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LECTURE VIII.-Of Buds
LECTURE IX.-Of Leaves.-Form of Leaves.-Compound Leaves. Leaves with respect
to Magnitude and Colour.........
LECTURE X.-Anatomy and Physiology of Leaves.-Their use in the Vegetable System.-
Fall of the Leaf.-Appendages to Plants..............
LECTURE XII.—Corolla and Nectary....
LECTURE XIII.-Stamens and Pistils.........
LECTURE XIV.—Inflorescence.-Receptacle ..
LECTURE XV.—The Fruit.—Pericarp.-Parts of the Pericarp.-Linnæus's Classification
of Fruits. Mirbel's Classification of Fruits...........
LECTURE XVI.—The Seed.-Synopsis of the External organs of Plants.....................
LECTURE XVII.-Physiological Views.-Gerinination of the Seed............
LECTURE XVIII.-Physiological Views.-Solid and Fluid parts of Vegetables........
LECTURE XIX.-Physiological Views.—Bark.-Wood.-Pith.—Growth of a Dicotyledo-
nous Plant.-Growth of a Monocotyledonous Plant....
LECTURE XX.-Chemical Composition of Plants.- Proximate Principles.-Chemical Ana-
lysis of the Sap.....
Common names of Plants,..
GENERAL DIRECTIONS FOR PRONOUNCING THE NAMES OF PLANTS.
BOTANICAL names of plants are formed according to the analogies of the ancient anguages, chiefly the Latin. Some of the most common terminations of names of Genera and Species, are in a, um, us, and is; for example, the generig names GERARDIA, TRIFOLIUM, PRUNUS, and Iris; and the specific names, virginicum, candidum, blandus, and officinalis. A great proportion of botanical names terminate in a, in which case the word has the sound of a in father, as Rosa, Viola, &c.
The letter e at the end of a word is always sounded; for example, Anemone, pronounced anem'o-ne.
The e is long before s, when it ends a word, as Bicornes, pronounced Bicor-
The vowels ae and oe, are often used as diphthongs, and then have the sound of e, as Hepatica, pronounced Hepatice, and Di-æcia, pronounced Di-e-cia.
Cand g, as in English, are soft before e, i, and y, and hard before a, 0, and u.
Accent and Quantity.
Those syllables over which the single mark is placed, have the vowel pronounced long, as in Fra-ga'-ria ; those over which the double mark is placed, have the vowel short, as in He-pat''i-ca; in the latter case, the stress of voice is thrown upon the consonant; the two marks may, therefore, be considered as indicating that the consonant, as well as the vowel, is accented.
Words of two syllables always have the accent on the first; if the syllable end with a vowel, it is long, as in Cro'-cus; if it end with a consonant, it is short, as in Cac-tnus.
Figures, and other Characters. The figures at the right hand of the name of the Genus, in the Description of Species, refer to the Class and Order of the Plant in the Artificial System; the word following the figures, and included in a parenthesis, designates the natural order of the plant. (For the characteristics of these orders, see Appendix, from page 27 to 32.) The following characters denote the duration of the plant :© Annual-Biennial—2 Perennial-ħ Woody.
Colour of Corollas.
Ex. stands for exotic.
Time of Flowering.
Localities. Can. