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BAPTISM-No. I. meaning of this preposition. Some THE PREPOSITION “EIS,” (INTO.)
of our more prominent methodistic
scribes have recently made some new No ordinance of Christ has passed discoveries of a very sublime and through a severer ordeal than that of literary character on this subject. baptism. Its subject, action, and de- They very rationally conclude that if sign have, like the evidences of Chris- eis grammatically mean into, before tianity, been in debate for
nouns and pronouns, baptism must be turies. This, however, is no argu- immersion, and their custom of sprinkment against its authority, importance, ling drops of water on human faces or intelligibility. The most valuable must be a human invention. Rather truths in science and religion have as a literary curiosity, than otherwise long been in debate, and are still often entitled to any consideration, I proassailed by many. The being of God, ceed to lay before our reailers some the mission of Jesus, the accountabil- philological discoveries, made and reity of man, future rewards and ported by some of our more learned punishments, are questions not yet and gifted methodistic doctors and decided by millions. The quantity, scribes of the “ Western Christian variety, and strength of argument, for Advocate.” Some friend of free disany one fact or proposition in religion cussion sent me, the other day, the folor morals, afford no assurance that it lowing scrap from a late Advocate :will be universally or even generally (From the Western Christian ADVOCATE.) received by mankind.
THE GREEK PREPOSITIONS. Still, however, truth is aggressive on the territory of error, and, despite public
, of every Greek scholar, and of every
“I would gladly turn the attention of the of all opposition, is triumphing over smatterer in Greek, to this point, as it has a tenit. And baptism, as taught in the dency to settle that long mooted question--the Bible, is annually gaining on baptism mode of baptism : especially as erroneous views as taught in scholastic theology, in heresies. Five or
on this subject are connected with most modern
heresies. Five or six years ago several articles greater ratios than a hundred to one. appeared in the Western Christian AdvoUnfortunately, however, it has be- cate, on this subject, from Rev. James M. come an ecclesiastic, full as much as Jameson, and Rev. T. W. Chandler, both a literary or Christian question. It members of the Missouri Conference. I am is the corner stone of several eccle- sorry to say these have not sufficiently arrested siastic institutions that stand or fall has carefully examined a part of the Septuagint,
the attention of the public. Brother Chandler with it. Hence, the fiery furnace of and the whole of the Greek Testament, to asdebate to which it has been subjected. certain the truth, and has noted down every Every word in construction with it, passage containing eis, ek, er, or apo. The down to the prepositions eis, ek, ing rule, which I must give from memory, and
result has been a full conviction of the followapo, has been the subject of many a in my own language, not having either of the pamphlet, and the theme of many a above communications at hand. debate. Whether eis is equivalent to
“ Here is the rule:--When the inspired wri. into, and ek to out of, is litigated with ters intend to express, with certainty, voluntary
motion into a place, they put the preposition the zeal of a Pharisee or a Jesuit. eis, only* before the verb and the noun, or The meaning of baptism is hung on pronoun. When they would express to, or these prepositions as the Law and unto, or some kindred relation, they put eis the Prophets hung on two pins in a only, before the noun or pronoun. When they Jewish synagogue.
If eis literally
express motion out of any place, ek or ex oc
curs before both the verb and the noun, or mean into, the action called baptism is settled ; or if, in certain associa
presume the term “only,” in this case,
is a typographical mistake. There are two tions it mean for, its design is estab
cases supposed, the second requires the word lished. Hence, the mighty agonies only,” to make sense, the first does not. and efforts of controversialists on the
And this rule is confined “In the same position ek equally conforms voluntary action ; for, in most instances to the rule. A literary correspondent, who of constrained action, only one preposition is has sifted this subject to the bottom, writes used.
