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A large number of decisions in appeal cases is subjoined and elaborate reports of operations in all departments.


The report for 1896 is from the same superintendent, Hon. Charles R. Skinner.

It speaks in high praise of last year's operations, claiming that “the outlook for the future was never brighter.” Yet there has been inevitable and expected decline in rural schools owing to continuance of influences lierein before mentioned. The district system has been condemned about unanimously by superintendents for many years, and in several other States it has given away to the township. The average of attendance in more than 3,500 of these districts is not over 10 pupils. The law provides for the consolidation of many of these, but is hinciered by local sentiment, which is satisfied to cling to the past with all of its clumsiness. This sentiment seems almost obdurate in such a case as the following:

“One of the officials of this department reports visiting a country school in company with the school commissoner of the district, and finding there a teacher at work on a piece of embroidery, but with no pupils in attendance. Inquiry elicited the information that the school had been in session three weeks without any pupils, and that there were only two children of school age in the entire district, both of whom were expected to attend the school later on.

The normal schools are represented as doing finely, between 9,000 and 10,000 being enrolled in all departments. So the training schools. The report says that with existing abundant facilities for training teachers, there is no present demand for additional normals.

With the growing sentiment that commissioners should have teaching experience, a large majority of those elected in the preceding November were thus qualified. Among the most efficient in this force are several women whose work has been dono witli entire satisfaction. Thero is a growing general demand that the salaries of these ofticials be raised to a degree that will attract attention from those whose qualifications are well known to be entirely adequate.

By a law of 1895 the minimum course of study in the high schools has beon made three years, and the report makes suggestion of several matters that should be put in the minimum of requirement for entrance. The same legislature put the minimum of age among teachers at 18 years.

There are a few of what are called "exempt districts,” wherein local authorities claim the right to examine and license teachers. These districts, fisteen in number, have given considerable annoyance to the department of superintendence which insists that the power of licensing should be uniform and be vested in the State department of public instruction. *It is plainly said that the weakest feature in the school system is the different standards employed in different cities. Out of the thirty-four cities in the State as many as twenty-four havo adopted uniformity voluntarily.

The compulsory-education law is said to be productive of inuch gooil, and some buggestions are made of matters wherein it is in nced of additional enactments.

Libraries, under generous appropriations, are growing with much rapidity and dispensing great benefits.


Report for 1895, William H. Maxwell, superintendent.

The number of pupils instructed was 145,998, a gain of 9,197. Per cent of attendance rose to 71.1, while the average number of pupils to a teacher is yet exorbitantly high (being 70 in the lowest primary grade), yet it is considerably lower than a year ago, when in that grade it was 77.

The following is sufficiently plain language about tho glut in a certain class of oflicials:

“Within the schools there is now a supervisor-principal, or head of department, who is not responsible for the work of a class, to about every ten class teachers. As I lave separately pointed out, this system is extremely expensive. Supervision within the schools now costs more in Brooklyn than in any other city in the country, with the exception, perhaps, of New York. The expense of this system, however, is oniy one of the arguments against it. The multiplication of supervisors has withdrawn many of our best class teachers from tho active work of teaching to the great detriment of our schools, and without adequate compensatory benefit. I'urthermore, it has been this fruitful parent of unseemly wiro-pulling for place, bickering, and jealousies that interfere seriously with the work of many schools. There would be deciderl gain in ciliciency, and a decided saving in cost, if one-half of the heads of departments were set to work teaching classes."

It is regarded a salutary law of 1895 that the course of study in the Girls' High School shall be approved by the State superintendent, so as to make their graduate 3 able to enter the training school for teachers. This has served to raise to four years the course heretofore limited to three. Girls are now admitted to the manual training high school which the report believes should have been coeducational from the beginning.

Earnest appeal is made for additional high schools, the superintendent contending that there should be at least six for the support of which provision is entirely practicable.

