce angles. The whole of this structure is so curious, that we might

fectly horizontal layers of sandstone, on which it stands at right prepared on purpose.

wrile volumes upon it; but we must pass to other objects. On In separating from Fouché,—a man of genius, ca- the frowning precipices are erected, near the falls, several pic. pacity for business, and energy,–Napoleon deprived turesque pleasure.gardens and pavilions, underneath groves of himself of one of his most useful servants. From 1804 pine trees; one of which, kept by Mr. Crane, is an excellent es

tablishment, furnished with the best of larders and liquors. to 1810 the Emperor had overrun Europe, and the em- Here, also, are wooden swings erected between the higher trees ; pire had been maintained in a state of perfect tranquil- some of them the most commodious and secure we have ever lity: from 1810 to 1814 he had cause to regret the loss seen. To our surprise we also found here, perched on the top of this minister. During the two periods of his minis. of the rocks, our old friends “Tam O'Shanter and Souter Johntry Fouché concealed much from the First Consul and uneducated Scotch sculptor Thom, who has chosen Patterson

ny," so admirably carved in white sandstone by the celebrated the Emperor; but while he kept from him those things for his residence. After being defrauded, as we have heard, of which he could well afford to be ignorant of, Fouché the profits he ought to have received from this curious statuary, served him with a zeal and ability much more useful by those to whom he had, like other men of genius, unsuspect. than the obsequiousness of the rest of his ministers.

ingly entrusted the exhibition of his works, he has modestly lo. cated himself here, and is humbly occupied in carving out of the fine red sandstone of this region, pilasters and columns, the beauty of which, and the fine finish of the artist's chisel, struck our attention as we passed through the streets. We could not

help stopping here for a moment, while we admired and mourned NEW JERSEY.

the humiliation of mind, whose noble powers were thus degraded

to a servile occupation-yet in misfortune, soaring by its supe. Jaun! lo Patterson, The Falls-Volcanic RocksThe Manufaclories-- Thom the Sculptor, &c.

riority, imprinted like a deathless seal on its productions, over

its own grave,dog by ignorant knavery and sordid treachery. Most persons prefer to visit this interesting place during sum From these reflections on the master productions of art, we mer, when its picturesque scenery is clothed in beautiful verdure. turned again in rapture to the more masterly works of nature, But there are attractions about it, also, during winter, and at all as portrayed in the romantic scenery which every where disseasons, which make it an agreeable excursion. There are few closes its beauties at this remarkable spot. On the winding river places in our immediate vicinity which combine so much of the above the falls, we saw the cleared plots of unborn cities, al. beautiful and useful. Situated at the foot of an isolated link of ready chalked out, in futuro, on the gentle promontories, by tho that curious chain of Trap Rocks which, a few miles to the proprietors of these new purchases (Messrs. Philemon Dicker. north, form the parapet of the Pallisadoes on the Hudson river, son, Dudley Selden, Soth Geer, and others.) One of these plots it enjoys an immense water-power for manufacturing purposes, attracted our notice on the more elevated portion of the ridge, from the celebrated Falls of the Passaic river, which here tum. where the Morris canal winds along on its sublime course, the ble down the perpendicular precipice. The admirer of nature's surplus water of which is to be turned into three successive tiers works is struck with the grandeur of this geological formation, or basins, admitting of the construction of sixty mills if neces. the sides of which are cut out as regularly as a wall of masonry. sary. This part of the river above the falls is the place, also, But a greater architect than the possessor of human hands has where the great public road, now cut through the gorge of the here been at work. By comparing the angles and sides of the precipice from Patterson below, and rising by a gentle ascent, steep precipices, it is evident that they were once united, and will pass by an admirably constructed bridge, now being built, have been rent asunder by some convulsion of nature; as the through the tract of Messrs. Dickerson, Selden, Geer, &c. to the jutting angles and cornices could all be neatly dove-tailed, if upper country of the Passaic. The cascade itself, so celebrated they were approximated together in the gap or gorge through as the lion of this part of the world, of which many a sentimen. which the river now falls into the deep basins below. These tal tourist has written and poet sung, was dashing down the latter have some of them a depth of more than six hundred feet, rocks in all its gorgeous splendor. Masset or white congealed and have never yet been fathomed to their bottom. This, taken foam, which can be seen only in this cold weather, encrusted the in connecuon with the fissures or clefts in the solid rock which black rocks with exquisite chasing or embossed work, as if tho

