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owns between 35 and 45 deer and we hope in a year or two, when they can live independent of mission support, that the influence which they will exert as Christian deermen will do much toward leading the natives along this coast 'out of darkness into light.' What a pleasure when visiting in camp to see them bow their heads and offer thanks to God before eating; to lead them in a little prayer meeting where every one joins and to sing with them 'A tent or a cottage, why should I care?' Go-ten-um, who is about 21, is considered the best deerinan. He is of a mechanical turn of mind and made the wood cuts for the Eskimo Bulletin. A trip on reindeer sleds with Kiv-yearz-ruk through the mountains to Port Clarence was made in January. While there we had an opportunity to visit the Goyernment herd, talk with the Laplanders, and assist in two services on Sunday, which were well attended. Our people have not prospered as in previous winters. A threatened epidemic in the fall together with the · hoodoos which followed, partly accounted for this. Distilling and drunkenness throughout the year often prevented many from making the most of a favorable wind. The walrus season has not been favorable, but at this writing they have all well filled meat houses. We rejoice that the reindeer herd will give a livelihood to the people for the next few years, and this influence may be far-reaching. In conclusion, we wish to thank our many friends for their kind letters and their prayerful interest in this work. We feel especially grateful to the few churches and persons who have shown by their gifts that they believed that these poor Eskimos were included in Matthew xxviii, 19. Surely none can be more in need of the gospel than these. With this burden upon our hearts, we pray God that in the future this mission may receive the support which we think its importance deserves."
Mrs. James McWhinnie, superintendent of the Alaska Work of the Woman's American Baptist Home Mission Society, sends the following account of the society's work on Wood Island:
In 1884 it was decided that the Baptists should establish a mission in Alaska. From Mount St. Elias to the Shumagin Islands, with Kadiak as headquarters, was set aside as Baptist ground.
September 25, 1886, marks the beginning of Baptist missions in Alaska. From that time until 1890 the work was done by teachers appointed and supported by the Government and commissioned by the American Baptist Home Mission Society. Mr. and Mrs. W. E. Roscoe, Mr. and Mrs. J. A. Wirth (supported in part by Dr. Jackson and friends in Seattle), and Mr. and Mrs. Faodorf were at different times Government teachers. These all advocated the establishment of an orphanage as the true way of doing missionary work in Alaska.
This work was undertaken by the Woman's American Baptist Home Mission Society of New England. The frame of a building was purchased and forwarded to Alaska in the summer of 1892. In March, 1893, Mr. W. E. Roscoe was sent by the society to the territory to select location and conduct the work.
July 4, 1893, the first child was received into the orphanage. For two years Mr. Roscoe labored earnestly in the development of the work, during which time 24 children received their care in the home.
In the summer of 1893 Miss Carrie Currant was sent as teacher, but was compelled to return in November on account of ill health. In September, 1894, Miss Lulu C. Goodchild arrived as reenforcement, and continued with the work until her marriage, July, 1897. Mr. Roscoe having resigned to return to the States, Mr. and Mrs. C. P. Coe were appointed to take charge, and arrived on the field June 5, 189.). In the foliowing September Miss Hattie B. Snow was added to the force of workers, but was compelled by broken health to return to her home in August, 1897.
Mr. and Mrs. Coe found 18 children in the home. Since that time 14 have been added.
These children have been received upon different conditions. Some have been apprenticed by their parents to the mission until they become of age; others--waifs-have been apprenticed by the United States commissioner; others still are received from parents who pay a nominal charge for their care.
The boys are taught gardening, use of tools, care of stock, etc. They cut the trees for wood, saw and chop them up for use, carry water, fish and hunt. The girls are taught to wash, iron, scrub, sew, bake, cook, mend, and care for the house.
Religious services are held every day, and in these the children take great interest and enjoyment. They sing and recite Scripture, and make the services largely their own.
In the past year and a half several improvements that add much to the value and appearance of the premises have been added. First was built a woodshed 20 by 31 fcet, for storing and cutting wood, with rooms above for play rooms, shor, and storage-a very essential improvement when we consider the number of rainy days for which Alaska is noted. Next followed a cottage, situated at a distance of about two minutes walk from the orphanage. Last, but more important than the others, came the chapel. It contains one room 26 feet square, one 12 by 20 feet, and a tower 8 feet square. The whole was completed at a cost of $600. The Woman's American Baptist Home Mission Society prid one half, the other half being raised on Wood Island, or sent by friends for that purpose. The North American Commercial Company, which does business on this island, furnished the labor gratis.
July 20, 1896, the Wood Island Baptist Church was organized with six members. Since that time one, the oldest girl of the orphanage, has been added by baptism.
