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of all her deaf mutes and deaf childron without any limitation as to the age of such beneficiaries, and without regard to the wealth or poverty of their parents or guardians. All such pupils are sent to the American School at Hartford, Conn., the Clarke School at Northampton, or the Horace Mann School at Boston. The State also makes ample provision for the education and support of the blind at the Perkins Iustitntion and Massachusetts School for the Blind at South Boston." This business is intrusted by the board to a committee of its own members, associated with whom is its secretary.

The subject of trnancy, under direction of the legislature of 1895, has been under investigation of an expert examiner, and further amendments to the law in case are being considered.

The concluding words of the president of the State board are so thoughtful and pointed that we shall give them in full:

* In the judgment of experienced observers the public schools are in danger of being overcrowded with work. The number and character of the studies now introduced into courses of public instruction are such as to prevent the best work being done in any of them. Some of these studies heretofore supposed to be important, such as the language we speak and write, are in danger of being greatly weglected. It would be well for the public schools of the Commonwealth if a new State course of instruction, founded on recoguized principles of education, could be made in accordance with the concurrent opinion of the ablest and most experienced educators. Such a course should be simple in requirements, and adapted to the nature of the growing child as he passes through the different stages of his natural development.

The secretary in his report discusses the fact that in many of the smaller towns the teachers are all women. Benign and indispensable as is the influence of women, yet it is regarded a misfortune when pupils at no stage come within that of meu, and thus fail of acquiring certain degrees of robustness that only men are capable of imparting

This report, after giving statement of the extremely liberal provision made by the State, discusses the much mooted question of the relations between State and local taxation. We give the following brief extract. Alluding to the former it says:

"These measures have all proved helpful to the small towns, materially reducing great inequalities of school burdens, and making it possible for them to improve their scbools. They have left untouched, however, many other excessive inequalities; nay, they have served to increase those inequalities somewhat, as when a town heavily burdened to support its own schools is not aided by the State, but nevertbeless contributes its own share toward aiding other towns."

The report closes with this summary of recommendations:

(1) Universal and permanent supervision of the public schools; (2) professional training either in a normal school or in some equivalent way for all new teachers; (3) partial State participation in the support of all the public schools. Other recommendations are on truancy, more satisfactory definition of high schools, system of sabbatical years and summer scholarship for the refreshment and inspiration of normal school teachers, and additional general expert service.

BOSTON SCHOOL REPORT.

Report for 1893–94, Edwin P. Seaver, superintendent of public schools. The tables show that the number of pupils belonging to the day schools have increased to 65,588, an average increase for the last five years of more than 1,000. The report, outside of the usual statistics, is occupied mainly with a discussion, extended, elaborate, and very acute, on secondary school studies, founded upon the “Report of the committee on secondary school studies appointed at a meeting of the National Educational Association, July 9, 1892, with the reports of the conferences arranged by this committee and held December 28-30, 1892."

Regarding this report Superintendent Seaver says:

“Public high schools in particular have been distracted, and their courses of study have been wrecked by their striving to fulfill two separate purposes at the same time, namely, to give preparatory training for college, and to crown elementary education with a brief finishing course for practical life. The committee of ten have made recommendations which, if generally adopted, will unite these divergent purposes into one, and so give to the work of secondary schools throughout the country & desirable unity now wanting as well as enhanced strength and virtue. The deplorable gap which has long existed between the public high schools and colleges, in so far at least as the great majority of high-school pupils is concerned, will be closed up.' The report, arguing that mental habits may begin to be formed anterior to 14 years, contend that elements of various studies heretofore reserved for high schools may well begin in lower.