thus to me :--I have arrived at the following “Take a few illustrations of this important conclusion, that the idea of voluntary action rule: "Enter into thy closet,' Matt. vi. 6: into a place or thing is never conveyed without Eiselthe eis to tameion. Here eis stands be either en or eis in connection with the verb; fore the verb elthe, enter, and the noun and the same may be said of ek. From all the tameion, closet, and therefore should be ren- investigation which I have made, the following dered into. “Ye shall in no case enter into is the result, namely-eis standing alone, as a the kingdom of heaven,' Matt. v. 20: Eiselthe governing preposition, never means into, eis teen basileian. Here, also, eis stands be- whether in its connection with the verb or fore the verb and the noun. ‘Depart into
but before the verb invariably means in ; everlasting fire,' Matt. xxv. 41: Pôreuesthe and sometimes before the noun it means the eis to pur to aioonion. Here eis is put before same, when there is no preposition connected the noun only, because the action is involuntary with the verb; yet generally, in this relation, or constrained. The same may be said of verse it means to or unto, but never into. Ek, be30, and also of Mark ix. 42. Observe, es- fore the verb, almost, or quite invariably, means pecially, in Mark ix. verses 43, 45, and 47, out of; and when before the noun, it means of each of which contains an instance of volunta- or from. Thus, when connected, the idea is ry action and of constrained action ; in all the out of or out from, as the case may be ; former, eis occurs before the verb and noun; necessarily out of, as might appear to some.' and in the latter, before the noun only. He In Matt. iii. 16, we read, ‘Jesus, when he was went up into a mountain,' Matt. v. 1. Here baptized, went up straightway out of the water.' the preposition is put before the noun only, The preposition here rendered out of, is apo. and should be rendered, “He went up to a In the New Testament this is redered from, mountain.' 'And they went down both into 405 times, and out of, only 63 times. These the water,' Acts viii. 38: Katebeesan ampho- matters of fact have a direct tendency to break teroi eis to udoor. As eis stands here before the strongest prop of exclusive immersion, the nonn only, it should be rendered—— They close communion, and water regeneration. went down both to the water;' and as ek Nor should we cease in our efforts until we occurs before the noun only, it should be, ‘They get them fully before the public; for even came up from the water. See, also, John those who have no knowledge of Greek may xx. 4, 5 : The other disciple came first to the form a tolerably good idea of the correctness of sepulchre, yet went he not in.' In the former the rule, if they will examine all the aboveclause the preposition stands before the noun; noted passages in the English Testament. The in the latter, before the verb, where it stands above.noted passages are supposed to be all without the noun expressed, but understood; the places in the Greek, where either of the a case of frequent occurrence, and I think two prepositions accompanies the verb, and in always rendered as above. It, therefore, con- the same connection also stands before the firms the rule; for the meaning is, he went not noun ; ek is found about 70 times with the into the sepulchre.
verb and noun, or pronoun, and dia, or some "Every person who wishes to scttle this mat- other preposition with it; with the verb alone, ter fully should examine allthe following places 523 times, and in its separate relation, 894 in the Greek Testament, and he will then be times. The examination of this subject has able to judge whether the foregoing rule is fully convinced us that no Greek grammar, correct or not. Eis is used before both the which we have seen, explains the great force verb and the noun in the following passages.” and delicate propriety of the prepositions in Here are given 248 quotations.
composition. Will some friend to religion and “Many instances occur like John xx. 4, 5, science supply this desideratum ?” where eis stands before the verb, without the
John THATCHER. In this case, generally, if not always,
Lawrenceville, Ill. Nov. 21, 1848. it means in. We give every instance of the kind found in Matthew, namely-vii. 13; viii. Here follow one hundred and forty8; ix. 25; xii. 45; xxii. 11-12; xxiii. 1-14; five instances of eis, before both the xxvi. 58. Before the noun, and without the verb and noun, gathered from the verb and prepositions
, as in the cases just whole New Testament, and eighteen given, it is more frequently translated, in the New Testament, to or unto than into. And cases of eis before the verb and proit may be justly doubted whether it should ever noun ; of ek, or ex, seventy-six inbe rendered into in this case, except when the stances are given of the first case, and action is involuntary. A few places appear to nine of the latter. These are said to be exceptions; yet these, when closely examined, appear to speak of action in some be all the instances found in the New degree involuntary or constrained.
