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education of the deaf, blind, and vicious. These lands are to be leased by the
State until they will bring $10 an acre. They are not to be turned over for the
use of any institution not belonging to the State. Neither are they to be leased
for a longer period than five years, nor in larger portions than 1 square mile, nor
is more than 1 square mile to be leased to one individual or company. The grant
to North and South Dakota each was, for a school of mines, 40,000 acres; for the
university, 40,000 (North Dakota getting, of course, two townships in addition),
and to Washington and Jontana 100,000 acres for a school of science, and the
University of Montana receiving 50,000 acres in addition to the two townships,
according to precedent. Idaho in 1890 received 100,000 acres for a school of
science, and 50,000 for a university, and Utah in 1894 received 200,000 acres for an
agricultural college, 100,000 for a school of science, and 110,000 for its university.
All told, these lands amount to 2,084,240 acres, which at $10 an acre will yield
$20,842,400. This sum will swell the total sum actually given by the Federal Gov-
ernment for the establishment of higher education to the figure of $50,000,000, or,
to recapitulate these estimates, it appears--
That the grant of 1787 and its successors in direct line to 1999 yielded.... $5,000,000
That the grant of 1862 and its successors in direct line to 19-9 yielded.. 10,500,000
That the grants of 1889-1894. including the carlier grants to the Territo-
ries, now States, must yield.....

20,812,000 That Congress is annually appropriating for agricultural and inechan

ical colleges a sum equal in 1897 to a capital, at 4 per cent, of.. ..... 20, 400,000 That Congress is annually appropriating for experiment stations a sum equal to a capital, at 4 per cent, of .

18,000,000 Total...

80,742,000 The lands granted since 1859 being priced at $10 or more are, as it wero, tied up, and are only “productive funds" as far as they are leased. The University of Washington, however, had quite a capital to go on. Two citizens of Seattle had given 10 acres of land about 1855 for the university. When the site was changed this property was certainly worth $150,000, for the legislature advanced that amount in 1833 (to be repaid “from the sale of lots in Seattle ") for the purpose of providing new buildings for the new university. The tied-up land, however, having a value, is utilized in providing buildings by pledging it as security. As an instance of this method of using the lands, sections 1, 2, and 5 of an act of one of the new States are now given.

SECTION 1. That for the purpose of providing money for the support and maintenance of the normal schools of the State of Idaho, located at Albion, in Cassia County, and Lewiston, Nez Perce County, and for the construction and repair of buildings for the use of said schools, a loan of $75,000. is hereby authorized to be negotiated by a board consisting of the governor, treasurer, secretary of state, and attorney-general of the State of Idaho, on the faith and credit of the State of Idaho, and secured by the proceeds of the sale of State normal school lands and the timber thereon as hereinafter provided.

SEC. 2. The treasurer of the State is hereby authorized, empowered, and directed immediately upon the passage of this act to issue 70 bonds of the State, to be known as normal school bonds, in the sum of $1,000 each, payable in twenty years from the date of their issuance, to bear interest at the rate of 5 per cent per annum, payable semiannually on tho 1st days of January and July each year, at a bank in the city of New York to be selected by State treasurer; said bonds, however, to be redeemable at the option of the State at any time after the expiration of ten years from the date of their issuance.

Sec. 5. For the purpose of securing the payment of the principal of the bonds provided for in this act the proceeds of the sale of all the lands, or of timber growing thereon, granted to the State by the United States for State normal schools are hereby set apart as a separate and distinct fund to be known as the normal school sinking fund; and after the payment of said principal of said bonds, then the proceeds of the sales of said land or timber shall be paid into the general fund in the State treasury until an amount equal to the total amount of interest that has theretofore been paid out of said general fund on said bonds, less the amount of interest that may have been paid into said general fund from investment of nor

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mal school sinking fund moneys in State Warrants, as hereinafter provided for, has been so paid into said general fund. When the principal of said bonds shall have been fully paid and the general fund of the State reimbursed for interest on said bonds as herein specified, then and thereafter the proceeds of the sales of such lands and timber shall be disposed of as may by law be provided.

This is not the place to enumerate the merits or to extol the objects of the institutions that the university land grants and the grants for the colleges of agriculture and the mechanic arts have called into being or have encouraged. All that has been repeatedly done elsewhere. But attention may be asked to two judgments which appear to justify the most strenuous exertions in promoting the cause of higher education. The first of these dicta relates to higher spiritual education and contains a passage very frequently quoted, or rather misquoted; the second is from a recent report of a British commission on technical education.