There are some interesting things in the report about principals' certificates, in the various grades. Congratulation is indulged in for increaseel school attendance, which is due partly to increased school accommodations and partly to the enforcement of tlo compulsory law. The truant school, under careful management, is proving a blessing. The report argies for manual training in elementary schools, and concludes thus:

"The tasks that lie immediately before us comprise the building of new schoolhouses, to the end that every child of school age ill this city, may, with proper surroundings, and under proper conditions, have the opportunities for education that modern life demands, the establishment of kindergartens for chililren between 5 and 6 years of ago; the extension of our high-school system, the provision for manna! training-sewing and cooking for girls and sloyd work for boys-in the grammar schools, and the weeding out of ineficient teachers."


Report for 1895, Henry P. Emerson, superintendent of education. The registry of children in the public schools shows 46,665, a gain over last year of 1,952. The frequent assertion that there are as many as from 10,000 to 20,000 childreu in the city who do not attend schools of any sort, the superiutendent denies, arguing that many children are not sent to school until 7 years old and past. “It may be stated with confidence,” he says, “that there are not more than 1,000 within the meaning of the compulsory law.". Regarding this law the superintendent contends that great caution should be used in its enforcement. Unexceptional vigor sometimes puts a hardship upon families for whose support the work of its children are indispensable. He contends that the city ought to create and maintain a distinct institution for detention of incorrigible truants and their reformation. It is believed that such an institution would prevent the incipiency of truancy in very many cases, as boys, foreseeing imprisonment therein, would avoid it by resorting to the schools as a choice of evils.

In the interest of economy, the grades havo been reduced from ten to nine, some unnecessary positions in schools abolished, and other such work been done. It has been necessary, however, to construct eight new buildings and put annexes to sereral others; five other new buildings have been ordered, yet there is need of more because of the continual rapid increase of school population.

Free text-books, within the two years of operation, have prored a great benefit, shown in increased attendance, more speedy organization, holding pupils longer in schools, and preventing dwindling in the upper grades. Besides, books are better preserved and their cost greatly diminished.

Under a law of the last legislature, all applicants for teachers' positions after January 1, 1897, must have had at least three years' successful experience in teaching, or have graduated from a high school, academy, or other equally ranking instituition, and had at least one year of professional training. The act also provides for the maintenance in cities of one or more classes for such professional instruction. The superintendent intends to ask also for the establishment of a teachers' training class in connection with the high school, the sessions, if appearing necessary, to be held in afternoons. He contends that it is in the high school chiefly that the

;" to use his own words, “become imbued with that civic pride, that public spirit, so essential in the preparation of city teachers.” The report makes an earnest appeal for the creation of a teachers' retirement fund, not only in behalf of humanity, but for the sake of more easily obtained relief from continuance in the profession of teachers who have become superannuated, and wlio, with the infirmity of mind common in far advanced age, are unconscious of decay and regard it a liardship when asked or forced to retire.

The report speaks of the defects inherent in the graded system, of promotions which necessarily take insuficient note of the numerous inequalities in pupils' understandings and development, and gives some changes which it was believed important to make in the matter.

Donbts concerning the value of manual training in schools have heretofore hindored any general demand for it. Yet, a small beginning was made during the year,


to grade in any departmen for schools which have in for serjannual examinatio e scept the first grammar.


Report for 1896, Vilt,

- Le fact it is duri

The law forbiis corporal punishment in every form in the public schools, substiaencouraged to submit to t tuting suspension in cases incorrigible by moral suasion. Every principal has the Dia snbjects presented to right to suspend a pupil, and must give immediate notice of such action to the has been very apparent. parent or guardian, reporting to the city superintendent and the chairman of spevils in the ninth grade to days is allowed, and their decision is reported to the city superintendent, whose duty, Lile the report does not underva school for the same sex, of the name of the pupil thus suspended. Readmission is illiy as the lechanics Institu in case of no appeal or its dismissal, it is to notify the principal of every other Lelike--yet it doubto the necessi

