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7:00 • difficulties, however,
I treation." It is suggeste
22 of the large majority, w
2. 55 and 1626, Miss Estelle
18 is made of the lack of sit
Cements of school statistics, tering accounts to county
o the provisions which die ca to some of them seem n bese officials to report to the zetor cirst Monday in May, an smurt to the county superint Li delay and laxity are the ce zats are reported in several
in 1946, of teachers from sletter than ever before. S Terage of rages bas decreased
21 of the act of 1895 for ret la ironxht dowu to 182. No perintendents, high praise is les statnes strongly for the ador *. It has already been adopte prize is bestowed upon the county 2. vf educational magazines anıl y teacher in the State to subsc
Report for 1895 and 1890, Hon. J. Q. Emery, Stato superintendent. The considerable increase in the amount paid to teachers is claimed to indicate better instructors and longer terms of schools. On the whole, this superintendent insists that these have iniproved every way within the last ten or fifteen years in teaching force, in building, and other items in the system. Very few are withont teachers who havo had advantages above district ungraded schools. Very great good has resulted from the increase of teachers' institutes. Improvement is claimed also for ungraded schools, because of the advanced sentiments in general growing out of such institutes and other associations, and more intelligent, vigilant supervision of county superintendents, leading to better-systemized instruction.
The following is a summary of the superintendent's observations on this head:
"To summarize, these are a few lines along which we may mark the progress which is being made, viz: The attendance of pupils, the interest of patrons and citizens in the material equipment of public schools, demand for more thoroughly trained teachers, the increase of a more intelligent use of a course of study, and the growing appreciation of the value of good books for general reading as an adjunct of the school in promoting general intelligence and good citizenship.”
Tho report has some very interesting observations regarding urban and country schools. The former, although withi well-trained and experienced teachers, are trammeled partly by the too early leaving school on the part of considerable numbers, and partly by the greater indulgences allowed to children in villages than in rural districts. Yet the superiority of these schools works injury to the rural by the frequent drafts upon their classes, and greatly diminishing the number of their pupils. The report makes several recommendations tending to better the condition of things in these country schools. One is the consolidation of small and sparsely populated school districts and the transportation of pupils to and from the school. houses when they live too far to walk the distance; another is to provide for better inspection; another is a different method in distributing school funds, with view of bringing about as great equalization of cost as possible. The report also opposes the district as the only or the principal unit of taxation because of its smallness, variableness, and liability to be controlled by narrow, selfish considerations. It recommends also greater encouragement of kindergartens.
Other changes are commended. What now is particularly needed is that teachers mako themselves familiar with the books in the library, so as to help pupils in making selections.
Much praise is bestowed upon the marked advanco of the free high schools, of which there are now 197, as many as 8 being added within tho last two years. Most of these are in towns and villages. Towns, as such, havo thus far taken little advantage of the law.
The following is taken from observations under the lead, “Manual-training departments :
“By chapter 358, Jaws of 1895, the legislaturo authorized any board of education in the State having charge of a liigh school to establish and maintain a department of manual training in connection with the schools under its control and management, and further enacted that the expense of maintaining such department bo provided for in the same manner as expenses for maintaining high schools are provided for."
The superintendent is to adviso and assist in the organization, and the work has made substantial progress.
The State has been liberal in care of the deaf, with whom both the sign and oral mothoils are employed. At the beginning of the year 1895 there were four of these schools. At tho timo when this report was mado thero wero nine.
A long space is devoted to physical training in normal schools. It includes photographs of pupils at various stages of development, and is in all respects highly interesting. The soventh of these normal schools was established in 1895.
The Stato University continues to mako great strides. Students have gono from 443 in 1885-86 to 1,598 in 1895-96. The largest number is in the College of Letters and Science, which includes also the schools of economics, political scienco, and history. In this (the College of Letters and Science) there has been a great increase of women students, greater, indeed, than that of men. The proportion of the former to the latter in 1886-87 was 116 to 221; in 1896-97 it was 327 to 191.
The following extract shows somo facts that are highly interesting and significant:
"It can not bo said that the problem of coeducation presents many ditficulties. Tho oll query as to whether tho health of young women would bear the strain of a university course has been swept away by the energetic hand of experience; so, also, has the doubt as to whether scholarship would not suffer from the presence of women in tho classes. It is settled, not only here but elsewhere, that the general health of young women is better at the time of graduation than at the time of entrance, and that the average scholarship of young women is higher than that of young men."
tendent is earnest, like her pri es the following arguments ? metais studying the question, noti
Perails, the following summary Again of from 25 to 40 per cent 2. A guin of at least 33 per cent Coosidering first cost anıl time Lietotne community 1. The classes aro uniformly sur books. .Tur very uu pleasant distinction 1. Traseil attendance. nh. Theols are more successfnlly
A state or county system is moi stery great and unnecessary es has aloption of the system in ge
of tho great expense whic
immends for the present th
There are some difficulties, however, the report admits, one being the “tendency to excessive recreation.” It is suggested that an official bo appointed to be styled clean of the woman's department. At present the university has no control over the deportment of the large majority, who live in clubs and boarding houses. Yet the superintendent says, “It is a pleasure to add that in general none is needed.”