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The committee, with becoming reserve, do not ask assent to their entire report, recognizing that'several of its tindings niay well be considered debatable. Yet it is with much confidence that a change of relative duration in the high schools and those below is recommended. The rule in Boston is that 9 of the years from 6 to 18 bo given to primary and grammar schools, and the remaining three to the high schools. What is recommended is that the former be reduced to eight years and the latter raised to four. This change would not apply to the two public Latin schools whose courses extend already to 6 years. Into these schools, moreover, none are aclmitted except those with declared intention of getting a pinch of college education. Yet for many children such intentions can not be formed so early, and it is a hardship upon others in whom has not been developed fitness for the college course until after long stay in the high school. To remedy both these evils it is needful to open not only a direct road from the high school to the college, and in the words of the secretary, "not one road only, but two, three or four roads.". It is regarded a highly important step toward the end sought by the committee of ten when Harvard College decided to accept substitutes for Greek among the requisites for admission.

The four courses recommendel by the committee are the classical, the Latin-scientific, the modern langnage, and the English. How a fourth year can be added to the present three years' course is discussed, and suggestions offered, as that Latin and German or French and concrete geometry bo begun in the fifth year, that algebra be studied in the last year of the grammar-school course, that spelling be learned incidentally from any subject studied and not from a spelling book, and others.

Uniformity, that leading idea of graded-school systems, is handled with much acuteness, and shown, in somo respects, to be unreasonable and hurtful. In order to make the changes practicable it will be necessary to make revision, rocastings, and transfers in schools and classes, the importance of which the secretary admits, providel satisfactory adjustment of other questions is had, a matter which to him does not seem very difficult. These would be dealt with by the board of supervisors, if the school committee should decide to adopt the changes proposed or any portion of them. Another important matter is the view that was taken by the leading principais of schools who for somo timo past havo had the subject under consideration.

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Number of pupils belonging to the day schools, 67,487, an increaso of about 2,000.

The report deals mainly with the grammar schools, and discusses the questions how many more pupils take more and how much more, and how many take less and how much less than the course, which theoretically is six years. Miuute calculations are made and considerations are taken of absence, differences of dates of entrauce, etc.; addod to these varying conditions of health, mental and moral weakness, doniestic circumstances, which affect all schools. Yet much of tho delay, it is argued, comes from inefficient teaching and indiscreet management of promotions, Says the report:

"To the unequal operation of one or the other or both of these causes may be
attributed the very considerable differences observable among the schools.
There must be great difference in the inanagement of promotions when we find a fuli
half of the pupils in somo schools taking six and a half or more years of actual attend-
ance to finish the course (as in several schools lierein mentioned), whilo in others
only five and one-half years or less time was required by a majority of tho pupils to
finish the same course.'

The report contends that in some cases certain tendoncies of all graded schools have greater influence upon teachers than is just, such as oxcessive drillings and reviewings in order to bring classes to a satisfactory average, a habit which tends to concentrate attention upon pupils of medium capacity and industry, to the neglect both of those that are particularly bright, who can dispense with it, and those who are so dull or indocile whose timely olevation is hopeless. It is recommended, and it is contended to be practicable, to mako several divisions even of the samo grade. Such divisions, iustead of being delayed to the end of a session or of a torm, should be made in their midst whenever found to be desirable, even when change of room is not to be had. Some teachers who are especially judicious do this now, as there is no inhibition against a teacher beginning the next year's work before the end of this, whenever tho pupils are prepared for the rise. The report also recommends that the time spent on the grammar-school course could be shortened to the four years' course, which, though containing the samo mattors, aro divided into four grades instead of six. This offers opportunities for shortening tho course in the grammar schools both in the boginning, and in the beginning of the second half; and, it is argued, tho samo methods of advancement ought to bo practiced in primary schools, which are in groater need of increased efi'ectiveness of teaching than the granmar schools. Theso are overcrowded, the old quota of 49 having been raised to 56, and this, the report contends, from motives of economy orroneous and hurtfu .

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An oxhibit of the number of divisions in each grade shows the tendency to organize with the smaller divisions in the upper and the larger ones in the lower grades, an unreasonable inequality it is believed.

A considerable space is devoted to what is styled "enrichment” of the grammarschool course by the introduction therein of Latin, French, algebra, geometry, and physics, according to recomendations of the superintendent, and good results are contidently expected from what, it is hoped, will bo voluntary action in its behalf on the part of masters. In this connection further remarks are made against strict uniformity, and the necessity of greater individuality in work according to varying degrees of health and mental ability.