che consequent transfer of the residents to other bens has increased 300 per ce parts of the city enable the school authorities to judge with accuracy the probable qall. From a financial standpo intended to houso many more persons. As a result some of the lower wards had latin sinall classes instruction city, has led to the removal of old dwelling houses and the erection of large tenements att reviews after the dismissal of shown an abnormal increase in the school population---schools which, but iive years have could be enlarged without si

grat,meddeddf06,0kg utmost capacity and have refused many applicants for admission. In this connection the free academy students. were in the down-town warıls." The growth has been great, especially in the be slipervision of a inale teacher al Eleventh, Twelfth, Seventh, Tenth, Nineteenth, Twenty-second, and Twenty-third that touricted of any crime, great of

svetopis turas been begun suppleme

likation is again called to th

the results of which thus far are too indefinite to be noted in the report. Yet it Generous pto risions have b. believed important to introduce sewing into the schools, and steps to that end a recebendation of the city betak


030 have taugh. Night schools show that registration and attendance are uniformly greatest dve, theere D 200 uity or ha ing the first teriu. For this reason the opening is now postponed to October. DET JIE NETed, however

Åppended aro full reports of school examiners, directors, subordinate superintegriteite Irig reqnired to be ents, etc., and elaborate tables of statistics.

Å fiderable number of ins

tecorerennes, are un'i NEW YORK CITY SCHOOL REPORT.

1. The report says of these

The instruction and the rise Report for 1895, John Jasper, city superintendent.

e, as a rule, qarte satisfacto

cand the lof sertarian te. The whole number of pupils taught during the year was 355,623. This is ascei

025 the recommendiations tained by counting the admissions to the several schools, every pupil counteti a

Bary schools titness of pupil often as admitted. The average attendance was 188, 75, an increase over the las year of 5,907, decrease being only in the evening and corporate schools. Besides th teras of the for:ur; firs 4,989 regular teachers, including principals, 129 were employed for the special teach. ing of drawing, music, German, French, sewing, cooking, physical exercise, ani phonography.

For several years past principals, except in very small schools, have been exemp from teaching and ilo only supervisory work. They are made responsibile for al matters in pedagogy and administration, the subordinate teachers being guided by them exclusively. Violations of duty on the part of the teachers are reported to the committee on instruction. No unfavorable action is taken on such reports with ont giving a hearing to the teacher accused on peor Fuddelictis also the winners with a larger number of sehe

og week .

eiti. allowed upon proof of amendment satisfactory to the superiutenilent.

We quote the following under the head “School accommodations":

“For a number of years the dy development of business in certain localities, the demolition of dwellings, a necessity for the erection of additional school buildinys. Of late years the varied ago, were fully adequate to the wants of the neighborhood have been filled to their it is important to note the fact that, althongh but 35 per cent of the attendance is in the schools below Fourteenth street, more than 47 per cent of the nonadmissious; through lack of room were found in tliose schools. The whole number of such nonadmissions in the city during the year 1895 was 21,000, of which more than 11,000 wards.

During the year manual training was established in two additional schools. It is pursued now in eighteen grammar schools and twenty-five primary schools. Sewing is taught in all the female departments of the manual training schools, and to the girls in the first, second, and third primary grades in all primary schools for at least one hour in the week. Praise is bestowed upon the results of the introduction of cookery. The superintendent recommends the introduction of new appliances and of charts showing the cuts of meats and specimens of the several food products.

Three additional kindergartens were established within the past year, the whole nunber now being ten.

The register of pupils in the evening schools was 25,922, average attendance at which was 35 per cent. Formerly the evening high schools were under the coutrol of the committee on eveving schools, but during the last year they were put under the city guperintendent. Under his direction several changes in regulations have been made and the standard of scholarship elevated. The number of students registered

0,977, vrag attendanc2,571.hvg1ddedtowe, ach an hour long. Each pupil has one, but may not have over two studies which lo elects.