VOL. III.-17

froth had been suddenly petrified in its course by the touch of pearing as if in full blossom; and the effect of which, when the Perseus' wand. Below were suspended, by the moving mass of ground is covered with snow, is said to be, as it necessarily mush, green water that rolled its glassy arch into the deep abyss be one of the most striking ornaments in the door-yards. This, we neath, long ranges of spire-pointed icicles, that resembled the believe, is one of the numerous indigenous rare shrubs and pipes of some vast organ, composed of transparent crystals-- plants peculiar, as is said by botanists, to the soil of New Jersey. such was their regular shape and size, and their exact distance But the sky--the sky! Can we forget it in this floral episode? from each other in parallel lines. Above the clouds of the spray which, gentle reader, excuse! In the burnished yellow of one we traced, as the sun burst out, a most lovely rainbow, commin uniform color which lighted up the lower part of the horizon, and gling its rich prismatic hues of orange, purple and gold, with the rested on the dark blue outline in the distance, we saw the spires bright opaque mass of waters over which it was spread. The of Newark, the bridge over the broad Hackensack, and the amethyst crystals, found in the surrounding rocks, and which bolder, steeper curvature of Snake Hill. This latter spot is anwe have already mentioned, seemed to have borrowed their ce other sainted ground of romance and legend, standing like a high lestial hues from this divine symbol, of the glittering imagery of rocky island in the midst of the meadows, and from which our which they may be said to be the mineral incarnation, if we dare friend told us it is in the memory of the oldest inhabitants, that use this license of expression. So we had here all the sublimity, there was once a regular ferry io Bergen on the ridge or proin miniature, of the great cataract of Niagara. Nothing secmed montory beyond. Through the gorge which the rail-road makes to take away from it but the encroachments, or rather disfigura. on Bergen Hill, and where we take swift-footed horses that never tions, of art on the summits of these monumental rocks, which afterwards, when placed before ordinary vehicles, can be made were more attractive far to behold, as a lady of Patterson truly to go off a straight line, we were galloped, in two miles, into the de. said, when existing in their native wild scenery. The bridge pot in Jersey City; whence the steamboat waiting for us, now as of wood, on a level with the cascade, but directly below where swirly bore us to our good old City of Gotham, where gas-lighted it comes over, also mars, in some measure, the combination of lamps, in the evening dusk, told us the refreshing beverage of beautiful objects with which it stands in such awkward contrast. tea was awaiting us at our homes. From the lofty crag where we stood, we saw the rapids below passing swistly down into the bed of the river, and stretched out along the banks the white dwelling-houses of the town of Pai. terson, connected by long bridges. Near these, in the centre of the channel, lies one of the most charming little islets of pine trees, and green lawn and shrubbery, and gravelled shore, we ever beheld. A connecting link should be made to this from the

DRINK AND A WAY. bridge; and it ought to be held as sacrilege to make the slightest alteration in this truly picturesque little gem, except an abutment

“ There is a beautiful rill in Barbary received into a large above to inrn the course of the current from it, and a pavilion, basin, which bears a name signifying ‘ Drink and Away,' from or rural cottage, to be built underneath the embowering branches the great danger of meeting with rogues and assassins.” of the pines. Patterson is, besides, another Manchester and Bir.

Dr. Shat. mingham in miniature. It is in a most prosperous condition, and When the fount of Pleasure, bright, in addition to its long ranges of massive stone and brick facto

Sparkles in the rosy ray, ries, for cotton, woollens, &c. placed on three successive tiers of artificial canals brought from the river above the falls, there are Bubbling over with delight, now being erected four more large edifices, viz. two cotton fac “Drink,” poor pilgrim, "and away;" tories, one for locomotive engines (a great business now in our For the lurking foe is nigh, country, and opening a new source of revenue for American en.

