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of the master. Many bad men have been used as mere instruments to carry out the divine purposes, etc.
18. Abolitionists and ultra pro-slavery men equally at fault. And yet both will be made unwittingly to promote the grand designs of Jehovah. See Isaiah, x. 5, 6, 7. “O Assyrian, the rod of mine anger, and the staff in their hand is mine indignation. I will send him against an hypocritical nation, and against the people of my
wrath will I give him a charge, to take the spoil, and to take the prey, and to tread them down like the mire of the streets. Howbeit he meaneth not so, neither doth his heart think so; but it is in his heart to destroy and cut off nations not a few,” etc.
19. Free States are beginning to exclude negroes from their territory—as Indiana, etc.
20. Slave States will not suffer negroes to be emancipated except on condition of their removal from the State.
21. What will soon be the condition of free negroes in this country? What, if all were free? Is it possible for the negro here ever to become the equal of the white man--socially or politically?
22. Marriage-not recognized by law among slaves. Husbands and wives, parents and children, are separated, and sold far away from each other. Very harsh, cruel and unchristian, no doubt. Still, not worse than in Africa. How is marriage regarded there? Do parents never sell their children-even to slave-dealers?
So far as mere separation is concerned, the slave is not worse' off than the soldier and sailor. Naval officers, even, of the highest rank, may be ordered on service in remote seas, and be absent many years, etc.
The separation, by sale, of negro husband and wife, is a divorce-a virtual and actual dissolution of the marriage contract or relation—as much so, as if one of the parties had died.
They may, as they do, marry again. This is allowed by custom, by law, by reason, and by religion. Whatever of sin may be involved in the affair, attaches to the master or to the government.
23. Slavery will not cease-even at the millennium. It will become more patriarchal—and be purified from its present abominations, etc.
24. The late “Fugitive Slave Law” (so called) has given rise to an immense deal of discussion-political, ethical, and theological. On this theme, I remark
1st. Obedience to civil government is a Christian duty.
2d. Except when it conflicts with the divine government or law, as clearly revealed in Scripture. We must obey God rather than men.
3d. Conscience to decide. Every man for himself.
4th. When we cannot conscientiously obey, we must submit-as did Christ, and all holy men of old. We must endure the penalty of non-obedience — as did the apostles and martyrs—as do the Quakers now, etc.
25. Negroes are everywhere learning to read, in spite of the laws which forbid their instruction. What does this fact indicate, as to the capacity and probable progress of the negro race in science, literature and art?
26. The present condition of Liberia. Its industrial and commercial prosperity. Its legislation and jurisprudence. Its public men--from the able president down to the humblest village magistrate. Its schools, churches, newspapers,—morals, intelligence, sobriety, religion, social intercourse. What say all travellers of this wonderful Republic?
27. Distinguish between the legitimate tendency and influence of Christianity towards the gradual amelioration of humanity and the actual state of mankind in the time of Christ, and ever since. The evils of slavery to be abated or exterminated - like those of intemperance, war, ignorance, oppression and injustice of every kind.
28. Hitherto, and at present, the negroes have been, and are, better off in a state of slavery than in a state of freedom. While ignorant, feeble, degraded; they need protection and instruction. They would soon perish out of the land, if set free, and left to take care of themselves.
An inferior race can never long exist in the midst of a superior, upon equal terms. The first must be dependent on, and protected by the latter, or they will soon waste away—especially when amalgamation cannot take place—and where intermarriages would not obliterate the distinctions of caste or colour. Witness the fate of the native Indian; and of the negro in the free States.
FREE BANKS-STATE STOCK BANKS.
OBJECTIONS TO SUCH BANKS.
1. BANKS based on a deposit of what are called government stocks—whether National or State bonds, i.e. mere evidences of National or State debts—are virtually allowed a great privilege denied to the people generally. They are allowed at least double interest. They receive the usual interest accruing from the stocks or bonds deposited, and also from an equal amount of their own notes, issued as money, in the shape of bank bills or promises to pay the bearer on demand. Thus, for 'every hundred dollars deposited, they receive, say six per cent., and also, six per cent. or more for another hundred of their own paper-making twelve or more per cent for every hundred dollars of bona fide capital; while the ordinary citizen (not a shareholder in any such bank) can get, according to law, only six per cent. for the loan of his own real capital in the form of gold and silverthat is, actual cash, or specie, or constitutional money.
2. Why should State stocks, or any other evidences of public debts, be preferred as the basis of a bank, rather than other kinds of property? and more especially real estate? Could not the latter be converted into money, as readily as stocks—at some price? say at half its estimated or market value? Let the cash valuation of a farm be ten thousand dollars,—in any exigency, it would certainly command five thousand:why not permit the farmer to issue his quasi bank notes to the amount of five thousand dollars, besides working his farm, and getting from it all he can? But even this would not place him on an equality with the stockholder in a free bank of Indiana; for he may put State stock at par into a bank —and issue an equal amount of his own paper—without regard to fluctuations in the market. Thus even now, (December, 1854,) most of the stocks deposited at 100 are selling at 75 or 80; and, of course, are insufficient to redeem the bills in circulation. I suppose a landed security would have proved more reliable—but the truth is, that nothing except gold and silver (i.e. money) can serve as a safe basis for banking operations,— because payment is always to be made on demand, and not on the cash sale of stocks or land or any other commodity or species of property.
3. To establish the eighty-seven free banks of Indiana, some seven or eight millions of cash funds (gold and silver, or their equivalent in some other form,) were actually sent away from the State to New York or other remote cities to purchase the needful stocks—thereby diminishing, to that amount, the actual available capital of the commonwealth, to be replaced by the issue of seven or eight millions of doubtful and constantly depreciating paper currency. Thus, on a trial of about six months, some of the banks have already failed or sus pended payment, and the paper of others is selling at a discount of from ten to thirty per cent.