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Showing the number of States (a) which “consider” a diploma as an evidence of fitness for admission to the bar and (b) those States whose anthority will probably be strongly influenced in favor of a candidate who has a diploma from a foreign (state controlled) university if testifying that the holder is proficient in the civil law and the law of his own country.

Class a: States considering a diploma of a law school of the State or of a sister State as an evidence of fitness for admission to bar- Alabama, Arizona, Colorado, Delaware, Connecticut, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Louisiana, Marylandi, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia, and Wisconsin. But tbirteen of these States will only recognize the diplomas of State institutions or those incorporated under its laws.

Class 0: States which will give considerable weight to a proficiency in the civil law and the law of applicant's own country-Arizona, Colorado, Georgis, Indiana, Iowa, Louisiana, and North Carolina. Attention is also asked for replies of Maryland, Missouri, Nerada, Ohio, and Oklahoma.

MEDICINE.

During the month of August the president of the medical board or the secretary of state of each State of the Union was iovitel to answer, among others, these questious:

On granting a license to practice medicine in What formalities, if any, do physicians who your State is any distinction inade between appli. hare been duly licensed by another State or by cants who holl a diploma from a medical institu a foreign government have to undergo in order tion, incorporated under your own State laws or legally to practice their profession in your State? the laws of another State of the Union, and appli. cants who hold a diploma from a foreign school of medicine?

(Should it happen that your State pays no atten. tion to college diplomas of any kind, please stato that fact.) The answers are

The answers are CALIFORNIA: No distinction is made

Applicant must present diploma, a letter of recon.

mendation from a regular practitioner of medi. cine, an affidarit stating that he is the lawful possessor of said diploma; that he is the person named therein; that the diploma was procured

in the regular course of medical instruction, cte. COLOPADO: No...

Those physicians presenting diplomas from recog.

nized reputable schools are registered upon their presenting it, or on presenting fire afti. davits from responsible persons setting forth that holder has practicesi medicine for ten years

continuously as a business. COSXECTICUT: There was a distinction made in They must pass an examination.

faror of some of the colleges of the United States, but under the law of 1897 no attention

whatever is paid to college diplomas. DELAWARE: They must have a diploma, but [law] Examination. There is nothing in our law which

vloes not specify any particular collego or col. allows reciprocity, which I think unconstita. leres.

tionai. FLORIDA: Any holder of a diploma from a recog. Pass an examination before one of the scren er.

nized medical college is eligible for examination, amining boards of the State.

a diploma being necessary. GEORGIA: No distinction is made against any All are required to stand the examination before

"regular" (allopathic) collego reqniring three tlic board.

courses of lectures. KASSAS: No distinction is made...

A diploma or a certificate of qualificatio: from

some State or county medical society.

MEDICIXE- continued.

IDAuO: If the board find that his or her diploma

has been issued by a reputable college of medicine the applicant is cligible for examination.(Law, March 12, 1897.)

All persons who have been licensed to practice

medicine and surgery, or either, after examina-
tion by Stato boariis of medical examiners or
State boards of health of other States where
the standard of examination is substantially
the same as required by the provisions of this
act, shall be, upon application, licensed withoat
examination.- (Law, March 12, 1897.)

Illinois: Graduates of colleges in the United States recognized conditionally are required to supple.

ment their diplomas with an examination in the four principal brauches of medicine-practice, surgery, gynecology, and obstetrics. A percentage of 80 is required. Graduates of colleges in the United States that are not recognized by this board are required to pass an examination in all brauches. Graduates of Canadian colleges and foreign colleges and universities are required to supplement their diplomas with an examination in practice, surgery, gynecology, and obstetrics unless they present evidence of their right to practice medicine and surgery in the province or

country in which the college is located from which they receive their diploma. INDIANA: Must come in on diplomas from schools Come in on their diplomas filling tho proper

recognized by this board or satisfy thi board blanks and paying their fees.
that they maintain a course equal to our re.

quirements.
Iowa: No; provided the college has been recog. If graduates, they fill out the application Wank

nized by our State board of medical examiners and send it to this office for verification, with
as determined by its compliance with the pro the fee, $5, and diploma.

visions of the law.
LOUISIANA: No distinction between this State They must present their diplomas and stard a

and any foreign country. The applicant must written examination before the board. Fee, $11.
present a diploma from a reputable medical col.

Seventy-five per cent required in order to pass. lege requiring three courses of six months cach

in three different years. MAINE: No distinction as to diploma. All per Pass an examination before the board and be

sons presenting themselves for registration registered.

have to pass an examination.
MARYLAND: No; the law requires that the ap They have to fill out and swear to a printeil ap.

plicant shall be a graduate of some reputable plication form, giving name, age, when and
medical school.

where graduated, etc., and then undergo a regu.
lar or special examination, as the board may

deem best.
MASSACHCSETTS: No distinction made. College All applicants must pass a satisfactory examina-

diplomas not a factor in testing an applicant's tion.

qualification for practice.
MICHIGAN: No; every graduate of any legally File sworn statement with clerk of counts.

authorized medical college in this State or any
one of the United States, or in any other coun.
try, shall be deemed qualified to practice medi.
cine and surgery in all its departments after

having registered. (Law, 1887.)
MINNESOTA: No; college diplomas are only recog. Pass examination of State boarl of medical ex.

nized as evidence of the prescribed course of amipers.

study. MISSOURI: No distinction is made

All physicians must register with the State board

of health by making au affidavit that they are
the lawful holders of the diploma which they

present, and pay a fee of $1.
MONTANA: No; all applicants for certificate Pay fee of $15 and pass examination. If granted

must pass the State examination and must a license, the same to be recorded in the office possess a diploma from some school recognized of the clerk and recorder of the county in which by the board of examiners.

holder intends to practice within sixty days.

Pay annual fee of $20 to Stato. NEW HAMPSHIRE: Our State pays no attention Pass regent's examination-i.e., superintendent to college diplomas, except Dartmouth College of erlucation-but there is a "voard of examidiplomas, for the next foar years. After 1903 vers." Dartnionth men will hare to pass examination.

ED 97-78

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MEDICINE-continued.

NEW JERSEY: Foreign diplomas must confer the Licentiates of the State boards of medical exami.

rigit to practice all the branches of niedicine ners of New York and Pennsylvania alone are and surgery in the country in which they aro incorsed by this board without examination. issued, and must be certified to by a consular Licentiates of other States and foreign cous. official of that country.

tries must pass our examination. NEW MEXICO: Wo license applicants on diplo- | Foreigners must (1) present evidences of gooi

mas; require examination of applicants from preliminary education and (2) a high grade of foreign countries, partly because we can not medical education, to be determined by exauli. easily be well informed as to the standing of nation by the board. their schools, and partly because of discrimi. Dation against American physicians in foreign

countries. NEVADA: No person shall practice melicine or Every physician or surgeon when about to take

surgery in this State who has not received a up his residence in this State shall file with the medical education and a diploma from somo county recorder a copy of his diploma and shall regularly chartered medical school, said school be identified by two citizens as the person to have a bona fide existence at the time when named therein or shall swear to the fact him. said diploma was granted.

self. NEW YORK: No distinction is made between ap Applicants examined and licensed by other State plicants who hold a diploma from a niedical in examining boards registered by the agents as stitution incorporated under New York State . maintaining standards not lower than those laws or the laws of another State of the Union provided-uy New York State laws, and cridenice or from a foreign school of medicine. The di that the applicant has received the degree of ploma must be from a medical school registered bachelor or doctor of medicine from some regis. as maintaining at the time a satisfactory stand tered medical school or a diploma or license ard.

conferring full right to practice medicine in somo foreign country, with evideuce of five or moro years of reputable practice of medicine, may, withont further examination, on payment of $10 to the regents of the l'niversity of the State of New York, and oil submitting such evidenco as they may require, reccire from them an indorsement conferring all rights and privileges of a regent's license issueil after er.