The day school is open to the children of the native villagers. Last year, notwithstanding the opposition of the priest, 21 of them were enrolled. For the past two winters night school also has been held for the benefit of young men and youths. The attendance was gratifying.
Last year it was Mr. Coe's privilege. during the summer, to preach to the people at Kadiak every other Sunday. The services were appreciated and would have been renewed this summer, but, being the only inan on the place, demands on him for manual labor made it impossible to do so. The society has already voted to employ an industrial teacher, and after he is secured, there will be more time for outside missionary work. The cost of our present work is estimated at $4,500 annually.
The Jesse Lee IIome, L'nalaska.-In September the home was able to be removed from the rented building, which it had occupied for several years, into new and commodions quarters of its own. The building is the admiration of all residents. It is a large, two-and-a-half-story building, and with the exception of the Government schoolhouse is the most pretentious building in the place. It is in charge of two Methodist ladies, Miss Agnes L. Sowle, of Hagaman, N. Y., being principal, and Miss Sarah J. Rinch, of Canada, being her assistant. Residing under the same roof and giving some assistance outside of school hours are the sisters Misses Elizabeth and Ada Mellor, who teach the Government school.
There are at the present time 30 children in the home belonging to the Aleut race. During the last summer one of the girls in the home was taken at the expense of a wealthy citizen of Chicago to that city to be educated, and three or four others were sent to Captain Pratt's celebrated school at Carlisle, Pa.
The school is doing a large preparatory work for that people. If in the near future there shall be any native teachers in the Aleutian Islands, if there shall be any native Christian homes and native Christian parents, they are now in process of being created by that school-the Jesse Lee Memorial Home at Unalaska being the only evangelizing influence at work among the Aleuts of Alaska.
When in November the revenue cutter Bear was ordered to the Arctic Ocean to try and land a relief party to go overland to the 400 whalers imprisoned in the ice and in danger of starvation, north of Point Barrow, Captain Tuttle announced through the newspapers of Seattle that he would be very glad to carry free of freight any Christmas presents that the citizens might wish to send to Unalaska for the destitute Aleut children and the children in the Methodist Home. The project was taken up with enthusiasm by the teachers in the public schools of that city, and the children in those schools made Christmas presents to the children in Unalaska. To the surprise of every one, about two tons of dolls drums, whistles, jumping jacks, games, picture books, candy, etc., were sent in, so that the friends of the mission had the satisfaction of knowing that Chrismas was to be a very happy day at that distant mission.
Unalaska Harbor being the natural stopping place for vessels passing from Seattle or San Francisco to the Yukon River, has grown into new importance through the gold discoveries, so much so that this present winter six iron steamers are being built in its harbor, employing some two or three hundred white workman, and there ought to be a Methodist minister stationed there that these men as well as the natives might have gospel privileges.
The coming and going of so many sailors make it very important that a hospital should be established at that place, which could be very appropriately done in connection with the Methodist mission work.
THE SWEDISH MISSION COVENANT'S MISSIONS IN ALASKA.
The Rev. D. Nyvall contributes the following account of the operations of the society at Yakutat, Unalaklık, and Golovin Bay:
The mission work, now carried on in Alaska by the Swedish Mission Covenant of America, was begun by the Mission Covenant of Sweden. It was at the annual conference in Stockholin in 1886 that the Swedish Covenant decided to begin its mission among the heathen people in Alaska. They then sent out Mr. A. E. Karlson and Mr. Adolph Lydeil to begin missions among the Alaskans.
On the 25th of June, 1887, Mr. Karlson arrived at St. Michaels, in northern Alaska, where, owing to the lack of necessary communications, he had to remain a whole year before he could return to the United States to procure the nece sary supplies. In the summer of 1888 he returned to San Francisco to procure materials for a house and other necessaries.
Mr. Lydell stopped at Yakutat, south of Mount St. Elias. As soon as he had de ermined on the location of his station he went to San Francisco to secure supplies and provisions, returning to Yakutat in 1888, accompanied by Karl John Henrikson, whom he by a special providence of God had accidentally met in Oregon. Lydell, however, was taken sick immediately after his return to Yakutat. Having suffered from a severe pulmonary affection, he was not able to continue his missionary work in those cold regions. On the advice of physicians he went back to California, and in his stead Mr. Albin Jolinson was sent out in 1889. As soon as Mr. Lvdell's health permitted he took up the work of a traveling missionary in the United States, in which work he has since engaged. His work consists in traveling among the mission friends to arouse an interest for the Alaska mission and to solicit means for the same. In this he has succeeded well. The interest manifested in this country for this mission is to a great extent due to the work of Mr. Lydell.
