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education of the deaf, blind, and vicious. These lands are to be leased by the
20,812,000 That Congress is annually appropriating for agricultural and inechan
ical colleges a sum equal in 1897 to a capital, at 4 per cent, of.. ..... 20, 400,000 That Congress is annually appropriating for experiment stations a sum equal to a capital, at 4 per cent, of .
80,742,000 The lands granted since 1859 being priced at $10 or more are, as it wero, tied up, and are only “productive funds" as far as they are leased. The University of Washington, however, had quite a capital to go on. Two citizens of Seattle had given 10 acres of land about 1855 for the university. When the site was changed this property was certainly worth $150,000, for the legislature advanced that amount in 1833 (to be repaid “from the sale of lots in Seattle ") for the purpose of providing new buildings for the new university. The tied-up land, however, having a value, is utilized in providing buildings by pledging it as security. As an instance of this method of using the lands, sections 1, 2, and 5 of an act of one of the new States are now given.
SECTION 1. That for the purpose of providing money for the support and maintenance of the normal schools of the State of Idaho, located at Albion, in Cassia County, and Lewiston, Nez Perce County, and for the construction and repair of buildings for the use of said schools, a loan of $75,000. is hereby authorized to be negotiated by a board consisting of the governor, treasurer, secretary of state, and attorney-general of the State of Idaho, on the faith and credit of the State of Idaho, and secured by the proceeds of the sale of State normal school lands and the timber thereon as hereinafter provided.
SEC. 2. The treasurer of the State is hereby authorized, empowered, and directed immediately upon the passage of this act to issue 70 bonds of the State, to be known as normal school bonds, in the sum of $1,000 each, payable in twenty years from the date of their issuance, to bear interest at the rate of 5 per cent per annum, payable semiannually on tho 1st days of January and July each year, at a bank in the city of New York to be selected by State treasurer; said bonds, however, to be redeemable at the option of the State at any time after the expiration of ten years from the date of their issuance.
Sec. 5. For the purpose of securing the payment of the principal of the bonds provided for in this act the proceeds of the sale of all the lands, or of timber growing thereon, granted to the State by the United States for State normal schools are hereby set apart as a separate and distinct fund to be known as the normal school sinking fund; and after the payment of said principal of said bonds, then the proceeds of the sales of said land or timber shall be paid into the general fund in the State treasury until an amount equal to the total amount of interest that has theretofore been paid out of said general fund on said bonds, less the amount of interest that may have been paid into said general fund from investment of nor
mal school sinking fund moneys in State Warrants, as hereinafter provided for, has been so paid into said general fund. When the principal of said bonds shall have been fully paid and the general fund of the State reimbursed for interest on said bonds as herein specified, then and thereafter the proceeds of the sales of such lands and timber shall be disposed of as may by law be provided.
This is not the place to enumerate the merits or to extol the objects of the institutions that the university land grants and the grants for the colleges of agriculture and the mechanic arts have called into being or have encouraged. All that has been repeatedly done elsewhere. But attention may be asked to two judgments which appear to justify the most strenuous exertions in promoting the cause of higher education. The first of these dicta relates to higher spiritual education and contains a passage very frequently quoted, or rather misquoted; the second is from a recent report of a British commission on technical education.
In the preface to his Questions Contemporaines, Mr. Ernest Renan criticises his own and this country in the following language:
The false idea being still alive in France that education should be given only to those children whose social position in after life will warrant it, and therefore that to cultivate and to instruct the poor is to sow wants and ambitions which it will be impossible to satisfy, nothing can be definitely accomplished until that idea is repudiated. The strength of the education of the peasantry in Germany is due to the strength of higher education in Germany. It is the university which makes the school. It is said that the elementary teacher conquered the Austrians at Sadowa.' Not at all. It was German science and German virtue that conqnered at Sadowa. It was Protestantism, it was philosophy, Luther, Kant, Fichte, and Hegel that conquered at Sadowa. The education of the masses is the result of the high cuiture of certain classes. The people of those countries which, like the United States, have created a great school system for the people without a serious higher instruction shall for a long time yet expiate their fault by their intellectual mediocrity, their coarseness, their superficiality, and their lack of general intelligence.?
Or if it is proper to take the French literary savant's "instruction of a class of persons,” or perhaps as he would have said, " a class of instructed persons," as meaning the same thing as a “general diffusion of knowledge,” his apprehension concerning the defects of education in this country as regards parlor manners was antedated nearly a century by a warning as regards politics. In his Farewell Address, Washington said: “Promote, as an object of primary importance, institutions for the general diffusion of knowledge; for in proportion as the structure of government gives force to public opinion it is essential that public opinion should be enlightened."
