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In all European countries in which the state supervises the school system and regulates the appointment of teachers, laws are in existence which provide for the teacher's support in old age and in cases of disability. The Annual Report of 1894-95 gives detailed statements concerning amount of pension, time of service, age of beneficiary, etc., for European countries. (See Vol.1, pp. 1079–1108.) It is held there that teachers being officers of the state are, as such, entitled to pensions, especially since their salaries are, as a rule, smaller than in this country. But in no case in Europe does the state bear the whole burden of maintaining the pension fund. The teachers themselves have to pay a small percentage of their salaries toward maintaining the fund. It is estimated that on an average a teacher in Germany contributes himself about one-half of what he subsequently receives in form of pension. Besides pension funds the governments in Germany, Austria, and a few other countries maintain funds for the support of widows and orphans of teachers. Mutual aid societies which also pay annuities are established by the teachers themselves in many of the cities of central Europe.
In the United States no teachers are pensioned from public funds. Voluntary beneficial associations have been formed in some cities, and in other localities specified below. State laws provide for similar ends in a similar way, the essential difference being that in the latter case participation is enforced upon all teach
The following paragraph shows the varieties of organization, etc.: Voluntary mutual benefit associations for temporary aid only exist in Baltimore, St. Louis, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Detroit, Chicago, Buffalo, San Francisco, St. Paul, and one interstate association. These call for $1 to $2 initiation fee; $1 to $5 annual dues. Special assessments of $1 are made in some cases. Benefits in sickness range from 50 cents a day to $10 a week; at death funeral expenses only are paid in some instances, and in others a sum equal to $1 from each member of the association.
Associations for annuity, or retirement fund only, are in New York, Boston, and Baltimore, and there is an annuity guild in Massachusetts. The initiation fees reported are $3 to $5. The annual dues are 1 to 14 per cent of salary up to $18 or $20. The annuity is from 60 per cent of salary to $600 a year. Time of service required for retirement is from two to five years with disability, or from thirtyfive to forty years without disability,
Associations for both temporary aid and annuity exist in Hamilton County (Cincinnati), Philadelphia, Brooklyn, and District of Columbia. Initiation fees, $1 to $10; annual dues $5 to $40. Annuity, $5 per week to $600 per year, and $100 for funeral expenses in case of death. Temporary aid, during illness, $5 or $6 per week. Time of service required for retirement is two to five years with disability, or thirty-five.to forty years without disability.
Pension or retirement funds are authorized by State tures for St. Louis, all cities in California, Brooklyn, New York City, Detroit, Chicago, all cities in New Jersey, Cincinnati, and Buffalo. Dues vary little; they are generally 1 per cent of salary. Annuity, $250 to one-half of salary; maximum, $1,200. Minimum length of service with disability, twenty to thirty years; without disability, twenty-five to thirty-five years.
FOREIGNERS IN UNIVERSITIES OF CENTRAL EUROPE.
The numbers given in the following summary are the latest available; they are for the scholastic year 1891-95.
A glance at the totals shows that the number of foreigners studying in Germany is not inconsiderable. It must be borne in mind, however, that the numbers given represent only those of matriculated students, for those are the only ones who can be considered in official reports. The number of those who visit German institutions as hearers for some length of time, and without being matriculated, attend clinics, work in laboratories, and listen to private lectures, is very large, but can not be stated with accuracy. It is estimated that that number exceeds those of matriculated foreigners. In the summer of 1895 the universities and other institutions of learning in Germany had upon their rolls the names of 3,362 foreigners. That is, in comparison to the total number of matriculated students, equal to 8.48 per cent. Of these 3,362 foreigners the universities proper had 2,015 (7 per cent), the polytechnica 1,011 (13.1 per cent), the veterinary schools 15 (1.73 per cent), the agricultural academies 101 (9.37 per cent), the forestry academies 59 (18.6 per cent), and the mining academies 132 (32.1 per cent). Of the 3,362 foreigners there were 966 Russians, 514 Americans, 467 Austrians and Hungarians, 3 16 Swiss, 180 Englishmen, 158 Hollanders, 142 Bulgarians, 116 Swedes and Norwegians, 82 Roumanians, 69 Italians, 57 Asiatics, 53 Frenchmen, 37 Servians, 36 Belgians, 36 Turks, 27 Greeks, 26 Danes, 22 Africans, 14 Australians, 8 Spaniards, 4 Portuguese, and 2 Montenegrins.