At first the missionaries met only with adversities and obstacles. It was not an easy task in this cold country to get a home to live in. They succeeded, however, in getting some boards, but not sufficient for a house; hence they were compelled to go into the woods, fell the trees, and split them with an ax into boards and shingles. This was hard work; but they succeeded. They arranged in the newly made home first a large room for public gatherings, and even before it was fini-hed they assembled the natives in the kitchen and preached to them by means of an interpreter.
From the United States money was plentifully contributed, with which the missionaries built a children's home in Yakutat. The building was a two-story house, containing room for the missionaries, room for the children, and a large schoolroom, which also served as a church. In this house twenty-four children were educated. In short, the skies of the future appeared almost cloudless.
Suddenly there came an unexpected stroke as a thunderbolt from a clear sky. On the 8th of January, 1892, the home was suddenly burned down, and with it nearly all the property of the mission, together with that of the missionaries, was destroyed.
At about the same time that this calamity took place a good step was taken toward success. A steam saw had been received the fall before. Henrikson had bought this saw with money subscribed for the purpose through the efforts of Mr. Lydell. The saw was not yet in working order, but everything was really for its erection when the home burned. When the home had burned and all the books and material for the school had been destroyed, the inissionaries got time to devote themselves to the erection of the sawmill. This mill was built of logs cut in the woods and split with the ax into boards. As all of their blankets and clothing with which they paid the natives had burned, they resolved to do all the work without any assistance from them. This, however, they were not allowed to do. Said the natives, “ Permit us to work; we will ask no pay. We will eat at home, and if you get anything in the future you can repay us. With their aid the work made rapid progress, so the sawmill was in rulining order by the time the first boat arrived in the spring.
The result of the work of the sawmill was that the entire village was rebuilt. It was converted from a number of poor xhanties to neat and comfortable lumber houses, built along streets, as in our towns. This change took place within a couple of years.
At present there is a congregation at Yakutat of 38 persons who have received the Christian baptism. This congregation is organized in accordance with the same principles of our mission congregations in Sweden and America and hold their services in the same manner. There is even a Young People's Society, organized with the purpose of joining the young in their work for their Master. This society
has proved a great help to the young against the temptations to attend the dances and festivities of the heathen.
Knowing what a powerful factor a Christian school is, it is encouraging to learn that from 60 to 100 children are educated in the mission school. Although the home has not been rebuilt. yet five children are reared and educated at the station. The property at this station is valued at $3,570.
In the spring of 1811 Miss Hannan Sevenson, from Worcester, was sent out to superintend the children's home at Unalaklik. Mr. David Johnsou, of Harcourt, Iowa, who has been called as school teacher at Unalaklik, went out in her company.
To the credit of the people it must be said that it has been very quiet and peaceful in this community. Drinking parties and rows are seldom heard of. At Christmas tine and during the week of prayer many were touched by the Holy Spirit. We had a full house every evening. The natives sang. prayed, and testified. Even a young Shuman arose and said that he should not iike to be left when the Lord would come.
At tie mission station six boys and three girls have been supported. They are all obedient, and live for God.
In the spring of 1892, Mr. August Anderson, in company with one of the boys at the school, made a missionary tour along the western co ist. They then came to Golovin Bay, where Anderson found many Eskimos in poverty and darkness. He asked the natives if they wished to have a school in which their children could learn about God. They all answered “ Yes.”
Mr. Anderson returned home to Unalaklik and told his brethren what he had hea:d an I seen. It was in the summer of this year that Mr. Karlson started on his tour through the Unit.d States and Sweden. Having reached the States, Mr. Karlson began to collect money for the mission at Golovin Bay, receiving at his first meeiing, which was held in San Francisco, a collection of $70 as a beginning. Arriving at Rockford, Ill., when the Covenant's annual meeting was in session, he put forth his cause orally as well as in a written report. This exerted such an intinence on the whole meeting that immediately, at the same session, about $1,500 was ra sel for the Alaska mission amon; the delegates. Subscriptions continued at the general meetings until the sum was increased to $3,000. We all, who were present, remernher what a missionary spirit prevailed at this blessed meeting.
The following summer, when Karlson returned to Alaska, he had in his company Mr. N. 0. Hultberg and Miss Malvina Johnson. Golovin Bay was assigned to Brother Hultberg as his mission field, and he went there directly from St. Michaels on the boat which brougit up Mr. Karlson. There he met his coworker, Mr. August Anderson. They now first had an earnest praver meeting, after which they took up their work with zeal. They got along so well in building their house that they coull assemble the people during the very same fall. They kept up their meetings during the winter.
The following spring they had the joy of baptizing several natives. The following fall Brother Hultberg left Golovin Bay to assist in the work at Unalaklik, and so Jr. Anderson was left alone at Golovin Bay. In the spring Mr. Hultberg made his way down to St. Michaels to meet his betrothed. Their weddin; too< place at Unalaklik. The fourth day after their marriage the newly wedded couple went to Golovin Bay, where they since have labored.
