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so, in our contemplation of an event or an occasion, each individual especially tavolicies, and oliserves and appreciates, in the light his mode of thought supplies, such of its son. I bare assume a prominence in our respective fields of mental vision, dependent upon their of political str direction of the educational advantages of this noble institution mest plainly see, kuld have the in relation to our experience and condition. Those charged with the management and the tritment of thience reflected upon himself, while those still within her student halls see most apreh prilously i

ecouomy; and the school must be of the nation. I have had sight of the perfect rutiral laws and place of learning in my thought; a free place, and a various, where no man could be ni tehond analterable and not know with how great a destiny knowledge had come into the world-itself 39 political strife. a little world; but not perplexed, living with a singleness of aim not known without;

ils de cient if it the home of sagacious men, hardheaded and with a will to know, debaters of the w.e.tizens these world's questions every day and used to the rough ways of democracy; and yet a Eli nonobservan place removed-calm, silence seated there, recluse, ascetic, like a nun, not knowing ifrity of our people that the world passes, not caring is the truth but come in answer to her prayer; and 2 saptages ead literature, walking within her open doors in quiet chambers with men of olden time, .. tituent as the give storied walls about her, and calm voices intinitely sweet; here "magic casements, Tarion as the listrib opening on the foam of perilous seas, in fairy lands forlorn,” to which you may

or college have ha withdraw and use your youth for pleasure, there windows open straight inpon the b', in the light piace where ideals are kept in heart in an atmosphere that they can breathe; but no affairs of the present, with knowledge and without passion; Clike the world tinnata ei saa loving support fool's paradise. A place to hear the truth about the past and findet debate abont, the cate of their pla the world in its self-possession, its thorough way of talk, its care to know more than the inomont it brings to light; slow to take excitement, its air pure and wholesome with a breath of faith; every eye within it bright in the clear (lay and quick to look toward lieaven for the contirination of its hope. Who shall show us the way to this place? PRESIDENT CLEVELAND'S SPEECH ON THE SESQUICENTENNIAL DAY.

szperstition. and with different training each see most plainly in the same landscape view those features and incidents as are most in harmony with his mental situation.

To-ray, while all of us warmly share the general enthusiasm and felicitation which pervade this assemblage, I am sure its varions suggestions and meanings with well-earned satisfaction, proofs its growth and usefulness and its opportunities for doing good. The graduate of Princeton sees first the evidence of a greater glory and prestige than have come to his alma mater, and the addiod honor

the an increased dignity which awaits their Princeton University.

But there are others here, not of the family of Princeton, who see, with an interest not to be outdone, the signs of her triumph on the fields of higher education, and the part she has taken during her long and glorious career in the elevation and betterment of a great people.

Among these I take an humble place, and as I yield to the infinences of this occa. sion, I can not resist the train of thought wbich especially reminds me of the promise of national safety and the guaranty of the permanence of our free institutions, which may and ought to radiate from the universities and colleges scattered throughout our landi.

Obviously a government resting upon the will and universal suffrage of the people bas no anchorage except in the people's intelligence. While the advantages of a collegiate eiucation are by no means necessary to good citizenship, yet the college graduate, found everywhere, can not smother his opportunities to teach his fellowcountrymen, and influence them for good, nor hide his talents in a napkin, without recreancy to a trust.

In a nation like ours, charged with the care of numerous and widely varied intereste, a spirit of conservatism and toleration is absolutely essential. A collegiate training, the study of principles unvoxed by distracting and misleading influences, and a correct apprehension of the theories upon which our Republic is established, ought to constitute the college graduate a constant monitor, warning against popalar rashuess and excess.

The character of our institntions and our national self-interest require that a feeling of sincere brotherhood and a disposition to unite in mutual endeavor should pervade our people. Our scheme of government in its beginning was based upon this sentiment, and its interruption has never failed and can never fail to grievously menace our national health. Who can better caution against passion and bitterness than those who know by thought and study their banefnl consequences, and who are themselves within the noble brotherhood of higher education to

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There are natural laws and economic truths which command implicit obedience, and which should unalterably fix the bounds of wholesome popular discussion, and the limits of political strife. The knowledge gained in our universities and colleres would be sadly deticient if its beneticiaries were unable to recognize and point oit to their fellow-citizens these truths and natural laws, and to teach the mischievous futility of their nonobservance or attempted violation.