In the preface to his Questions Contemporaines, Mr. Ernest Renan criticises his own and this country in the following language:

The false idea being still alive in France that education should be given only to those children whose social position in after life will warrant it, and therefore that to cultivate and to instruct the poor is to sow wants and ambitions which it will be impossible to satisfy, nothing can be definitely accomplished until that idea is repudiated. The strength of the education of the peasantry in Germany is due to the strength of higher education in Germany. It is the university which makes the school. It is said that the elementary teacher conquered the Austrians at Sadowa.' Not at all. It was German science and German virtue that conqnered at Sadowa. It was Protestantism, it was philosophy, Luther, Kant, Fichte, and Hegel that conquered at Sadowa. The education of the masses is the result of the high cuiture of certain classes. The people of those countries which, like the United States, have created a great school system for the people without a serious higher instruction shall for a long time yet expiate their fault by their intellectual mediocrity, their coarseness, their superficiality, and their lack of general intelligence.?

Or if it is proper to take the French literary savant's "instruction of a class of persons,” or perhaps as he would have said, " a class of instructed persons," as meaning the same thing as a “general diffusion of knowledge,” his apprehension concerning the defects of education in this country as regards parlor manners was antedated nearly a century by a warning as regards politics. In his Farewell Address, Washington said: “Promote, as an object of primary importance, institutions for the general diffusion of knowledge; for in proportion as the structure of government gives force to public opinion it is essential that public opinion should be enlightened."

Turning from the value of higher education as a preparation for entering into the realm of culture and for the discharge of the duties of citizenship, we may regard the subject from a purely business standpoint. During the year 1896 a British commission visited Germany and reported on the technical education of that country. From that report the following quotation is made: 3

In fact, our recent visit has brought it clearly home to us that the Germans have not ceased to believe in the value of higher scientific education. On the contrary, they appear now to attach greater importance than ever to the connection between such higher scientific training and the development of manufacturing industry. No nation, especially if not overburdened with capital, would continue to erect and equip institutions for advanced instruction and scientific research without a firm conviction of their industrial value. The demand, too, for such higher teaching seems to increase as the facilities for providing it are

1 This now famous phraso is usually gotten to read Sedan instead of Sadowa. Questions Contemporaines, 3d ed., preface, p. vii.

a Report on a visit to Germany with a view to ascertaining the recent progress of technical education in that country, being a letter to His Graco the Duke of Devonshire, K. G., Lord President of the Council, by Sir Philip Magnus, Mr. Redgrare, Dr. Swire Smith, and Mr. Woodall. (These gentlemen were on a commission that reported about thirteen years ago. Sco report of this Bureau for 1882-83, pp. 203, et seq.)

enlarged. For whereas in 1851 we stated that the total attendance at the poly. technicums was little more than 2,000, the attendance of students at Charlotten. burg alone, irrespective of the Berlin University, is now 3,000, while the number of students in the physical and electro-technical laboratories at Darmstadt is already in excess of the accommodation. Indeed, it is worthy of remark that the same object which called into existence some forty or fifty years ago the technical universities has recently led to their extension and development in a new direction. As far back as that perio i Germany began to prepare herself for becoming a manufacturing people. It was her belief in the future application of chemistry to industrial purposes that led to the erection and equipment at a great cost of chemical laboratories and to the encouragement held out to students to pursue their studies in those laboratories for a period of five, six, or even seven years. The success that has attended the efforts of the Germans to appropriate many important branches of chemical manufacturing industry is well known, and the dependence of those industries on the researches of chemical experts employed in the works is generally recognized. At the Badische Analin-uud Soda Fabrik alone are now employed 100 scientifically trained chemists and 30 engineers. Her brilliant achievements in the field of chemical industries have encouraged her to establish well-equipped electrical laboratories and to develop the practical teaching of physics with the view of assisting the electrical trades, which are comparatively of recent growth.

Nevertheless there is a precaution to be taken in all experimentation, not only in the fields of intellect and gentility, but in that of industrial education. This is to be patient in awaiting returns, especially if inferior methods be used. Professor Atwater, while chief of the Experiment Station Office of the Federal Agricultural Department, has spoken on this subject to this effect:

Whoever has had experience in field experiments and has taken the pains to look through the mass of reports of such work that has accumulated during the past fifty years in Europe, as well as in this country, must be impressed with the smallness of the visible result in proportion to the expenditure of labor, thought, and money. The great difficulty is that the conditions, particularly of soil and weather [and he might have added social conditions], are entirely beyond not only the experimenter's control, but also his means for measuring them; and what is still worse, inequalities of soil which are hidden from his observation are often responsible for a large part of the differences in yield, so that the results give entirely wrong answers to the questions he is studying. While the importance of duplication of trials and of continuing them through a series of years can not be too strongly insisted upon, it is also very desirable that investigations should be made with special reference to the improvement of the methods of experimenting.