Praise is bestowed upon the working of the evening high school, attendance in which during the last year was 73.5 per cent, a littlo less in the Charlestown and East Boston branches.

For the normal school an annex of a "practice school" is warmly pressed, a matter easily done in a city numbering 50 grammar schools. Considerablo space is given to discussion of the parental school under the control of the school committee, and against certain ideas concerning which, being a penal institution, remonstrance is solemnly urged, the intent herein being not punishment for crimes but reformation of the wayward by inculcating intelligent self-control.

The report is supplemented by other reports from the several supervisors.

1895-96,

Number of day pupils, 69,315.

Excellent work has been done in mannal training, including kindergartens and the primary schools, and recommendation is offered for courses in clay modeling for both the grammar grades and for high schools. Remarks are made upon the extension of mechanical drawing, wood working, and whilo paste-board construction within moderate limits is commended, it is complained that in some schools it has been carried to needless excess. Some space is devoted to work done in the mechanic arts high school, the free evening drawing schools, and to the cooking now taught in fifteen public school kitchens.

In accordance with the recommendations of the committee of ten, the course of study of some of the grammar schools has been “ enrichedl,” and it is debated whether or not foreign languages and other bigh-school subjects should be introduced into the schools below. The matter is made voluntary with grammar-school masters, who will be guided by their own judgments as to its practicability in individual cases. This will need some modifications of existing courses.

The superintendent recommends changes in the suburban high schools by which also students, both boys and girls, could be prepared for college.

Regarding the introduction of advanced industrial instruction in existing bijh schools for girls, as many persons advocate, the report, apprehending this to le inexpedient, suggests creation of another institution specially for that purpose.

MICHIGAN.

TXIVERSITY OF NICHIGAN-QUARTER-CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION OF THE PRESIDENCY

OF JAMES BURRILL ANGELL, LL, D., JUNE 24, 1896.

Regent Cocker's Addre88.

While the university is greatly indebted to the State for its generons aid and support, the State is indebted to the university for its direct and wholesome influence on the educational system of the State, and for the able men it bas trained to promote tho varied interests of the Commonwealth and to honor its name in State and national affairs. It is, therefore, fitting, on this the twenty-fifth anniversary of Dr. Angell's inauguration as presidont, that grateful acknowledgment should be made in behalf of the State of its indebtedness to the distinguished teacher who for so many years has devoted himself to its educational interests.

It is greatly to the credit of the early settlers of Michigan that they took caro that “good learning should not perish among us.” They were brave enough to face every danger and wise enough to found a university. While Michigan was still a Territory, and its population numbered only 6,000 or 7,000 persons, an act was passed creating a university. Our first lawgirers were not willing that knowledge shonld be dependent on the chance charity of generous men of wealth. They established for all time, as far as this State is concerned, the great principle that “the erneation of the people is a public duty," and that the appropriation of public money for this end is a legitimato public expenditure. They did not propose that learning should bo buried in the graves of their forefathers.

. But,a you have often taken ote:

vitaent of university progress is tll

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baits of purpose, this breaking

* bitual outlook over the whole

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Address of the unirersit

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pu ibaiguration we recall with deep
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puting of riper years. We songht one

miad and cultured taste, equally at su pie assembly, familiar with the i 24. Widing loyally to all that is good in

mi in the present, and crowning a in the life of an earnest Christiani. decuted friendship, and our unwaveri steel over the years that have since in in a lat we believe has been proved tr as to ibe university at a critical time,

date of ber infancy were ended. T1 He were waiting for more completed elreze bad gnarded well the trailition

e bent bright hopes.