amination. NOETH CAROLINA: No attention is paid to di. The same requirement as from anyone. ploma.

ognition of diplomas or licenses from ober

boards. OH10: No distinction for recognized modical col. All physicians are required to present their di

leges located in the United States. Foreign plomas before a certificato is granted. Other graduates are required to furnish evidence of Stato licenses [i. e., granted by the State of graduation through the l'nited States consul. Massachusetts or Dela waru, for instance, to a

nongraduate of a methical college] are not ac

cepted. OKLAHOMA: No distinction is made between di. Certificates from other States or countries hare no

plomas froin schools in tho l'nited States and value when their hollers desiro to qualify in thoso from schools in foreign countries, if the i this Territory.

school is in good standing. OREGON: No attention paid to college diplomas.. Stand an examination before the State medical

board. PENNSYLVANIA: All applicants for license must Must pass State board examination (New Jersey

pass a State board examination. (New Jersey excepted). is the only (?) State from which certificates are !

accepted in lieu of examination. ) RHODE ISLAND: No foreign diplomas accepted. Same as if not possessed of such certificate.

Full examination on eleven branches of medi. Certiticates of other States not accepted.

cine required. T'ec, $10. SOUTH CAROLINA: The law says applicant must

Must hold a certificate from Stato (South Caropresent a diploma from some school or medical lina ?) medical examining boaril and the regis. college authorized by law to grant same.

ter with clerk of county court. (Yone but graduates are entitled to examination," and it is understood that onclui thoso who have passed an examination are given a cortilicate.)

Xorer

MEDICINE-continued.

SOUTH DAKOTA: None

Must possess a diploma of a college having three

full courses of lectures of six months each, no two full courses to be taken during the same

year. TENNESSEE: Our law pays no attention to diplo All are examined regardless of license from other

mas, but requires all applicants to stand an States or countries.

examination. TEXAS: No distinction made between applicants To practice legally in Texas the applicant must

who hold a diploma from first-class medical obtain a certiticate from an examining board. schools cither at home or abroad.

(But it appears that the courts hold a diploma to be equal to a certificato and the possessor can

force a certificate from board.] UTAH: No distinction so long as school is repu Every applicant must present diploma and pass an table.

examination before the State examining board. VERMONT: No distinction is made, provided the They must secure a license from a board of con

diploma is from a reputable and recognized sors, who are required to furnish a license to school.

those holding a diploma of a recognized college. WASHINGTON: Tho State medical examining board Have to stand a regular examination before the

does not regard a diploma of any State as suf State medical examining board.
ficient to entitle holder of samo to practice in
the State, but will consider such diploma in
connection with the examination of the holder

of same for a license.
WEST VIRGINIA: Applicants for certificate to All required to pass examination.

practica medicine in this State must pass a sat. isfactory examination by the State board of health. Diplomas (of schools) or certificates from the boards of other States aro not recog:

nized. WISCOXSIX: No distinction..

Presentation of a diploma of an institution har.

ing three courses of not less than six months each; after 1904, four courses of six months or

more oach. WYOMING: No distinction. But institution must Must have diploma and must filo a copy of same

be reputable and regularly chartered at time or a certificate from dean of medical school at diploma was granted.

which holder graduated.

LAW.

Concurrently with the letters addressed to the meilical anthorities of the several States as noted under medicine, others were aildressed to the attorney-general, containing among others these inquiries:

Is i diploma of an institution incorporated Would a thorough knowledge of the civil law under the laws of your own State or of another and the law of one of the continental countries of State of the Union considered in granting admis. Europe (as certified to be a diploma of a reputasion to the bar

ble foreign university) be of assistance to an

applicant for admission to the bar in your State? Tho answers are:

Tho answers are: ALSBAHA: Yes; (but only a] 'diploma from the Only to the extent of aiding the applicant to l'niversity of Alabama.

answer questions propounded to him. [Mem. bers of the bar of such States as permit Alabama lawyers on motion are likewise admitted in Alabama on motion of attorney-general.