Shall we say
No scholar or critic in the Greek says Mr. Thatcher and his language ever propounded such a rule. dorsers, Western Christian Advocates It is an ex post facto law, made for a “When the inspired writers intend dilemma, for a special and peculiar to express, with certainty, voluntary
We have, indeed, in our lan- motion into a place, they put the preguage, and in ancient tongues, rules position eis before the verb and the respecting verbs indicating motion, noun or pronoun.” and verbs indicating rest, but not one that the inspired writers did not here in any language known to me, and I intend to express voluntary motion presume to say, known to any man, into heaven, or involuntary motion into respecting verbs of voluntary or in- hell! But if motion voluntary and voluntary motion, as changing the involuntary is here set forth, and in meaning of prepositions in construc- a thousand parallel passages, by idention with them. To say that if a tically the same construction, what man went into water with his will, comes of the new Greek law-makers we must have before the term water, of the nineteenth century. This disone preposition ; but if he went into covery will greatly subserve the cause water against his will, we must have of Universalianism, for it leads the another, is as baseless a figment as saints into heaven, and sends the ever entered into the brain of any wicked to, but not into hell. If there linguist or metaphysician inscribed were a Universalian college in Chrison the rolls of literary fame.
tendom, would it not honor the disBut this is an age of discovery, as coverer of the true syntax of “inwell as an age of improvement ; and spired Greek,” with a new title ! we are prepared to receive anything The author of this new discovery new, provided only it is a discovery seems to have forgotten that, as in or an invention made by any one of our language, so in Greek, verbs of the Anglo-Saxon blood. And for motion require after them prepositions ought I know, the Rev John Thatcher, indicating what is implied in the verb, of Illinois, may yet receive the degree without any regard to the will of him of L.L.D. for this new and brilliant that uses the preposition. For exdiscovery in aid of infant affusion. ample--we cannot, willing or unBut as even in California, it is not all willing, enter in a house, or enter in gold that glitters, we must not think a contract ; but must enter into both. that it is all philosophy, philology, or Nor could Mr. Thatcher himself, with sound theology that is either sprinkled all his Greek to help him, sit into a or dubbed with literary honors by ex chair, or repose into a bed. Without parte boards of scholastic fame. But any assistance from either, he might to be grave on such a grave occasion, sit in a chair, or even sleep in a may I ask common sense, to say no- pulpit. But he will say that he could thing of uncommon sense, baptized in go to bed, as well as into bed--and I Grecian fountains, for what reason will say, if he only go to bed and not should we change the common ver- into it, he cannot, for his life, sleep in sion of the 46th verse of the 25th it. So he may go to the water, but chapter of Matthew, which reads unless he go into it, he never can be “ And these shall go away into ever- baptized, with all his Latin, Greek, lasting punishment: but the right- and Hebrew to help him. eous into life eternal,” into-" These It appears to me that these zealous shall go away to everlasting punish- scribes were too hasty in presenting ment: but the righteous into eternal this free-will offering to the world. life ?" The new divinity of this new It is too obvious that they have had school will say, according to the new but “a sprinkling" of "ill-digested doctors, by all means change it ; for, I Greek. They have never been baptized into “inspired” or uninspired |" went into;" and erchomai is found Greek. The error into which they seven hundred and eleven times, but fall appears at the very threshold of is never by itself translated by the the criticism they have endorsed. It word enter. Twice only eis is added appears in all its nudity immediately to it in construction, and in both on propounding their new rule. In cases it is translated enter! Such an their first illustration they develope uniformity in such frequent usage is the lurking sophism which' infatuates seldom found in any language, living their whole performance. Reader, if or dead. If any thing be wanting to you can, ponder their first example :- dissipate to the winds this effort at « Eis-elthe eis to tameion"- -“ Enter criticism, it may be found in the phiinto thy closet.” “Here," say they, lological analysis and history of the “ eis stands before both the verb elthe, word into. It is from the French enter, and the noun tameion, closet; entre, and that is from the Roman and, therefore, should be into.” They intro. Enter is, then, but an antranslate elthe by the English word glicized form of the Roman intro, enter, but for this they have no through the French entre; and hence, authority whatever ! Elthe means to come in, is its essential as well as its come, and the eis, of which they say universal acceptation. so much, when prefixed to elthe, or to The reason why an eis frequently its root erchomai, means to come into, follows the rerb eiserchomai is, io or to enter. This philological fact one not very conversant with the never seems to have “entered," their Greek idiom, very evident. Preposiheads. Their rule is annihilated by tions are words prefixed to nouns and this single fact.
pronouns after verbs, to show the They talk of an eis before the verb, relation between the verb and these and an eis following the verb, and nouns or pronouns. Now as eis compreceding the following noun or pro- monly indicates motion towards, as en noun, and yet have not given one intimates repose, it is proper that after instance of the kind in the one hundred the verb enter, and before the followand forty-five examples ! of which ing noun or pronoun, a preposition some one hundred and twenty are of indicating the relation between the the single verb eiserchomai. They actor, the action, and the thing acted speak of eis placed before the verb, upon, should be placed before it. and yet render the verb without the eis, Thus, John entered into the house. as though it were no part of it. With They both went down into the water. them, eis elthe and elthe are equally They both came up out of the water. indicated by the word enter! Now Few linguists speak of a preposihad they perceived the great philolo- tion as being placed before a verb gical fact that compound verbs, for when incorporated with it, and when the most part, have both a regimen giving meaning to the radical part of and a meaning corresponding with the the compound. Classical scholars words in composition with them, they never speak in this style. What could not have so imposed upon them- scholar, when asked what part of selves and the community.
speech is eiserchomai, would say that The verb eiserchomãi occurs in it is not one, but two parts of speech, a the New Testament one hundred and preposition and a verb ! We cannot, ninety-six times, and is in the common in conformity with any usage, English, version translated by the word enter, Greek, or Latin, approve either the rule or enter into, one hundred and twenty- or the style of our Illinois philologists. seven times. It is rendered sixty. But before exhausting all the philology nine times by "come in,” “come into," and spirit of the first rule, let us glance
go through,” | for a moment at the second.
go in,” ss
go into," á
The style of this new school of it. So, then, the illusion is dissipated ; criticism would lead us to suppose for if to hell, with them, means into that it is only sometimes “the in- hell—then, to the water, with us, spired writers intend to express, with means into the water. And as these certainty, voluntary motion into a doctors are very involuntary in their place, but when they do so, they put progress into the water, and we can the preposition eis before both the bring them only to it, but not into it, verb and the noun or pronoun.” And we shall attempt to convince them, when they express to, or unto, or their new rules to the contrary notsome kindred relation, they put eis withstanding, that it is but a quibble only before the noun or pronoun. from first to last. The first example of this rule which I care not to expose, in a very they adduce is Poreuesthe eis to grave style, their criticism upon pur to aioonion.
Eis, only,” says our “from,” and “out of," as the rule I philologist, “is put
before the noun be- am about to apply to their to and unto cause the action is involuntary or will suit both cases. While concedconstrained," &c. In this case eis ing that there is more definiteness means, not into, but to or unto, be- and precision, on many occasions, in cause the “inspired writers do not preferring “ into” to “in,” and “out intend, with certainty, to express vol- of," to " from,” yet, in common usage untary motion into a place,” but only we as often-nay, I might say more to or unto a place. This ought to be frequently—use to than into, and from a very popular doctrine with those than out of, while we mean, and are who only fear hell, and care little understood to mean, into and out of. for heaven. This construction is Take an example from a passage in most comfortable to such persons, be- an obsolete document, now lying on cause they only go to the environs of my table : “On returning from eternal fire—they just go unto it, not America to London, our minister into it-for it is discovered here only made a short visit to Paris, and while to express involuntary motion! A there went to Versailles. He was vote of thanks or a gold medal ought there introduced to a minister from to be voted as a reward to the dis- Madrid, from whom he learned that coverers of this grand secret - who special ministers had been sent from have discovered when the Apostles the principal capitals in Europe to intend to express with certainty, vol. Vienna, to negotiate matters of great untary or involuntary motion--when interest to the pacification of Europe.” they would lead our minds only to, Need I show that “to London,” “ to and not into a place. Methinks I Paris,” “ to Versailles,” “ to Vienna,” hear a “still small voice,” saying dis- mean in!o these cities? Or need miss these critics, and divulge no I prove that from America, from farther the secrets of this philology, Madrid, from the Capitals of Europe else all wicked men will become con- do not mean from their gates or verts to it.
boundaries, but out of their midst ? But, after all, there is a large class Nay, the phrases every day occurring, of common sense readers who will in all circles of society, when consay-to what end all this exposition sidered, are of this sort—“ John went or controversy ? It is wbolly a work to town, and returned to his house in of supererogation. It is unnecessary. one hour.” Did he not go into the Why ? forsooth! Because the me- town, and enter into his house ? thodistic philologists concede that in- “ William went to the garden, and voluntary motion is expressed by to Thomas to the field.” Did neither of and unto, and that these are sufficient them enter into these precincts? “John to send the wicked to hell, if not into has returned from the orchard, Wil