The relation between the State and the university is so close, and the influence of the university on the general welfare of the State is so great, that to shape and give proper direction to the work of the university is a grave responsibility. Few can appreciate the difficulties that the president of a State university has to meet. There are so many and so contlictiug views as to the relation of the State to higher erlucation, so many changes in the governing board, so many local prejudices, and so much urcertainty regarding State appropriations, that an institution like our own encounters greater dangers and requires greater wisilom in administration than do other institutions of learning whose policy is largely fixed by tradition, and whose interests are conserveil by a rich and powerful body of alumni. To place the university in the front rank of the great schools of learning with their rich endowments, to make the State known and respected abroad through its university, and in spite of opposing intluences to make it the crowding glory of the State, require the highest wisdom and the rarest skill. All friends of the university gratefully recognize the indebtedness of this institution of learning to the distinguished scholar and teacher. who now presides so ably over its interests.

Not alono as a college president has Dr. Angell won distinction. He is a recognized authority on international law, and his writings and public addresses on the important questions of the hour lave justly commanded general attention. The National Government, recognizing his exceptional fitness, sent him as minister plenipotentiary to China to negotiate a revision of an important treaty, and twice he has been selected by the Government of the United States to serve on important commissions. Whether as a representative of the university or of the State or of the National Government, he has worthily performed the duties intrusted to his care. The uni. versity rejoices in his well-earned distinctions and the State is justly proud of his achievements.

Some one has saiıl that “the worth of a college, whether Eastern or Western, of the Old World or the New, consists not in its history or its material equipment, but in the men who compose its teaching force." This is especially true of this university, Its buildings are unpretentious, its endowments meager, its gifts few in number, and its life fred from imposing ceremonies or impressive distinctions. From humble beginnings and without the associations of a venerable past it has rapidly grown and developed. Men of broad views and rich scholarship have served in its faculties anıl given breadth and character to learning. The university has been richly endowed with great teachers, if not with ample revenues. Its presidents have been gifted and scholarly men, who with rare skill have shaped its policy. During the twenty-five years of Dr. Angell's administration the university has grown wouderfully in the number of its students and in the breadth and character of its work, While it has carefully preserved what is of value in the methods and traditions of the older schools of learning, it has kept pace with the pressing demands of modern life. The fact has been duly recognized that a systematic and thorough training in the practical problems of the times in which we live is the prime function of a university. The idea has been rapidly gaining ground that the universities thronghout the land should be the great centers for the solution of the increasing number of economic questions that are crowding upon the attention of the people. Unless proper direction is given to the discussion of these perplexing questions there is danger of rash and hasty conclusions that may involve the country in needless embarrassments or in hopeless confusion. While the study of the classics will always be sought for special lines of work and for the broad and generous culture which they bring, it is becoming more and more apparent that the student must also be made familiar with those practical problems that enter into the general lifo and future welfare of the nation. Modern research has revealed so many new and unexpected sources of knowledge and suggested so many different lines of investigation that the character and whole plan of college training has been undergoing a change. President Elliot in a recent address eloquently said that universities are no longer merely students of the past, meditative observers of the present, or critics at a safe distance of the actual struggles and strifes of the working world; they are active participants in all the fundamental, progressive work of modern society.”.

But it is not for me to describe the changes that have taken place in the courses of study or to eumnerato the additions that have been made to the departments of the university during the administration of Dr. Augell. His associates in the university senate will fittingly refer to these.

To me, Dr. Angell, has been given the pleasant duty of offering the congratulations of the board of regents to you, its presiding officer, and of bearing willing testimony to the respect and esteem in which you are held by the several members of the board. Of your loyal affection for the university and of your zeal in promoting its varied interests we have had repeated and abundant proofs. To you the university is largely indebted for its present efficiency and for the honorable position it now maintains among the great schools of learning. I know of no greater distinction than wisely to have shaped the destinies of a young and vigorous insti.

ideas with her life. But the tru
leidral, toward the realization of w
se! jųur wise and inspiring leadership.
april of twenty-five years the gr.

lu iesources have been trebled; i
sai of instruction has grown mor
* {fa Eorl has been extended by the
*3of dentistry, of pharmacy, of home
alt of literature, science, and the
* bile numerous facilities in the w

i apparatus have given added
P2, and we find the most satisfact

administration in those less palpa
Wir that are more spiritual than mat
*altenents of a true university. A
Iartieniation of the university with t

23 jutte beard. Under your fostering 4
and came to us, has been made mo
pirol bath to secondary education a
offeriority it atioriis for advanced
me lle of the university a more u

la Fide Lehrfreiheit have not b

and this happy result we or post for wider choice of studies a --- is the fort to foster graduate stu

that in the end must measure

Hinn up the most distinctive pa wento ibis forward movement is

tution of learning, and of no greater honor than worthily to have earned the confidence of a great body of students. I can wish nothing better for the university than that you, its honored president, may long be spared to direct its affairs and to honor the State with your public services.

Address of the unirersity senate.

Mr. PRESIDENT: The senate of the university brings to you on this auspicions day, which commemorates the completion of your quarter centennial of service, its tribute of grateful recognition and personal esteem.

We congratulate you and the university on the brilliant record of the past, and express to you our heartiest and best wishes for the future. As we turn back to the day of your inauguration we recall with deep emotion the glowing words of welcoine spoken to you by Dr. Friezo when you were inducted into the presidency. "To this work of high promise,” said he, we have called you; leader in this grand educational enterprise we have made you. We sought one to take the helm who possessed at once the vigor and enthusiasm of youth and the calm prudence and patient waiting of riper years. We sought one of kindly heart and resolute will, of disciplined mind and cultured taste, equally at home in the seclusion of the study and in the public assembly, familiar with the institutions of foreign langs as well as our own, holding loyally to all that is good in the past, yet generously accepting all that is good in the present, and crowning all these gifts and attainments with the faith and the life of an earnest Christian. We pledge you our fraternal sympathy, our devoted friendship, and our unwavering support.

Looking back over the years that have since intervened, we mark these words as a prophecy of what we believe has been proved true, and we rejoice to-day at the fulfillment of these bright hopes.

You came to the university at a critical time, when she stood at the parting of the ways.

The days of her infancy were ended. The plans of her great founder, Fresident Tappan, were waiting for more complete development. President Haven and President Frieze had guarded well the traditions already established, and sought to incorporate new ideas with her life. But the true university ideal was still but little more than an ideal, toward the realization of which we have been working all these years under your wise and inspiring leadership.

During this period of twenty-five years the growth of the university has been truly remarkable. Its resources have been trebled; its students have increased from 1,200 to 3,000; its staff of instruction has grown more than four times as large, while the scope of its work has been extended by the addition of four new departments, the schools of dentistry, of pharmacy, of homeopathy, and of engineering. Within the departinent of literature, science, and the arts have been created several important chairs, while numerous facilities in the way of laboratories and seminaries and lectureships and apparatus have given added strength and value to all courses of instruction. But, as you have often taken occasion to remark, Mr. President, bigness is not greatness, and we find the most satisfactory and convincing proofs of the success of your administration in those less palpable but more valuable improvements and advances that are more spiritual than material, and that constitute most clearly the essential elements of a true university. As such elements we would name, first, the closer articulation of the university with the organic system of State education, of which it is the head. Under your fostering care this relation, which was instituted just before you came to us, has been made more vital, and has become increasingly fruitful of good both to secondary education and to the university.

Anotber element of university progress is the development of the elective system, and the opportunity it affords for advanced work and scientific investigation. Of the beneficial results of this system, in the way of promoting scholarship and of giving to the life of the university a more mature and earnest spirit, there cau be no doubt.

This catholicity of purpose, this breaking down of the traditioual class distinctions, and this wide Lehrfreiheit have not been purchased at the price of solidity and discipline; and this happy result we owe in no small degree to your wise conservatism and 'broad outlook over the whole field of education. Closely related to this movement for wider choice of studies and greater independence of a routino curriculum is the effort to foster graduate study, and to build up that higher side of the university that in the end must measure its real character and influence.

Twenty-five years ago no graduate work, properly so called, was attempted. At present we have graduate courses of study in all departments of the university. To no one subject have your reports called more urgent attention than to the importance of building up the most distinctive part of a true university.

Closely allied to this forward movement is the constant advance made by our professional schools in their methods and standards of instruction. In looking over the record of these past years the conviction is gained that the university has in no

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