The following extract is from pe of pupils and teachers: ring the time that the number o

105.6et sverage in these matters, wl

tid bete Fortby fact that of the grai

beztrollment of registered pupils i over the year previous. Th

se vols. etml for truants was efficiently

as the end of the year. Besides us

Spatter and manual training impa situal truants may be sent either t

4 tbrige having the same religion Petering schools were maintained, Cance. Out of 1,705 enrolled the

widtional kindergarten

was starte


Peport for 1895, A. B.

Ligestion of the preceding repo school population

was complir are lieing male to introduce as


Ye: Generous provisions have been made for teachers placed upon the retired list. On t ene a recommendation of the city superintendent, and a two-thirds vote of the board,

those women who have taught thirty years, and those men who have taught thirtytest a five, receive an annuity of half their salaries, provided they do not exceed $1,000. -1. They are empowered, however, when appearing proper, to reduce the annuities, the erin::. reduction being required to be at the same rate per annum.

A considerable number of institutions styled corporate schools, as they participate in the school revenues, are under the general superintendence of the board of eclucation. The report says of these :

“The instruction and the ciiscipline in the schools of these institutions and societies were, as a rule, quite satisfactory, and the State law prohibiting sectariau instruction and the use of sectarian text-books appeared to have been complied with."

Among the recommendations in the report is that on completion of the highest primary schools fitness of pupils for the grammar schools should be determined by

tlie principals of the former; first, because such mode of promotion is that used from si grade to grade in any department, an'l because it would prevent competitive exami

nations for schools which have insufficient accommodations. Another recommendation is for semiannual examinations in the grammar schools, from the faet that every grade, except the first grammar, is completed at the end of each half year.


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Report for 1896, Milton Noyes, superintendent of instruction. It claims a larger number of school organizations than ever before, and increased daily attendance of pupils.

A noteworthy fact it is that during the year, in the intermediate grades, pupils have been encouraged to submit to the superintendent short stories written by themselves upon subjects presented to them. The developinent of originality by such exercises has been very apparent. An additional fact of importance is the habit of taking pupils in the ninth grade to visit industrial and manufacturing establishments in the city.

While the report does not undervalue industrial training--sewing, stenography, and the like-yot it doubts the necessity of introducing them into the public schools, particularly as the Mechanics Institute is in every way adapted for instructing in them. The following extract is from the remarks made by the report on the relative increase of pupils and teachers :

“During the time that the number of pupil 28 increased 100 per cent, the number of teachers has increased 300 per cent. The inqerage number of pupils to teachers is too small. From a financial standpoint the increase is extravagant. There is a correct average in these matters, which may be arrived at by reducing the whole of the teaching force, and asking all instructors to complete correcting work and necessary reviews after the dismissal of grades.” The report insists that, admitting the fact that in small classes instruction may be better than in large, yet in this case the average could be enlarged without subtracting from the efficiency of instruction. It is a noteworthy fact that of the graduates of the university with honors 40 per cent were free academy students.

The enrollment of registered pupils for the year showed 22,518, an increase of about 800 over the year previous. This does not include 1,705 enrolled in the evening schools.

The school for truants was efficiently maintained, the pupils being constantly under the supervision of a male teacher and an attendant. None were received who had been convicted of any crime, great or small. A good exhibit of the work was made at the end of the year. Besides usual text-books pupils were furnished with reading matter and manual training imparted. Children between 7 and 16 years who are habitual truants may be sent either to a truant school or an orphans' home under charge of those having the same religious faith as their parents.

Four evening schools were maintained, but complaint is made of great irregularity of attendance. Out of 1,705 enrolled the average attendance being only 133.

An additional kindergarten was started, being the eleventh.


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Report for 1895, A. B. Blodgett, superintendent. The suggestion of the preceding report regarding the taking of a more accurate census of school population was complied with, but in a very unsatisfactory way.

Efforts are being made to introduce an efficient system of manual training, and a line of work has been begun supplemental to at least the work done in the High School. Attention is again called to the continual unsatisfactory condition of the High School building.

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