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Fig. 7.-Ground plan of the Laboratory of Physiology of the Univorsity of Leipzig.

Esplanation: A A A A are laboratorios for vivisection and experiments in physical and biological chemistry; B, room for experiments requiring the use of mercury; C. spectroscope room; E E, largelaboratory for physiological chemistry; F, library; G G, microscope laboratories; G1 room of the professor of microscopy; II, auditorium ; I, placo for keeping rabbits; K, stable; L, room for operating npon horses. The aviary and tho aquarium are upon the right and left of the stables I K L.

ED 97-77

laboratory of physiology, if fitted up for the purpose of instruction, must offer the most varieti resources in instruments, apparatus, reagents, and specimens (products), as well as places for experimentation upon animals, micrographic research, and the operations of biologic plıysics and chemistry. At St. Petersburg, Utrecht, Florence, and at Ainsterdam such establishments exist, also at Heidelberg, Berlin, Vienna, Leipzig, Tübingea, Munich, and Göttengen.

LABORATORIES OF ANATOMY.

What was, anil perhaps in many cases still is, the dissecting room of the American college is shown on a somewhat extended scale in tho following sketch anel plan.

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On the fiftieth anniversary of the founding of the University of Berlin (1860) this building was resolved on, and was completed in a short time.

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Explanation: The lowest plan represents the basement (sous-sol), the middle plan the first floor, and the uppermost the second story. The basement: A A, B B, rooms for receiving and preserving the cadarers, and A' A' rooms for cleansing them;CC, ice vaults (glacière): D, elevator; F, apparatus for heating water; H I, room for injections and large anatomical preparations; K KKK, dissecting rooms; NNNN, apartments of janitor. First story: A A A A A, dissecting rooms; B B, liall for anatomical work; CCCC, halls for examination; D D DDD, microscopic laboratories; E E, hall for demonstrations in operativo medicine; F F F, ball for the use of the students of the Academy of Beaux-arts. Second story: A, A, A, museum for dried specimens; B, anditorium: CCCC, laboratories of chemistry; D D, room for physical operations (cabinet de physique); E EE E, hall so arranged that a low temperature may be maintained in order to preserve work not capable of immediate comple. tion; F F, room of the director; G G, laboratory, and HH, room of the professor of anatomy; I, library; KKK, apartments of the first prosector, and L L of second prosector.

LABORITORIES OF PATHOLOGICAL AXATOMY.

The pathological anatomy that Laënnec, Crureillier, Rokitanski, and others had elevated to the rank of a science, bas taken a considerable development since the microscope has been applied to the study of organic alterations. This new way bas been opened and entered upon with great éclat by the celebrated author of Cellular Pathology, Professor Virchow, and by many other eminent workers. Their discoveries bring to medicine unceasingly a rich liarvest of useful material. The microscopic examination of the organs is indispensable as a complement to chemical study. In the French hospitais it is the physician who lias attended the defunct patient that performs tie autopsy. The autopsy is differently made in Germany. It is neither the professor of the clinic nor his assistants that makes tho autopsy; it is made by the professor of pathological anatomy, and be performs his duty in the presence of the students with the confidence and the authority of an expert and of one filling 1 higli position. The organs affected by disease aro placed aside for examinatiou by the students, who note their exterior appearance. Subsequently, in anothier place, microscopic examinations are mado. But it is necessary not to confound these demonstrations with the methodic course of pathological anatomy, which is independent and during which the professor exhibits matters furnished by the daily autopsies. The Pathological Institute of Vienna will serve to illustrate the fourth form of the institute of the German University, which had no like in America until long after the idea bad becomo commonplace in Europe. Perhaps in America eren to-day such an institute would be called a college, if not a “university.”

Bit Professor Virchow himself has spoken upon the topic of pathological anatomy for the World's Fair exhibit of the German universities at Chicago. The history of pathological anatomy, he says, was until a very recent date, closely connected with that of anatomy. Indeed the pathological anatomy of the domestic animals served as a model upon which to build that of man. But it was long beforo the retarding grip of tradition could be loosened so the worth of the autopsy might be recoguized. “I had tho especial good fortune,” ho says, “to be the first to teach officially this science. In 1819 I occupied the first professorial chair in pathological anatomy in Germany. From Wiirzburg I was called to Berlin, and there it happened that pathological anatomy was first separated from the chair of anatomy proper and became au independent branch of investigation, and then throughout Germany. But let us briefly examine,” he continues, “tho character and extent of the practical principles that must guide 113 in this science."

1. The autopsy must become a regular part of the law of the land (Krankondieust). The law of every country must not permit, as far as possible, the body of a person dying in a hospital to be taken away from science. To make a beginning in this line will be very difficult, but with patienco anel perseverance it will be eventually recognized by tho people that the autopsy is necessary to enable the physician to conquer disease. It must becomo a prejudice (Sitte) that a corpse shall be dissected like the Egyptians had the custom of disemboweling their dead and draining the brain out through the nose to preserve it as a mummy. When again it shall become customary, as of old, to cremate the body, then the custom (sitte) to have the boils dissected will easily become general.

2. The pathological dissection must be done according to exact rules. It is selfevident that the dissection must make clear its peculiarities as far as they are recognizable, and that it should be adopted to slow the purpose (Gang) of the section and tho relations to other parts of the body, as moro particularly set forth in The Technique of tho Section as Conducted in the Morgue of the Charity Hospital, Virchow, 1893, fourth edition.

3. Just as the tecliniqne of pathological anatomy is different from the techniqne of tho" anatomical theater," so are different instruments required, especially to the end of quicker completion of the section. For instance, larger knives are required.

4. The next consideration is the making of good accounts (Protokolle) of the traus

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FIG. 11.-Plans of the basement and first and second stories of the Laboratory of Pathological Anatomy

of the University of Vienna.

Explanation: Basement (sons-sol): III, room for the cadarors; IV, ice vaults; VI VI, raults for anatomy; VII, vaults for animals under experiments: IX IX, laboratories for the secondary physicians; X, laboratory for the assistants; XI, hearse room. First story: L, hall of antopeies for chem. ical instruction; M. for medical jurisprudential autopsies; 0, reception room for cadavers; P, mcrgue for coroner cases; P, cabinet of the corouer; P2 hall for the witnesses; Q, ball for exhibiting the bodies, and P, for cleaning them for the autopsy; T, hall for exhibiting bodies to be viewed juridically; U, hall for the primary physicians; I'T I'I', laboratories for the use of the clinical pro. fessors; V. ball for the course of pathological chemistry; W. laboratories for large chemical operations; X, room of the professor of chemistry; Z, laboratory for work in pathological anatony.

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