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abundance Adam Smith advance advantage agents agriculture amount annual authority balance of trade bank benefit branch bullion capital cause charge circulation coin coinage commerce commodities consequence consumed consumption cultivation demand derived duction effect employed England equal established Europe exchange exertion expense export fact favourable foreign France give gold greater human import increase individual industry interest kind labour land less livre livres tournois loss Louis XIV mankind manufacture matter means ment merchant Montesquieu nature necessary never object operation paid particular Political Economy population portion possession precious metals principles productive agency products consumed profit proportion proprietor purchase quantity ratio reason received rent revenue seignorage sestertii silver Smith society Spanish dollars specie subsistence sumer sumption supply supposed thing tion trade utility wants wealth Wealth of Nations wheat Wherefore whole yield
第 118 頁 - The statesman who should attempt to direct private people in what manner they ought to employ their capitals, would not only load himself with a most unnecessary attention, but assume an authority which could safely be trusted, not only to no single person, but to no council or senate whatever, and which would nowhere be so dangerous as in the hands of a man who had folly and presumption enough to fancy himself fit to exercise it.
第 34 頁 - This great increase of the quantity of work which, in consequence of the division of labour, the same number of people are capable of performing, is owing to three different circumstances; first, to the increase of dexterity in every particular workman; secondly, to the saving of the time which is commonly lost in passing from one species of work to another ; and lastly, to the invention of a great number of machines which facilitate and abridge labour, and enable one man to do the work of many.
第 192 頁 - Equal quantities of labour, at all times and places, may be said to be of equal value to the labourer. In his ordinary state of health, strength, and spirits, in the ordinary degree of his skill and dexterity, he must always lay down the same portion of his ease, his liberty, and his happiness.
第 192 頁 - Of these, indeed, it may sometimes purchase a greater and sometimes a smaller quantity; but it is their value which varies, not that of the labour which purchases them.
第 xv 頁 - Under a system of perfectly free commerce, each country naturally devotes its capital and labour to such employments as are most beneficial to each. This pursuit of individual advantage is admirably connected with the universal good of the whole. By stimulating industry, by rewarding ingenuity, and by using most efficaciously the peculiar powers bestowed by nature, it distributes labour most effectively and most economically : while, by increasing the general mass of productions, it diffuses general...
第 295 頁 - The liberal reward of labour, as it encourages the propagation, so it increases the industry of the common people. The wages of labour are the encouragement of industry, which, like every other human quality, improves in proportion to the encouragement it receives.
第 388 頁 - Public services are never better performed than when their reward comes only in consequence of their being performed, and . is proportioned to the diligence employed in performing them.
第 192 頁 - Labour was the first price, the original purchasemoney that was paid for all things. It was not by gold or by silver, but by labour, that all the wealth of the world was originally purchased; and its value, to those who possess it, and who want to exchange it for some new productions, is precisely equal to the quantity of labour which it can enable them to purchase or command.
第 279 頁 - It seems absurd at first sight that we should despise their persons, and yet reward their talents with the most profuse liberality. While we do the one, however, we must of necessity do the other. Should the public opinion or prejudice ever alter with regard to such occupations, their pecuniary recompense would quickly diminish.
第 xv 頁 - ... the most effectual plan for advancing a people to greatness, is to maintain that order of things which nature has pointed out; by allowing every man, as long as he observes the rules of justice, to pursue his own interest in his own way, and to bring both his industry and his capital into the freest competition with those of his fellow-citizens.