And to dally is to die. terprize,) and one for the manufacture of an ingenious species of fire-arms, patented by Mr. Colt. This gentleman and Gov.

But there is a fount above, Dickerson, both of whom are residents of Patterson, have done wonders to exalt the character and enlarge the trade of this

Flowing from Jehovah's throne, thriving city.

Fount of beatific Love, But enough, for the present, of this exhaustless theme. Wond.

That, when earth and time are flown, ing our way to the hospitable mansion of our guide, cicerone

Thou shalt drink, and safely stay, and friend, a foreign gentleman with us noticed, as we proceeded along, the handsome equipages and fashionable dress of the far


” and never go "away.” mers, and their wives and daughters, just returning home from church, and could not understand how our agriculturists were Ho well off in the world, with their money in the funds and large possessions of land, until we enlightened him on the subject, by explaining that our country was yet too happy, and all our population too rich and comfortable in the world, to know any

REVIEW such class as the peasantry (or paysans) the vassals and serfs of Europe. In the afternoon, we again took the cars that brought

OF PRESIDENT DEW'S ADDRESS. us, and going at a secure pace of only twenty miles an hourquite enough, in all conscience, for tourists travelling through

We have read with great attention the Introductory this charming country--we coursed onward upon our way to Address of President Dew, lately delivered before the Bergen and Jersey City. Appropos of all this level tract. Our Students of the College of William and Mary. It is a own great river Hudson, doubtless, once had one of its embou.

very interesting performance, presenting most agreeachures on those vast marshes, stretching down to Newark Bay: and the Pallisadoe rocks at Patterson were then, in all probable information in regard to the condition and prospects bility, washed by its current, as those above Hoboken are to-day of the Institution, giving a clear and comprehensive Every thought almost of the beauties we had left behind us, was view of the enlarged course of studies to be pursued, now absorbed and forgotten in the twilight scenery which sud- and elosing with some advice to the students, at once denly broke upon our view in the western sky, and the pageantry wise and parental, the tone and spirit of which cannot of which, though daily familiar to American eyes, ever astonishes and delights. It was a broad, magnificent drop-curtain,

be too highly commended. hanging down from the azure firmament, and composed of the President Dew may now be regarded as a writer of brightest golden hues, here and there streaked with long lines of established reputation. Possessing fine talents, comblue slender clouds, tipped on their edges with dyes more gorge bined with great industry and a popular style, his comous than the Tyrean purple ; patches also were seen of a dazzling blood-red, recalling the bright hues of the red berries of a

positions will doubtless exercise no little influence on bush which attracted our notice at Patterson, loaded with crimson- the opinions and taste of the rising generation. The colored fruit, though stripped of foliage, at this season, yet ap. productions of such a writer, occupying too, as Presi

dent Dew does, a station, which confers not only influ- | Our author was probably misled by the use of this word ence, but a species of authority in the republic of letters, in Burke's celebrated description of the character of should be distinguished both for correctness of senti- Lord Grenville, which was evidently in his mind when ment and purity of style; and so far from protecting the address was prepared. He cannot, however, plead him from criticism, the eminence of the author renders the authority of this distinguished writer. The word it the more necessary that his errors should be exposed, was used by him in ils proper sense, as denoting an act in order that they may be avoided by those who may and not a quality of the mind. His expression is, “a select him as a model for imitation. Dissenting from far more extensive comprehension of things."'* some of the views presented in this address, and deem We might add to this enumeration other expressions ing it, as a literary production, liable to just criticism, not free from objection, and point out defects in the strucwe propose briefly to review it; and shall endeavor, in ture of many of the sentences of the address that a candid and respectful manner, to point out some of its might be amended. But we desire not to be considered faults in style and errors in doctrine.