We have now in that place a mission house, dwelling house, and a schoolhouse, and, better than all, a congregation of Christians numbering 37 members. Forty children attend the school, and 4 are supported at the Children's Home. The mission property at this station is valued at $2,525. This sum does not include the value of the 100 acres of land, which, according to the laws of the United States, belong to the station.
The members of the congregation at Unalaklik number 40. The school children number between C0 and 70. Four chiidren are supported at the Children's Home, The property is valued at $1,490.
MISSIONS OF THE PROTESTANT EPISCOPAL CHURCH,
In the Terrritory of Alaska this church has work among the whites at Juneau and Douglas and Sitka, and among the Indians of the Yukon region and the Eskimo of arctic Alaska, all under the supervision of Bishop P. T. Rowe. The following extract is taken from the annual report of the board of managers of the Domest c and Foreign Missionary Society of the Protestant Episcopal Church: • The Rev. Mr. Prevost, whose station at Fort Adams is among the Indians, the bishop temporarily removed to Circle City, as it was the more important for the moment and a convenient center. In June last the Rev. Mr. Chapinan, who, with
his faithful wife and Miss Sabine, is stationed at Amvik, 600 miles from the mouth of the Yukon, wrote home that the mission school at that place, though unable to care for more than two or three boarding pupils, had a most prosperous year. In November, and again in December, Mr. Chapman visited the villages upon the Chageluk Slough, to the eastward from Anvik. He hopes to establish a school there with a native teacher. In April Mr. Chapman made a visit up the Kuskokwim River as far as Vinisahle."
From Point Hope Dr. Driggs, under date of June 7, reports that on his return to duty from a visit to the States he received a joyful and hearty welcome from the natives on his arrival at Point Hope. The Doctor has erected a new home for himself at this place. in the building of which natives and a few white men assisted. The interest in the Sunday services has been very marked, the average attendance being 120 and 125. A widespread epidemic of influenza made its appearance during the summer. The outlook here is very encouraging, and Dr. Driggs says: "I doubt if there is a single city or village in the United States where the ratio to the population of those who attend worship on Sundays has been as large the past winter as it has been here at Point Hope.”
The statisties last reported are as follows: Stations, Anvik (10 communicants); Circle City, Indian Mission; Fort Adams (3 communicants); Nowikowkat, Fort Yukon (5 communicants); Point Hope. Mr. Prevost reports large numbers of baptized Indians within his district. Number of missionaries, 8.
STATEMENT WITH REGARD TO MR. DUNCANS WORK AMONG THE
TSIMPSHEEAN INDIANS OF BRITISH AMERICA AND ALASKA.
On the 1st of October, 1857, Mr. William Duncan, of England, arrived at Fort Simpson, British Columbia, to open a mission among the Tsimpsheeans.
He found by actual count that they numbered 2,300. They were barbarians of the lowest type, and their history little less than a chapter of crime and misery.
On the 28th of June, 1858, he had so far acquired a knowledge of the language that he was able to open his first school in the house of a chief, with an attendance of 26 children and 15 adults.
In April, 1860, he made preaching tours to the various villages situated on the rivers which empty into the ocean near Fort Simpson,
Having secured a few followers among the natives, he proposed to them that they remove from the native village, where they were more or less under the influence of their heathen neighbors, and establish a new village that should be under strict regulations. The removal was accomplished on the_27th of May, 1860, the people arriving at their new location, 16 miles south of Fort Simpson, the next day at 2 o'clock. There were 50 men, women, and children, that composed this first colony. On the 6th of June 290 additional natives joined them. Every one desiring to settle in the new village was required to subscribe to the following agreement:
1. To give up sorcery. 2. To cease calling in sorcerers when sick. 3. To cease gambling. 4. To cease giving away their property for display. 5. To cease painting their faces. 6. To cease drinking intoxicating liquors. 7. To observe the Sabbath, 8. To attend religious instruction, 9. To send their children to school. 10. To be cleanly. 11. To be industrious. 12. To be peaceful. 13. To be liberal and honest in trade. 14. To build neat houses. 15. To pay the village tax.
The new village, notwithstanding the above stringent regulations, grew very rapidly until it had a population of 1,000 natives. They had erected for themselves good, comfortable frame houses; had a steam sawmill, a salmon-canning establishment, and a village store owned largely by native shareholders. A num. ber of them had learned the carpentry trade, others furniture making, and still others boat building and boot and shoe making and the various industries in villages,
Their prosperity continued until about 1880, when the news of the remarkable success of the mission had circulated wherever the English language was known.