The acts of 1862, 1889, and 1890 have been frequently referred to in the foregoing, and it is useful, perhaps, to summarize their provisions as the most important efforts made by the people of the United States to foster higher scientific education,

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Federal laws regarding institutions created by the act of 1862 and modified or enlarged by those of 1887 and 1890.
SYNOPSIS OF THE LAW OF JULY 2, 1862. SYNOPSIS OF THE LAW OF MARCH 2, 1887. SYNOPSIS OF THE LAW OF AUGUST 30, 1890.
To establish colleges for the benefit of agriculture and To establish experimental stations in connection with To more completely endow the colleges established
the mechanic arts.

colleges established by the law of July 2, 1862. under the law of July 2, 1862. [Wherever the word
[Wherever the word State is used the word Terri State is used the word Territory is implied.]

tory is implied.]
1. The grant.
1. The annual subsidy.

1. The annual subsidy.
Each State now existing and each new State admit There shall be appropriated annually, until the pro There shall be annually appropriated until the pro-
ted into the Union shall be entitled to as many times vision is amended, suspended, or repealed, the sum of vision is amended, suspended, or repealed, out of any
30,000 acres of public land (not mineral bearing) as it $15,000 to each State, to be paid quarterly out of any money arising from the sale of public lands not other-
had in 1860 or has, at the time of its admission, repre money in the United States Treasury arising from wise appropriated, for the more completo endowment
sentatives in both Houses of Congress. When there the sale of public lands, to the treasurer or other and maintenance of colleges for the benefit of agri-
is not enough (or no) public land within a State, scrip officer duly appointed by the governing boards of culture and the mechanic arts, the sum of $15,000, and
shall be issued; but no State shall locate land in an the colleges that have been or may be established in an annual increase of $1,000 until the appropriation
other State save through assignees, nor shall any por virtue of the act of July 2, 1862. The sum so granted shall be $25,000. [Territories not yet States may be
tion of land be located smaller than a quarter section. is to be used for the following purposes:

beneficiaries of this law though not of the law of 1862.]
2. The object of the grant.
2. The object of the subsidy.

2. The object of the subsidy.
Ten per cent or less of the entire gross proceeds of There may be expended out of the first annual ap The amounts annually received by each designated
the grant may be used, if authorized by the legisla- propriation the sum of $3,000 or less, in the erection, school or college shall be applied only to instruction
ture, in the purchase of land for sites or experi- enlargement, or repair of necessary building or build in agriculture, the mechanic arts, the English lan-
mental farms.

ings, and $750 or less of subsequent appropriations guage, and the various branches of mathematical,
The interest of the entire remaining gross proceeds may be so expended.

physical, natural, and economic science, with special
of the grant shall be used for the endowment, sup There shall be established under the direction of the reference to their applications in the industries of life
port, and maintenance of at least one college where college or colleges, or agricultural departments of col and to the facilities for such instruction.
the leading object shall be, without excluding other leges, created by the law of 1862, in each Statea depart An annual report shall be made by the president of
scientificand classical studies, and including military ment to be known as an "agricultural experiment each college to the Secretary of Agriculture, as well
tactics, to teach such branches of learning as are re station." Such experiment station shall conduct as to the Secretary of the Interior, regarding the
lated to agriculture and the mechanic arts in such original researches or verify experiments, to wit: condition and progress of the college, including sta-
manner as the legislatures of the States may respec (1) On the physiology of plants and animals and the tistical information in relation to its receipts and
tively prescribe, in order to promote the liberal and diseases to which they are severally subject, with expenditures, its library, the number of its students
practical education of the industrial classes in the remedies for the same; (2) on the chemical composi and professors, and also as to any improvements and
several pursuits and professions of life.

