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Free School, in Duplin County. The idea of a charity school for the poor is present in this act, but beyond this it does not differ from similar acts of incorporation.

(lio Academy, Iredell ('ounty. This academy had been in existence for many years. Its founder and organizer was Rev. James Hall. In 1815 the name was changed to Statesville Academy.

At this time the educational moveinent took a new turn in the incorporation of "Thalean associations," “ for the purpose of aiding an institution of learning, and the general promotion of literature.” With such objects, an association by this name was organized in Fayetteville in 1814 and another in Wilmington. Chartered in 1815:

A change becomes manifest about 1815, when the terms of incorporation begin to vary from the set phrase which had come down from the Revolution. In 1815 the Fayetteville School Association Company was chartered, with $10,000 capital. Commissioners were appointed to open books for subscriptions for shares at $25 each. As soon as $1,000 had been subscribed, the school was to be put into operation. The trustees were to be elected by the stockholders, stock was to be transferable, and the association was allowed to hold property up to $20,000.

Library societies were another phase of educational activity which began about this time. “The Person Library Company" was chartered in 1815; was empowered to organize a library and hold $2,000 in property. The Raleigh Library Company was chartered in 1816, and was allowed to hold property up to £2,000. Center Library Society, of Iredell County, was chartered in 1817. The Buffalo Library Society, of Iredell, and the Fayetteville Library Company, of Fayetteville, were both chartered in 1818. Chartered in 1816:

Williamson Academy, Martin County.
Pleasant Grove Academy, Perquimans County.

Greensboro Academy, Guilford County. In 1820 the Female Academy in Greens-
boio, which had been under an independent management, was united with the
Greensboro Academy.
Chartered in 1817:

Fairfield School, on Loosing Swamp, in Lenoir County.
New Prospect Academy, near Oak Grove, on Little River, in Perquimans County,

Blakely Academy, Pittsboro, Chatham County. This academy was named in honor of Capt. Johnston Blakely, U. S. N., who went down with his ship, the Wasp, in 1814.

Female Benevolent Society, of Wilmington. Its object was to secure to poor chiluren and destitute orphans a moral and religious as well as common education, and also to adopt, support, and provide with situations that are useful and not unfavorable to virtue." Chartered in 1818:

Milton Female Academy. Wayne Academy, Wayne County. Jonesville Academy, Surry County. Haywood Academy, Chatham County. Asheville Academy, Buncombe County. Lawrenceville Academy, Montgomery County. Hilliardston Acaderny, on lands of James Hilliard, in Nash County. Forest Hill Academy, on the lands of John Martin, in Wake County. Trenton Academy, Jones County. This school was given a town lot of 2 acres for a site.

Female Academy, Orange County. This organization was known as the Prospect Company.

Chartered in 1819:

Lawrenceviile Academy.
Camden County Bible Society.
Enfield Academy, Halifax County,
Camden Academy, Camden County.
Wilkesboro Academy, Wilkes County.
Smithfield Academy, Johnston County.
Maciison Aca lemy, Rockingham County.
Lumberton Academy, in Robeson County.

Pike Academy, in Little Alligator, Tyrrell County. In this case a school already established was made the basis of the larger organization.

New Salem Library Society, Randolph County. Its object was “for the purpose of promoting religion, and aiding the progress of learning science."

Leaksville Female Academy. The trustees were authorized to raise $6,000 by lottery “to purchase a library and necessary apparatus, and for completing the Female Academy in said town."

Bingham Academy, then in Orange County, and under the direction of the Rev. William Bingham, was incorporated in 1819, and declared to be “a public seminary of learning.” This school had been organized as early as 1793 and has been in alınost constant operation since that time. Chartered in 1820:

Spring Hill Academy, Gates County.
Concord Academy, Perquimans County.
Shocco Female Academy, Warren Couniy.
Elizabeth City Academy, Pasquotank County.
Farmwell Grove Academy, Halifax County.

Carraway Library Society, Randolph County, “for the purpose of promoting and aiding the progress of learning and science.”