The activity of our people and their restless desire to gather to themselves especial benefits and advantages lead to the growth of an unconfessed tendency to regard their Government as the giver of private gifts, and to look upon the agencies for its administration as the distributors of ofticial places and preferment. Those who in university or college have had an opportunity to study the mission of our institutions, and who, in the light of history, have learned the danger to a people of their neglect of the patriotic care they owe the national life intrusted to their keeping, shonld be well fitted to constantly admonish their feilow citizens that the usefulness and beneficence of their plan of government can only be preserved through their unselfish and loving support, and their contented willingness to accept in full return the peace, protection, and opportunity which it impartially bestows.

Not more surely do the rules of honesty and good faith fix tho standard of individnal character in a community than do these samo rules determine the character and standing of a nation in the world of civilization. Neither the glitter of its power, nor the tinsel of its commercial prosperity, nor the gardy show of its people's wealth, can conceal the cankering rust of national dishonesty, and cover the meanness of national bad faith. A constant stream of thoughtful, educated men should come from our universities and colleges preaching national lionor aud integrity, and teaching that a belief in the necessity of natioual obedience to the laws of God is not born of superstition.

I do not forget the practical necessity of political parties, nor do I deny their desirability. I recognize wholesome differences of opinion touching legitimate governmental policies, and would by no meang control or limit the utmost freedom in their discussion. I have only attempted to suggest the important patriotic service which onr institutions of higher education and their graduates are fitted to ren<ior to our people, in the enforcement of those immutable truths and fundamental principles which are related to our national condition, but should never be dragged n to the field of political strifo nor impressed into the service of partisan contention.

When the excitement of party warfare presses dangerously near our national sateguards, I would have the intelligent conservatism of our universities and colleges warn the contestants in impressive toues against the perils of a breach impossible to repair.

When popular discontent and passion are stimulated by the arts of designing partisans to a pitch perilously near to class hatred or sectional anger, I would have our universities and colleges sound the alarm in the name of American brotherhoorl and fraternal dependence.

When the attempt is made to delnae the people into the belief that their sutirages can change the operation of natural laws, I would have our universities and colleges proclaim that those laws are inexorable and far removed from political control.

When selfish interest seeks due private benefit thronglı goverumental aid and public places are claimed as rewarıls of party service, I would have our universities and colleges persuade the people to a relinquishment of the demand for party spoils and exhort them to a disinterested and patriotic love of their Government for its own sake, and because in its true adjustment and unperverted operation it secures to every citizen his just share of the safety and prosperity it holds in store for all.

When a design is apparent to lure the people froin their honest thoughts and to blind their eyes to the sad plight of national dishonor and bad faith, I would have Princeton University, panoplied in her patriotic traditions and glorious memories, and, joined by all the other universities and colleges of our land, cry out against the infliction of this treacherous and fatal wound.

I would have the intluence of these institutions on the side of religion and morality. I would have those they send out among the people not ashamed to acknowledge God and to proclaim His interposition in the attairs of men, enjoining such obe. dience to His laws as makes manifest the path of national perpetuity and prosperity.

I hasten to concede the good already accomplished by our educateul meu in purifying and steadying political sentiment; but I hope I may be allowed to intimate my belief that their work in these directions would be easier and more useful if it were less spasmodic and occasional. The disposition of our people is such that while they may be inclined to distrust those who only on rare occasions come among them from an exclusiveness savoring of assumed superiority, they readily listen to those who exhibit a real fellowship and a friendly and habitual interest in all that concerns the common welfare. Such a condition of intimacy would, I believe, not only improve the general political atmosphere, but would vastly increase the influence of our universities and colleges in their efforts to prevent popular delusions, or correct them before they reach an acute and dangerous stage.

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I am certain, therefore, that a more constant and active participation in political affairs on the part of our men of education would be of the greatest possible value to our country.

It is exceedingly unfortunate that politics should bo regarded in any quarter as an unclean thing, to be avoided by those claiming to be educated or respectable. It would be strange indeed if anything related to the administration of our Government or the welfare of our pation should be essentially degrading. I believe it is not a superstitious sentiment that leads to the conviction that God has watched over our national life from its beginning. Who will say that the things worthy of God's regard and fostering care are unworthy of the touch of the wisest and best of men?

I would have those sent out by our universities and colleges not only the counsel. lors of their fellow-countrymen, but the tribunes of the people--fully appreciating every condition that presses upon their daily life, sympathetic in every untoward situation, quick and earnest in every effort to advance their happiness and welfare, and prompt and sturdy in the defense of all their rights.