hypercritical; and no good purpose would probably be The style is flowing and harmonious, but seems to us accomplished by prosecuting farther this species of vermore florid and declamatory than is consistent with bal criticism. Enough has already been said to congood taste in so grave a performance as an Inaugural vince us of the facility with which even the best writers Address. It is, moreover, not remarkable for purity or may fall into errors of expression, and of the importance precision. We may possibly be regarded as performing of cultivating that habit of discrimination in the use of a task useless, if not invidious, in entering into an enu- words, without which can never be attained, a style at meration of errors, in the use of words, committed per- once elegant, perspicuous and correct. haps through hasle or inadvertence. But in this repub In the course of his address, President Dew pays a lican country, where the tendency to corruption in our well-deserved tribute to the value of classical learning; language is so great, that many seem to consider the and it should be a subject of congratulation with the privilege of murdering the "king's English” at pleasure, friends of William and Mary, that this important deas a necessary part of liberty, we cannot think that ver-partment of education, which has so long been neglected, bal criticism ought to be regarded as an art altogether is about to receive a proper degree of attention in that useless. There can, at least, be no cause of just com- venerable institution. It is most remarkable, however, plaint against its exercise, when the work to be reviewed that a gentleman of our author's extensive acquireis the finished production of a gentleman of acknow- ments, and one so thoroughly impressed with the imledged erudition, who is professionally engaged in importance of this species of literature, should have been parting to others instruction in the art of composition. so very unfortunate in his classical quotations. These

The offences against purity of style in this Address should never be introduced in a written composition, are numerous, and may be classed, in the language of particularly in one emanating from a learned institution, grammarians, under the general heads of barbarisms and unless they be apposite, and calculated to illustrate or improprieties. Some words in it are not pure English, adorn the subject under consideration. Nor should they and others are applied in a sense not sanctioned by good be used except in the very language and true spirit of use, or the definitions of the best lexicographers. For the author from whom they are borrowed. In violation example, we have to ornament used as a verb, in place of these rules, President Dew has introduced in his adof to adorn, at once a legitimate and much more elegant dress the following prosaic line: Addicti jurare in expression. An error of the same kind is committed verba nullius magistri.” How little this adds to the in the use of based on for founded on. Although the force or elegance of his composition, the genuine lovers latter of these expressions is frequently used in conver- of classical literature can determine. It can scarcely be sation and in public speaking, yet neither of them will regarded as a quotation; and literally rendered into be found in any work of such acknowledged merit that English, it would be flat and insipid, and perfectly ridiit may be regarded as a standard. We have also this culous as a part of the highly-wrought passage in which expression—"rail-roads are constructing.” Expressions it occurs. The whole force and beauty of the original, of this kind are ungrammatical, and may be easily “nullius addictus jurare in verba magistri,” are destroyed, avoided without offending against good taste; and al- and the classical reader is at a loss to determine for though they may be tolerated in colloquial discourse, what good purpose the sacrifice has been made. should never be introduced in an elaborate composition. The next quotation occurs in a very labored passage, By this criticism we wish, by no means, to be under- which, though evidently intended to be highly finished, stood as sanctioning the still more objectionable phrase is exceedingly defective. We will, therefore, transcribe “are being constructed,” which of late has become fash- it: “Hence it is, that old William and Mary can boast ionable. The words pervasive and incipiency are new of so astonishing a number of distinguished statesmen to our ear: they are not found in Walker, and not hav- in proportion to her alumni-statesmen with whom she ing seen them in the course of our reading, we infer that might boldly challenge any other institution in this they have not yet been licensed by that use, quem penes eountry or the world—statesmen who, whilst they have arbitrium est, et jus, el norma loquendi.

woven the chaplet of her glory, and engraven her name “There is nothing" (says the address) "in which our speakers are more defective than in comprehension of *We might have said, with truth, that this sentence contains idea.” In this short sentence are two improprieties of three improprieties of expression. The word idea is used by our expression. The author means, that there is nothing author neither in its philosophical nor popular sense. We pre. in which our speakers are more deficient than in compre- sume he intended to use it in its popular sense, in which it is sy.

nonymous with a thought, an opinion. It is never used to signify hensiveness of idea. Comprehension occurs again in the mind, or the power of thought, in which sense our author seems same sense, in the same paragraph, and also in a note. I to have applied it.

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