In the Austrian universities and other institutions there were matriculated 1,106 foreigners in the summer of 1895 among a total of 18,031 students, or 6.14 per cent. Of these 1,106 foreigners there were 987 (6.58 per cent) students of universities, the polytechnica had 84 (3.1 per cent), the mining academies 16 (7 per cent), and the agricultural academy in Vienna had 19 (7.66 per cent). The 1,106 foreigners consisted of 239 Germans, 236 Russians, 115 Servians, 111 Italians, 106 Americans, 6 Roumanians, 71 Bulgarians, 33 Turks, 31 Englishmen, 25 Swiss, 11 Greeks, 10 Frenchmen, 9 Hollanders, 9 Swedes and Norwegians, 8 Africans, 6 Belgians, 6 Asiatics, 3 Spaniards, and 1 Montenegrin.
The Swiss higher seats of learning matriculated no less than 1,667 foreigners among a total of 3,968 students. The percentage of foreigners here was 12.6. The universities alone enr led 1,341, or 42.2 per cent, and the polytechnical school in Zürich 326, or 43 per cent, of a total number of the matriculated students. Of the 1,667 foreigners Germany had sent 549, Russia 399, Austria-Hungary 143, Bulgaria 137, Roumania 86, Italy 69, America 65, France 63, Asia 26, Holland 25, Turkey 22, England 20, Greece 19, Servia 17, Sweden and Norway 15, Denmark 5, Belgium 3, Portugal 2. Africa 2, Spain 1.
From these summaries it is seen that as far as attendance of foreigners is concerned, Switzerland ranks first with 42.6 per cent of the total number; then follows Germany, with 8.49 per cent, and lastly Austria, with 6.14 per cent. This does not, as has been said before, include the so-called free lances who attend these higher seats of learning only for a time and who, being without proper preparation, can not matriculate, hence can not be counted as students by the officers of the insti. tutions. They have, as a matter of self-evidence, most of the privileges of the students by becoining the private students of renowned professors, and have access to the libraries, laboratories, experimental stations, and other accessories which are open to those who can pay the fees. In Germany it is the mining academies which are, comparatively, attended most frequently by foreigners (32.4 per cent), and the veterinary schools are attended least by foreigners (1.53 per cent). The proportion of foreigners in German universities has risen from 5.16 per cent in the year 1980 to 8.48 per cent in 1895. In Austria the school of agriculture in Vienna has the greatest proportion of foreigners, namely, 7.66 per cent, while the poly. technica have only 3.1 per cent. In Switzerland universities and the polytechnical school are attended by foreigners at about an equal ratio.
In France efforts are being made to invite foreign students, especially from America, to attend the higher institutions of learning of that country. Admission to these institutions has been made easier and the academic degrees which formerly were only given to French students have been made accessible. A communication of the United States ambassador to France, Gen. Horace Porter, to the State Department, dated January 11, 1898, in answer to an inquiry in regard to the admission of a student from the United States into the School of Mines, contains statements which are applicable to other higher seats of learning also. He says:
“No foreign student can enter any of the schools of France-medicine, phar. macy, dentistry, veterinary, painting, design, architecture, music, declamation, engineering, etc.-- without the formal application of the diplomatic representative of this country. In most cases two letters suffice, one making application, the
other expressing thanks when the request is granted. Sometimes more correspondence is necessary, for the reason that those proposing to enter any of the highgrade schools have to produce certain certificates of studies or diplomas, which the authorities accept only when they come through the embassy. These rules, says General Porter, apply to all foreign students. No discrimination is made against Americans; on the contrary, the authorities extend all possible facilities to them. There is a large number of American students in Paris, and, as a rule, they are much liked by the teachers in French institutions.
"As for the School of Mines,” he continues, “foreigners can be admitted there either as foreign pupils, in which case they have to stand an examination, or as free auditors, in which case there is no examination. The courses, however, are not all open to that class of students, and no diploma is granted them. In both cases they have to pay 50 francs ($9.65) for matriculation. If the school is full, as occasionally happens, the application for admission is put off until the next year."
THE CONVEYANCE OF CHILDREN TO SCHOOL.
The practice of discontinuing weak schools and of conveying the pupils at the public expense to stronger central schools continues to give favorable results and promise of further extension in the near future.