Turning from the value of higher education as a preparation for entering into the realm of culture and for the discharge of the duties of citizenship, we may regard the subject from a purely business standpoint. During the year 1896 a British commission visited Germany and reported on the technical education of that country. From that report the following quotation is made: 3
In fact, our recent visit has brought it clearly home to us that the Germans have not ceased to believe in the value of higher scientific education. On the contrary, they appear now to attach greater importance than ever to the connection between such higher scientific training and the development of manufacturing industry. No nation, especially if not overburdened with capital, would continue to erect and equip institutions for advanced instruction and scientific research without a firm conviction of their industrial value. The demand, too, for such higher teaching seems to increase as the facilities for providing it are
1 This now famous phraso is usually gotten to read Sedan instead of Sadowa. Questions Contemporaines, 3d ed., preface, p. vii.
a Report on a visit to Germany with a view to ascertaining the recent progress of technical education in that country, being a letter to His Graco the Duke of Devonshire, K. G., Lord President of the Council, by Sir Philip Magnus, Mr. Redgrare, Dr. Swire Smith, and Mr. Woodall. (These gentlemen were on a commission that reported about thirteen years ago. Sco report of this Bureau for 1882-83, pp. 203, et seq.)
enlarged. For whereas in 1851 we stated that the total attendance at the poly. technicums was little more than 2,000, the attendance of students at Charlotten. burg alone, irrespective of the Berlin University, is now 3,000, while the number of students in the physical and electro-technical laboratories at Darmstadt is already in excess of the accommodation. Indeed, it is worthy of remark that the same object which called into existence some forty or fifty years ago the technical universities has recently led to their extension and development in a new direction. As far back as that perio i Germany began to prepare herself for becoming a manufacturing people. It was her belief in the future application of chemistry to industrial purposes that led to the erection and equipment at a great cost of chemical laboratories and to the encouragement held out to students to pursue their studies in those laboratories for a period of five, six, or even seven years. The success that has attended the efforts of the Germans to appropriate many important branches of chemical manufacturing industry is well known, and the dependence of those industries on the researches of chemical experts employed in the works is generally recognized. At the Badische Analin-uud Soda Fabrik alone are now employed 100 scientifically trained chemists and 30 engineers. Her brilliant achievements in the field of chemical industries have encouraged her to establish well-equipped electrical laboratories and to develop the practical teaching of physics with the view of assisting the electrical trades, which are comparatively of recent growth.
Nevertheless there is a precaution to be taken in all experimentation, not only in the fields of intellect and gentility, but in that of industrial education. This is to be patient in awaiting returns, especially if inferior methods be used. Professor Atwater, while chief of the Experiment Station Office of the Federal Agricultural Department, has spoken on this subject to this effect:
Whoever has had experience in field experiments and has taken the pains to look through the mass of reports of such work that has accumulated during the past fifty years in Europe, as well as in this country, must be impressed with the smallness of the visible result in proportion to the expenditure of labor, thought, and money. The great difficulty is that the conditions, particularly of soil and weather [and he might have added social conditions], are entirely beyond not only the experimenter's control, but also his means for measuring them; and what is still worse, inequalities of soil which are hidden from his observation are often responsible for a large part of the differences in yield, so that the results give entirely wrong answers to the questions he is studying. While the importance of duplication of trials and of continuing them through a series of years can not be too strongly insisted upon, it is also very desirable that investigations should be made with special reference to the improvement of the methods of experimenting.
The acts of 1862, 1889, and 1890 have been frequently referred to in the foregoing, and it is useful, perhaps, to summarize their provisions as the most important efforts made by the people of the United States to foster higher scientific education,
Federal laws regarding institutions created by the act of 1862 and modified or enlarged by those of 1887 and 1890.
colleges established by the law of July 2, 1862. under the law of July 2, 1862. [Wherever the word
tory is implied.]
1. The annual subsidy.
beneficiaries of this law though not of the law of 1862.]
2. The object of the subsidy.
ings, and $750 or less of subsequent appropriations guage, and the various branches of mathematical,
physical, natural, and economic science, with special
tion of useful plants at their different stages of experiments made under the direction of any exper-
on the adaptation and value of grasses and forage
digestibility of the
Federal laws regarding institutions created by the act of 1862 and modified or enlarged by those of 1887 and 1890—Continued.
3. Conditions attached to the subsidy.
3. The conditions attached to the subsidy.
in the case of the nondistinctively agricultural col. and no portion of the amount annually received shall
Each station shall annually, on or before February
Bulletins shall be published by cach station at least
4. Federal jurisdiction.
received in virtue of this law and its disburs ment,
Secretary, the amount withheld shall be covered into the Treasury.