Citizenship required.] APKANSAS: No..

No. (No member of the bar of another State

admitted except through examination. Appli

cant must be a citizen of the Stato.] ARIZONA: Yes; a diploma granted by any regu Yes; a thorough knowledge of the civil law and larly cuartered school of law will admit lolder. one of the continental countries of Europe will

be suflicient to grant license if the moral standing of applicant be proven.

ES TE, to a certain

LAW-continued.

CALIFORNIA: Yes; not as a diploma, but as testify

ing to what and how long he has been studying; but an examination is required after a diploma has been filed.

LarsTS: All calitates, rin alaly sebool or bot, are Dentatian. is a matter tant accustomed to a retion whether the appl: und azy lat school, and the taas of some weight.

No answer. (Every citizen of the United States

or person resident in this State who has bona fide declared his intention to become a citizen in the manner required by law, who has been admitted to practice law in the highest court of a sister State or of a foreign country where the common law of England constitutes the basis of jurisprudence, may be admitted to practice in the courts of this State upon the production of his or her license and satisfactory evidence of good moral character; but the court may examine applicant as to his or her qualifica

tions.) Yes. Would be evidence of qualification, but an exam

ination would be made.

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COLORADO: Yes.....
DELAWARE: It is; but is optional. (A practic-

ing lawyer of three years' standing admitted without examination by courtesy if a resident

of the State.) CONNECTICUT: Yes; as satisfying the requisites

preliminary to an examination by a committee of fifteen.

TAA: Tes; as a prerequisite f

FLORIDA: No; only so far as it will impress the

examining committee or presiding judge.

GEORGIA: Diplomas of certain law schools in this

State will entitlo holders thereof to a license.

No response. [Applicants from other States

must be citizens of the United States and must pass examination, though already admitted to

the bar of their own State.] No response. [Admission to practice in the

Foderal circuit courts or in the supremo court

of another State is a license to practice.] Would be of considerable assistance, but the ap.

plicant would hare to stand examination. (Citizenship and examination required except in case of States and countries allowing Georgians same courtesy as to nonresidence and recogni

tion of license.) No. (Member from another State admitted on

license.)

19 Te; of the college aluersity,

00: No; Dot by the lette

Vezzo: Examination

IDAHO: In the district courts, yes; but in the

supreme court applicant must present license from supreme court of a sister State or undergo

examination. ILLINOIS: Yes; holder will be granted a licenso

if diploma be granted by a school incorporated under the laws of the State, and having a two years' course of thirty-six weeks each year.

requs

INDIANA: Not necessary. (See next column.)

No. (Holders of licenses from othar States having

a standard as high as that of Illinois admitted on motion; must be a citizen of State, unless same courtesy of noncitizenship and acceptance of license is accorded by State or Territory

whence applicant comes.] Every person of good moral character, being a

voter, shall be entitled to admission to practice law in all courts of justice. (Constitution, Art. VII, sec. 21.) It would, but a knowledge of the laws of the State would be required. [Attorneys of highest

court of another State are admitted on motion.) Yes; of material assistance, as he must be pro

ficient in the Institutes of Jushman, Domat's Civil Law, and Pothier on Obligations. (Must be a citizen, etc., but the supreme court will

relax rules at discretion.) Not directly. (Attorneys of other States ad.

mitted on motion.)

TE: Th; as one of the pa mag application for admis 13 LEKT: Probably rea; and year of study of la 324514: (sly so far as it ali ba peut in the sti

IOWA: Yes; if from law department of State Uni

versity.

LOUISIANA: Yes; as law of 1877 requires two years

of study in law.

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MAINE: No. It has no legal effect, but would

doubtlese hare weight with the examining

committee. MARYLAND: A diploma from the law schools of

our own State admits without examination.

It would not in itself. (Admission a mere mat.

ter of reciprocity.)

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