The Western College, of North Carolina, to be located “somewhere to the southwest of the Yadkin River," was incorporated for the reason that the more western counties in this State are distant from Chapel Hill, which renders it inconvenient for their youth to prosecute their education there.” It was provided with an excellent board of trustees, was given the power to confer degrees, and was exempted from taxation-and there it stopped. But from this germ came a little later Davidson College. Chartered in 1821:

Lincolnton Female Academy.
Sardis Acadeiny, Johnston County.
Clinton Academy, Sampson County.
Midway Academy, Franklin County.
Union Library Society, Iredell County.
Spring Grove Academy, Anson County.
Halifax Academy, in the town of Halifax.
Liberty Male Academy and Charlotte Female Academy, both in Charlotte,

Raleigh Female Benevolent Society; some of its objects were “to promote the education of poor children, and cause them to be instructed in some of the useful domestic employments." Chartered in 18.2.2:

Ebenezer Academy, Iredell County.
Culpepper Academy, Anson County.
Franklin Library Society, Hillsboro.
Meltonsville Academy, Anson County.
Hopewell Academy, Edgecombe County.
Durham's Creek Academy, Beaufort County.

Richland Creek Library Society, in Guilford County.

Shady Grove Male and Female Academy, Warren County.
Chartered in 1823:

Bertie Union Academy, Bertie County.
Lumberton Academy, Robeson County.
Milton Male Academy, Carteret County.
Friendship Academy, Edgecombe County.
Town Creek Academy, Edgecombe County.
Sandy Creek Library Society, Davidson County.
New Providence Library Company, Mecklenburg County.

Morganton Academy. The act of incorporation recites that “considerable funds” had been given this school “ both by private donations and acts of the legislature of this State." Chartered in 1824:

Swansboro Academy, Onslow County.
Wake Union Academy, Wake County.
Clinton Library Society, Stokes County.
New Hope Academy, Randolph County.
Davidson Academy, Montgomery County.
Hillsboro Female Academy, Orange County.
Mount Pro pect Academy, Eugecombe County.

Harmony Grove Academy, Edgecombe County.
Chartered in 1825:

Line Academy, Sampson County.
Colerain Academy, Bertie County.
Williams Academy, Duplin County,
Oak Grove Academy, Greene County.
Lexington Academy, Davidson County,
Shady Grove Academy, Rockingham County.
Pleasant Grove Academy, Edgocombe County.
The Library Society of Greensboro, Guilford County.
The Farmers' Library Society, of Northampton County.
The Abbotts Creek Library Society, of Davidson County.

There are several features which characterize these acts of incorporation. They were chartered on private initiative and were backed by private enterprise. In some cases, like that of the Bingham School, charters were obtained for institutions that had been long in existence. The terms of the various charters, with the mere change of name, are almost identical. The State limited its fostering care to allowing the town in which the school was located to present to it the town commons, or to allowing it to raise a certain sum by lottery, generally taking care to make the incorporators personally responsible to the drawers of prizes. It sometimes exempted the property from taxation and, in the earlier period, the pupils and teachers from military service. But, with these exceptions, the legislation was merely permissive.

V. THE AGITATION FOR THE COJMON SCHOOLS, 1815–1825. We have seen the provision in the constitution of 1776 providing for primary education. The University of North Carolina was chartered in 1789; it was opened in 1795. There was no further effort made by the State for years to aid any phase of education.

Governor James Turner, in his message to the legislature, November 21, 1804, took up the demand for public instruction, saying:

"Knowledge is one of the firmest pillars of national strength; and believing that nothing would tend more to the advancement of the character and respect

ability of this state than a general diffusion of learning, I am desirous of seeing a plan of education introduced which shall extend itself into every corner of the State."

Governor Nathaniel Alexander, November 19, 1803, indorsed the recommendation of Governor Turner and added a ringing demand of his own.

Governor William Hawkins, in his message to the general assembly, November 20, 1811, said:

6. Too much attention can not be paid to the all-important subject of education, In despotic governments, where the supreme power is in possession of a tyrant or divided amongst an hereditary aristocracy (generally corrupt and wicked), the ignorance of the people is a security to their rulers; but in a free government, where the offices and honor of the State are open to all, the superiority of their political privileges should be infused in every citizen from his earliest infancy, so as to produce an enthusiastic attachment to their own country, and insure a jealous support of their own constitution, laws, and government, to the total exclusion of all foreign influence or partiality. A certain degree of educatiou should be placed within the reach of every child in the State."

On November 22, 1815, Gov. William Miller, who had been reared in Warren County and who was the first student of the University of North Carolina to attain the governorship.called the attention of the assembly to the need of public schools in his address to that body. He said:

To cherish this spirit of inquiry and produce men who shall not only understand their rights, but have the spirit to assert and maintain them at every hazard, nothing is better calculated than an extensive diffusion of information. : . . The progress which has been made of late in the establishment of seminaries for the education of youth evinces a spirit and genius in the people of this State for literary acquirements. But so long as these establishments are left to depend for support upon individual exertion their beneficial effects must necessarily be partial. It is under the fostering hand of legislative patronage alone that the temple of science can be thrown open to all.”