Report for 1895 and 1896, Miss Estelle Reel, superintendent of public instruction. Complaint is made of the lack of sufficient facilities for obtaining correct and reliable statements of school statistics, subordinate officials being slow and often inexpert in rendering accounts to county superintendents. The dificulty lies partly in objections to the provisions which district treasurers and clerks are required to observe, which to some of them seem neeillessly exacting and onerous. The law reqnires these officials to report to tho voters of the district at the annual district meeting on the first Monday in May, and afterwards on the first Monday of September to report to the county superintendent. This added burden is much complained of, and delay and laxity are the consequences.
Yet increments are reported in several lines. The number of schools in 1891, 379, increased to 425 in 1896, of teachers from 407 to 465, and of pupils 1,272. Attendance of children is better than ever beforo. School buildings have gone from 257 to 306. But the average of wages has decreaseıl; also the cost of tuition to some extent. Under operation of the act of 1895 for reluction in the number of school districts, they have been brought down to 182. Notwithstanding reduction in the salaries of county superintendents, high praise is bestowed upon their diligence and efficiency.
The report argues strongly for the adoption of a uniform course of study for tlie whole State. It has already been adopted in several of the comties with signal benefit.
Much praise is bestowed upon the county institutes. The good results from regular reading of educational magazines and like publications lead the superintendent to urge every teacher in the State to subscribe for them.
The superintendent is earnest, like her predecessor, in the matter of free text-books, and commends the following arguments made by the latter in one of his reports. After carefully studying the question, noting the experiences in other States where the system prevails, the following summary of benefits is given:
“First. A gaiu of from 25 to 40 per cent on first cost.
“Second. A gain of at least 33 per cent in the time the book will be in proper condition to use.
“Tbird. Considering first cost and time of use, thero is a gain of about 50 per cont in cost to the community.
“Fourth. The classes aro uniformly supplied at the proper timo and with the proper text-books.
“Fiftlı. The very uu pleasant distinction between rich and poor is avoided.
Inasmuch as adoption of the system in general will bo, in all probability, delayed by consideration of the great expense which the first outlay must necessarily incur, the report recommends for the present that tho matter be left to the voluntary action of the several districts.
Attention is called to the extremely onerous duties of the State superintendent's department. This ofticial, in addition to being school superintendent, is ex officio a member of the board of trustees of the State University, secretary of the State board of charities and reform, and secretary and register of the State board of land commissioners. Without seriously complaining, the superintendent uses the following sufficiently pertinent language:
“The law authorizes a contingent which allows the heads of other departments to appoint such clerks for their office as thoy deem advisable, and it is not easy to discern the wisdom of the restrictions placed upon the clerical assistance afforded to this clepartment."
The university is reported to bo advancing: The trustees this year did away with what was styled the “subpreparatory class.” The standarul has been considerably raised, and some valuablo accessions have been made to the faculty.
Much benefit is claimed to have come already from the State Teachers' Association, which was formed in the year 1891.
Quite a liberal grant of land was lately made to the State Agricultural College. To gniard against the hindrances probably attaching to judicious disposal of land in large quantities, it was provided that selections be made of tracts not less than 160 acres, nor more than 640.
I. Arranged according to date of founding.
The authors of "Minerva, Jahrbuch der Universitäten der Welt,” which is the chief source of information offered in the following six lists, say that they have submitted their work at various stages of completion to different professors of the countries mentioned, so that they are assured that their decision as to which of the learned institutions of the world should be regarded as universities is upheld by the most trustworthy authority. They call their Jahrbuch a collection of names of teaching bodies, of universities, or similar institutions of the world. In the first edition the authors admitted that, despite the most rigorous search, a few of the smaller institutions of the Western Hemisphere escape their notice. In subsequent editions these omissions have been corrected, and libraries, societies, and unuseums added, so that the fifth edition, that of 1895-96, is a remarkably valuable source of information. Since this Report of the Bureau of Education coutains direct information concerning the higher institutions of learning in the United States, they have been omitted from the following lists, which are devoted exclusively to foreign institutions.
Fisteenth century-Continued. 1412 Turin, Italy. 1419 Rostock, Mecklenburg, Germany. 142. Parma, Italy. 11 Besançon, France. 14:20 Louvain, Belgium. 1431 Poitiers, France. 1437 Caen, France. 144 Catania, Sicily, Italv. 1450 | Barcelona, Spain. 1451 Glasgow, Scotland. 1456 Greifswald, Prussia, Germany. 1457 Freiburg, Baden, Germany. 1460 Basel, Switzerland.