I have but imperfectly expressed the thoughts to which I havo not been able to deny utterance on any occasion so full of glad significance and so pervaded by the atmosphere of patriotic aspiration. Born of these surroundings, the hope can not be vain that th:o time is at hand when all our countrymen will more deeply appreciate the blessings of American citizenship, when their disinterested love of their Govern ment will be quickened, when fanaticism and passion shall be banished from the field of politics, and when all our people, discarding every difference of condition or opportunity, will be seen under the banner of American brotherhood, marching steadily and unfalteringly on toward the bright heights of our vational destiny.

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Report for 1895, lion. A. B. Poland, Siate superintendent.

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The adoption of the township system reduced the number of school diistricts from 1,403 in 1891 to 374 in 1895. Tho weaker districts havo in many instances beon joined to stronger, by which the greater part of the inequality of taxation and population has disappeared.

The report is ontspoken upon the beneficial results of tho laws adopted by the legislature in 1894 and 1895. Among proofs of great progress are montioned the following: Larger expenditures than ever before for new buildings; larger expenditures for repairs and permanent improvements of all kinds; free supply of text-books; increasod salaries of teachers; greater demand for trained and successful teachers; unusual progress in grading schools; appointment of supervising principals in townships; better attended and more enthusiastic school meetings in nearly every district in the State.

Some fears had been indulged that the strong districts would be crippled by consolidation with the weak, but oxperience has proved that these fears were without good foundation. The whole have been strengthened by being placed under the samo supervision and management. So also were the apprehensions that the village schools might be to a degree handicapped by the rural.

Improvement in school buildings has been more notable than in any proriors year, as many as 95 new ones having been erected and nearly as many moro enlarged, refurnished, and remodeled, the amount of money in that behalf expended being near by three-quarters of a million.

The legislature of 1894, un ir isely, it is thought, allowed small boroughs of only a few hundred of population to constitute separate school districts. The legislature limited the privilege to those containing 400 and over. Even as it is, however, some of the evils of the old district system must remain, the calculation being that a school district, to be capable of being properly graded and taught, must contain a number of 500 to 1,000 school children.

Notoworthy, says the report, is the constant decrease of mon teachers. These are paid as well as ever; but other avocations have become more attractive to men of requisite competency, and those without this can no longer give employment under late advanced methods. To somo degree this falling off is to be regretted, as tending to disturb what is believed to be desired and even needed—a just equilibrium between the sexes.

The report, among other things on this head, says: “Women, as a rule, possess more sympathy, delicacy, and tact, hence for small children are better adapter than men; but the sterner, the more vigorous, and forceful qualities of a man are needed to develop fully the character of pupils and engago successfully in the struggle of life.”

The report argues tho necessity of employing (as in cities) superintendents to townships comprising several schools, though widely scattered, thô additional cost being made up by appointing a leading teacher to the office. Then cooperativo supervision, as in the State of Massachusetts, wight be agreed upon by two or more

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districts. Regret is expressed that the Stato is so notably far behind many others in the matter of high schools, and earnest appeal is made for their increase, as well as for the establishment of other normal schools. The counties of Essex, Passaic, and Hudson are centers of population even greater than Mercer, where is situate the one overcrowded institution of the kind. It seems a hardship that in several populous centers, resort for want of normal has to be had to special training schools. In view of the fact that the public schools are required to be open during at least nine months in the year (a longer term than in any other State), every facility possible should be afforded toward compliance, practical and efficient.


Improvements, according to the State report of 1896, have been madlo all along the line of education. The new rule requiring a uniform course of study for the respective counties is cordially inilorsed. Among other things said in its favor aro the following:

“ Under its provisions the old go-as-you-please methods of the rural schools will become a thing of the past. The teacher will feel the stimulus of specific requirenents within definite periods of time, and systematic and substantial progress will result. Another certain effect of this measure will be to place the rural schools in the same line of progress as the well-graded schools of our larger towns and cities and contribute to the advantage of both."

Another rule is much approved, which provides for county pedagogical libraries. This has been met with much favor everywhere, and it is preslieted that it will be one of the most benign provisions ever made in behalf of free education. The report also praises the rulo authorizing the issuance of county diplomas to pupils who shall successfully complete the prescribed course of study, and to those teachers who shall intelligently complete the course of professional reading adapted to their respective grades and further the granting of special certificates. The conditions on which these may be obtained must be getting not less than 80 on any one branch and a general average not less than 90 proofs of exceptional skill in organization and management of a school.

The tables show large increaso in amounts expended in teachers' salaries, in buildings, in text-books, and apparatus, improvement in the grading of schools, steadily increasing demand for trained teachers, more intelligent interest on the part of local school boards, increase in number of teachers with high-grado certificates, and revival of interest in teachers' institutes. In the new buildings attention is show, not only to general comfort and fitness, but to tasteful ornamentation.