The message was referred to a committee, but no further action was taken. Governor Miller was not discouraged. In his message to the legislature on November 20, 1816, he said:

** The subject of education has always been one of primary importance with all governments established for the benefit of the great body of the people. If the wealthy alone be adınitted to the temple of science, the most dangerous species of aristocracy inay be apprehended.

The various seminaries which have arisen in the State within a few years, from individual exertion alone, marks the progress of literary taste and points to the present as the time for legislative patronage. Permit the favorable juncture to pass and this growing taste may sicken and require ages to revive. To avail himself of public sentiment in support of any measure denotes the judicious statesman."1

This part of the governor's message was referred to the committee on education. It seems that there were two reports from this committee. The first report is dated December 17, 1816, and is signed by John M. Walker. The other was made December 19, 1816, and was signed by Archibald D. Murphey, of Orange, as chairman. It seems that the report of Walker- the first, as far as known, ever made on education in the State of North Carolina-has hitherto escaped attention, It is of interest because of the striking reason advanced for the necessity of education in North Carolina--a reason which the later experience of the State amply justified--and because of the curious method of supplying teachers which is sug

1 From full report in Journal, House of Commons, 1816, p. 4. 2 The House Journal gives John W. Walker as member of the house of commons from Warren County for that year. There was no other Walker in that legislature. The report is said to bo from "a member of the committee to whom was referred so much of his excellency's message," etc., but there is no mention of this report in the journals of the legislature for that year.

gested. The report is summarized from a unique copy in the library of the present writer (8 vo., pp. 8). Mr. Walker says:

.. In viewing the subject brought thus near us, we have great cause to felicitate ourselves that our fellow-citizens are beginning duly to appreciate its importance; and that North Carolina may rival any State in the Union in the number and respectability of its academies. However important education has been to our country, it is becoming increasingly so to the Atlantic States. If we cast our eyes from the East around the North to the South, we find vast tracts of fertile land springing into Territories, and these growing into States, enjoying great advantages in fertility of soil, in salubrity of

climate, anıl above all, enjoying the same inestimable blessings of a free government with ourselves.

“These great advantages are already beginning to dissolve the attachment to the spot of nativity and the kindred tie of acquaintance, by inviting thither the stream of migration. Let but the advantage of facility in education be added, and the vinculum which binds man to his birthplace and family will no longer restrain its current. ..

Such is the demand for education in our country and such the scarceness of teachers that the competition between the parents for teachers has raised the price of ordinary education to $15 and $20 the scholar. The majority of indigent parents, having from three to four children capable of receiving education, are unable to pay such a price. Your committee therefore propose to lessen the price of tuition by increasing the number of teachers. ... They are emboldened to recommend

“First. That three classes of 186 young men, between the ages of 15 and 20 years, be annually and successively taught and prepared to teach reading, writing, arithmetic, English grammar, and moral philosophy at the public expense, they first giving bond to the governor of the State for the time being in the probable amount of the cost of their education, conditioned to teach in some county in this State three years, at the moderate price of $.1 per scholar, with liberty to enter into any other pursuit after receiving their education by cancelling their bond, or so much as remains due, in proportion to the time they wish to avoid teaching. The first class to commence in 1817, or as soon thereafter as convenient; the second class twelve months after the first, and the third class twelve months thereafter.

“Third. That the first court of pleas and quarter sessions held in 1817, in each county, appoint not less than five nor more than twelve prudent, intelligent men in their respective counties, who shall constitute a board of literature to continue in office five years, and who shall have power to fill vacancies occasioned by resignation, death, or removal, and whose duty it shall be to invite and recommend indigent young men of their respective counties to enter into the above class.

* Fifth. That a school for the reception of this class be established in each judicial district of this State, apportioning to each school a proportionate nuuber of scholars according to the population of each district; and the steward's departments be furnished and supplied out of the public treasury. Supposing it will require three years to prepare each class to teach, and by thus establishing the schools for their tuition, the cost of the State is not expected to exceed $50 a scholar the first year, $10 the second, $30 the third and succeeding years. Upon this supposition, the subjoined table will show the amount of cost and the extent of operation of this plan.

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"NOTE. --This table has not credit for 558 teachers which ought to be added to the number of 46,500 youths taught, which would reduce the price to $1.2 each.

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