Nantes, France. 1465 Budapest, Hungary. 1472 Bordeaux, France (1H1). 147. | Munich, Bavaria, Germany. 1474 Saragossa, Spain. 1477 Upsala, Sweden.
Tübingen, Würtemberg, Germany. 1478 Copenhagen, Denmark. 1494 Aberdeen, Scotland.
Sixteenth century. 1501 Valencia, Spain. 1502 Halle-Wittenberg, Prussia, Germany. 15012 Sevilla, Spain. 1504 Santiago, Spain. 15/16 Breslau, Prussia, Germany. 150 Madrid, Spain. 15:27 Marburg, Prussia, Germany, 1531
Granada, Spain. 1531 Sarospatak, Hungary. 1537 Lausanne, Switzerland. 1510 Macerata, italy. 1511 Königsberg, Prussia, Germany. 1518 Messina, Sicily, Italy. 1.10 Sassari, Italy. 1558 Jena, Thuringia, Germany. 1559 Geneva, Switzerland. 1.500 Olmütz, Moravia, Austria. 1567 Strasburg, Alsace, Germany. 1508
Braunsberg, Prussia, Germany. 1572 Nancy, France. 1575 Leiden, Holland. 15.84) Oviedo, Spain. 1553 Edinburgh, Scotland. 1550 Graz, Styria, Austria. 1559 Kiew (Kieff), Russia. 1591 Dublin, Ireland. 1596 Cagliari, Italy.
Seventeenth century. 1605 Manila, Philippine Islands. 1607
Giessen, Hessia, Germany. 1614 Groningen, Holland. 1032 Salzburg, Austria. 1632 Amsterdam, Holland. 1632 Dorpat (Jurjev), Russia. 1030 Utrecht, Holland. 1610 Helsingfors, Finland, Russia.
Kiel, Prussia, Germany. 1001) Lund, Sweden. 1671 Urbino, Italy. 1673 Innspruck, Tyrol, Austria. 1676 Eperies, Hungary. 1653 Modena, Italy.
Eighteenth century. 1710 Barbados (Codringdon College), West
Indies. 17:20 Dijon, France. 17:27 Camerino, Italy.
Eighteenth century-Continued. 1737 Göttingen, Prussia, Germany. 1710 Erlau, Hungary. 1743 Erlangen, Bavaria, Germany. 1743 Santiago, Chile. 1718 Cadiz, Spain. 1753 Moscow, Russia. 1771
Münster, Prussia, Germany. 1772 | Klausenburg, Hungary. 1777 Siena, Italy 1779 Palermo, Sicily, Italy. 1734 | Lemberg, Galicia, Austria. 1785 | Pressburg, Hungary. 1788 Grosswardein, Hungary.
Nineteenth century. 1804 Kasan, Russia. 18014 Charkow, Russia. 1805 Yaroslari, Russia. 188 Clermont, France. 1808 Lille, France. 1808 Lyons, France. 1808 Rennes, France. 1809 Berlin, Prussia, Germany. 1811 Christiana, Norway. 181: | Genoa, Italy. 1816 Ghent, Belgium. 1816 Warsaw, Poland, Russia. 1817 Liege (Lüttich), Belgium. 1518 Bonn, Prussia, Germany. 1819 Petersburg, Russia. 1821 Montreal, Canada. 1826 London (University College), Eng.
land. 1827 Toronto, Canada. 1827 Sheffield (Medical College), England. 1828 Lampeter (St. David's College), Wales. 1832 Durham, England. 1832 Zürich, Switzerlaud. 1831 Brussels, Belgium. 1831 Berne, Switzerland. 18:30 London (University), England. 1837 Athens, Greece. 1839 Messina, Italy. 1815 Cork, Ireland. 1815 Belfast, Ireland. 1815 Galway, Ireland. 1849 Algiors, Algeria. 1850 Sydney, Australia. 1851 Manchester (Victoria University),
England. 1831 Newcastle, England. 1973 Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
Madras, India. 1857 Bombay, India. 1860 Jassy, Roumania. 1802 Kecskemet, Hungary. 1864 Bucharest, Roumania. 1805 Odessa, Russia. 1986 Neuchatel, Switzerland. 1805 Tokyo, Japan. 1870 New Zealand, New Zealand. 1872 Aberyst with, Wales. 1ST. Adelaide, Australia. 1973 Cape City, South Africa. 1574 Agram, Croatia, Hungary. 1975
Angers, France. 1873) Lille (Faculté Libre), France. 1875 | Lyons (Faculté Libre), France. 1875 Czernowitz, Bukowina, Austria. 1875 | Birmingham, England. 1876 Bristol, England. 1877 Leeds, England. 1877
Liverpool, England. 1878 Stockholm, Sweden. 1879 | Sheffield (Firth College) England.