tion of useful plants at their different stages of experiments made under the direction of any exper-
An annual report shall be made regarding the prog growth; (3) on the comparative advantages of rota iment stations attached to the college with their
ress of each college, regarding improvements and tive cropping as pursued under a yarying series of cost and results, and such other industrial and eco-
experiments made, with their cast and results, and crops; (4) on the capacity of new plants or trees for nomical statistics as may be regarded as useful, one
such other matters, including State, industrial, and acclimation; (5) in the analysis of soils and of water; copy of which shall be transmitted by mail free to
economical statistics, as may be useful, one copy of (6) on the chemical composition of manures, natural other colleges of the same class.
which shall be transmitted by mail free by each to all or artificial, with experiments designed to test their
the other colleges of the same class, and one copy to comparative effects on crops of different kinds; (7)
the Secretary of the Interior.

on the adaptation and value of grasses and forage
plants; (8) on the composition and

digestibility of the
different kinds of food for domestic animals; (9) on
the scientific and economic questions involved in the
production of butter and cheese; and such other re-
searches and experiments bearing directly upon the
agricultural industry of the United States as may in
each case be deemed advisable, having due regard to
the climate of the State.

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Federal laws regarding institutions created by the act of 1862 and modified or enlarged by those of 1887 and 1890Continued.
SYNOPSIS OF THE LAW OF JULY 2, 1862--Con SYNOPSIS OF THE LAW OF MARCH 2, 1887 SYNOPSIS OF THE LAW OF AUGUST 30, 1800-
tinued.
Continued.

Continued.
3. The conditions attached to the grant.

3. Conditions attached to the subsidy.

3. The conditions attached to the subsidy.
The State legislature must formally accept the The legislature of each State must formally accept The State legislature must formally accept the
grant within three years, establish at least one school the grants, must apply the appropriation to paying grants, may in certain States propose an equitable
of the character set forth above within five years, the necessary expenses of conducting investigations division of the fund between ono school for white and
must replace all losses to the fund, must invest the and experiments and printing and distributing the ono school for colored students, shall designato tho
entiro gross proceeds, after a permitted expenditure results, must connect the station with the institution officer to whom the annual appropriation shall be
of not more than 10 per cent thereof for sites or ex endowed by virtue of the act of July 2, 1862, unless paid, who shall immediately pay it to the treasurer
perimental farms in safe stocks yielding not less than tho State has an experimental station separate from of the respectivo institution or institutions, who shall
6 per cent on their par value, and must use the inter the college, or the collego is not distinctively an agri be required to report to the Secretary of Agriculture
est wholly-excluding the purchase, erection, preser cultural college or school thougl having connected and to the Secretary of the Interior by detailed state-
vation, or repair of any building or buildings-in with it an experimental farm or station, in either of ment tho amount received and disbursed, and shall
support of the school or schools established by this which cases tho legislaturo may apply the whole, or replace all sums lost by any action or contingency,
act.

in the case of the nondistinctively agricultural col. and no portion of the amount annually received shall
lego or school, the whole or a part to a distinctively Do applied directly or indirectly to tho purchase,
agricultural school having a station, and no Stato erection, preservation, or repair of any building or
shall disable itself from so doing by contract express buildings.
or implied.

Each station shall annually, on or before February
1, mako to the governor of the State a full and de.
tailed report of its operations, including a statement
of receipts and expenditures, a copy of which shall
be mutually interchanged among the stations and
ono sent, respectively, to the Secretary of Agricul.
ture and the Secretary of tho Treasury.

Bulletins shall be published by cach station at least
onco in three months, which shall be sent by Govern.
ment frank to each newspaper in the State and to
such persons who are actually engaged in agricultura
who shall request the same, as far as the means of the
station permit.
4. Federal jurisdiction.

4. Federal jurisdiction.
The Secretary of Agriculture shall furnish forms, The Secretary of the Interior is charged with the
as far as practicable, for the tabulation of results of proper administration of this law, and the treasurer
investigation, shall indicate from time to time such of each college shall report to him (and the Secretary
lines of inquiry as shall seem to him important, and of Agriculture, on or before the 1st day of Septem-
in general shall furnish such advice and assistance as ber of each year, a detailed statement of the amount
will best promote the purpose of this law.

received in virtue of this law and its disburs ment,
Whenever there is unexpended a portion of an and if any Stato inisappiies or loses any portion of
annual appropriation, the Secretary of the Treasury the appropriation and does not replace the same tho
shall deduct it from the next, so that each station Secretary of the Interior shall withhold all subse-
shall receive no more than is necessary to maintain guent appropriations, and notify the President of the
it. [The duties of the Secretary of Agriculture have Ünited States of his reasons therefor; but the Stato
been somewhat increased, especially in regard to the may appeal to Congress, and if Congress uphold tho
accounting for this fund, by an act of 1895.]

Secretary, the amount withheld shall be covered into the Treasury.

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