The development of the electric trolley-car system, the bicycle, and the movement in favor of good roads are all working in the direction of furnishing suitable
graded-school advantages to the children in the rural districts. " The money saved in a small town by reducing the number of teachers is often large enough to furnish better school accommodations to the children, better wages to better teachers for them, such transportation as consolidation requires, and longer schooling.". State Superintendent Hill, of Massachusetts, presents thus briefly the economical advantages of conveyance."
The following States have made legal provision for transporting children to school at the public expense: Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Iowa, and Nebraska.
The State superintendents of Rhode Island and Wisconsin have declared that the existing provisions of the school laws of their respective States are sufficient to authorize the conveyance of pupils at the public expense. Certain counties of Ohio are authorized by special laws to establish central schools and convey pupils to and from them, and excellent results have followed the adoption of this policy.
Some progress has also been made in this direction in Pennsylvania and South Dakota, and perhaps in other States, where there already exists, as in Pennsylvania, “law enough to cover the case."
For discussions of this subject, statements of advantages and disadvantages, results of experience, etc., see Reports of this office for 1894-95, Volume 2, pages 1469-1182; 1895-96, Volume 2, pages 1353-1358. Amount expended in Massachusetts for transporting children to school for the past
HIGHER COMMERCIAL EDUCATION. The immense progress the natural sciences, technology, and transportation have made in recent years has given to the commercial profession an importance which could not be foreseen in former years. More than ever before has it become the merchant's duty to act as middleman between producer and consumer. In ever widening circles he has to bring the products of agriculture and industry to their proper markets. By means of increased taxation to which commercial enterprises are subject they support ever more strongly the State in the discharge of its civilizing efforts. Direct exchange between producer and consumer has almost
1 Mass. Sch. Rep. 1896–97, p. 123.
wholly ceased, and the percentage of the population devoted to commercial pursuits has increased considerably in every civilized country.
It seems worthy of mention that at present the Governments everywhere in Europe are urged strongly by commercial men to establish more higher commercial schools and support them exclusively from State funds. It is argued that the State provides higher technological, industrial, agricultural, forestry, and mining academies for leaders in technical pursuits, agriculture, etc., while for the mercantile branch no State institution exists. The merchants feel that the education of their assistants is not of such a high order as that of the members of other callings, and they attribute it to the want of institutions of a high order. At present the commercial branch is entirely dependent for the best preparation of its members upon higher schools established by local authority or private enterprise-institutions which charge high tuition fees, hence are attended by wealthy young men only. This opinion has found expression in legislatures and parliaments, where it was urged that much greater demands are made now than formerly, owing to freer commercial movement all over the civilized world, and it would therefore seem wise if the State authorities paid more attention to proper preparation of men who iniglit become leaders in commerce, as the State prepares leaders in every other field of human exertion.
Moved by these considerations, several European Governments have of late years bestowed much attention upon commercial training of young men, and the results thus far obtained give assurance that the further development of schools for that purpose will be commensurate with the demands of the times.
In Germany particularly the commercial secondary schools have developed with the aid of provincial and State support, till at last a university has opened its doors for higher commerclal education. On February 22, 1898, the University of Leipzig received an addition to its various courses in the shape of a higher commercial course. The particulars may be found on page 1498 of this report. In connection with this it may be remarked that the cities of Magileburg and Cologne are making earnest efforts to establish independent commercial universities. In Italy the State subsidizes the higher commercial school at Venice, reserving the privilege of having its consnls and consular agents prepared at that school. In Belgium the Government chooses its consuls from the graduates of the higher commercial school at Antwerp.
GRADUATE WORK AT UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES. The number of students who remain at college pursuing advanced studies after having completed undergraduate courses leading to a bachelor's degree is constantly increasing. In the year 1876–77 the number of such students was 389; in 1886-87 the number was 1,237, while in 1896-97 there were reported 4,919 graduate students in attendance at the various institutions of the country, 1,413 of whom were women.
These numbers do not include the students who remain at college for the purpose of pursuing professional studies in law, medicine, theology, etc. The Handbook of Graduate Courses, published by the Federation of Graduate Clubs, shows the popularity of the various studies among graduate students. It shows that of 3,204 students in attendance at 24 of the leading institutions of the country 35.4 per cent were pursuing language and literature studies, 20.6 per cent historical and social sciences, 18 per cent philosophical studies, 14.2 per cent natural sciences, and 11.1 per cent mathematical sciences.
The following table shows the number of resident graduate students in the universities and colleges of the United States each year for 25 years :