Manual training, comparatively new in the State, is receiving enhanced attention, and recommendation is offered that the annual appropriation, thus far limitel to $25,000, may be increased.

The report earnestly urges increase in kindergarten instruction. Some of its language we quote:

"This not only prepares the way for manual training, but also lays the best foundation for all subsequent school work. It has met the supreme test of experience, and proved itself worthy of introduction in somo modified form into every public school. In the majority of our large towns and cities the crying need of our schools is more seating capacity, more room. This should be speedily remedied, the legal school age reduced to 4 years, and all of this age included in the apportionment of school moneys. The practical valne of the kindergarten as an olucational value force having become established, it should receive from the State such recognition and encouragement as is due. The State department is improving every opportunity to emphasize the value and importance of this form of instruction and to give it a larger place in public interest.”

The report makes an equally urgont appeal for increase of secondary (high) schools. "Anyone," it says, "interested in educational affairs can not have failed to observo that in every town or village where a high school has been established it has resulter in the betterment of its entire school system. In employing a competent teacher for such a school they also secured supervision that systemized and improved all the lower grades.

The tendency of the college is toward the rounding out and elevation of tho high school, and that of the high school toward the betterment of all the grades below it; thus, in the cducational as in the material world, light comes from above."

Again an urgent appeal is made for additional normal schools, the need of which is so great that the superintendent confidently predicts their inevitable speedy establishment. Notwithstanding this pressing want, the number of inexperienced teachers is annually decreasing, that for the last year being only 20 in an accession of 236 to the list.

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The report makes extendeel observations of the pressing needs of greater school accommodations, needs which naturally increase from year to year because of the constant growth of population.

The three kindergarten schools already established have been doing satisfactory work, and there are numbers of first-year classes doing tho work introductory to the primary:

The high school gains continually in favor, and urgent appeal is made for erecting a building suited to all its important ends, about the location of which care in selection is recommended.

Complaint is made of insufficiency in the number of normal schools in the State. In this behalf the report says:

“We can not, in any satisfactory degree, supply the schools of the State with professionally trained teachers with our present normal resources. Ile should have at least three of those institutions in tho State-one in the southern part of the State, another in the northern--to cooperate with our excellent central normal school at Trenton."

It is claimed that Newark yet stands practically alone in the creation of summer schools. During the ten years of their existence the benefits resulting have been eminently satisfactory.

Work in the evening schools has been fer from satisfactory. They seem to be not well understood by the public, many of whom severely criticise it. Then the session (one hour and forty-five minutes), the report argues, is too short. Another dificulty is the employment of inexperienced teachers. This last is, perhaps, the most serions among the hindrances that obstruct their success. This year their management was placed in control of the evening school committee, whose first action was deciding to employ none as teachers who have not had some experience. The result is that conditions have become much more satisfactory. The evening high school does good work, but this is embarrassed by slight attendance from the same causes as in the district schools,

The truant department is claimed to be doing better than ever before, because of increased cooperation of parents and others. There was decrease in number of cases reported. Greater vigilance is claimed also on the part of looking after the health of children in all the schools, the number of deaths being 62 in an enrollment of 30,000.

Mannal training has not yet been introduced, but the report recommends its introduction, placing it under control of the committee on text-books, course of study, and examination.

The report makes several considerate observations on class-room work.

It concludes with a review of the work done by the board of education within the last nineteen years, from 1877 to 1896. Among the improvements made were devising of means for obtaining more and more competent teachers through professionaltrain. ing, as by the daily normal school; another, reduction of classes, which used to range from 60 to 120; in providing better methods for ventilation; sanitation is another; diminishing the number of formal examinations; another, establishment of summer schools; and others, as methods of honorary promotion and graduation, establishment of evening schools, kindergartens, etc.

Total enrollment of pupils was 33,505; average enrollment, 23,363; average attendauce, 20,727.1.


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Report for 1896, Amado Chaves, Territorial superintendent.

Congratulation is made for the recent completion of the fine normal school building at Silver City, for the notable improvement in school buildings in many of the towns, and for the high average in ability and faithfulness in the teaching force. Home institutions are turning out graduates who, it is claimed, are the full equals of those who come with diplomas from the States, and the report warmly urges their more frequent relations to positions in the educational system.

The report, considering the well-nigh impossibility of collecting the poll tax, argues that it be abolished altogether, and its collection, as all other taxes are, be devolved upon the county collector. It complains also that school superintenılents are hampered by the limits set by the law upon their powers, which operate neither upon teachers nor directors whose abuses the superintendents are without any authority to suppress. It is contended that provision should be made whereby

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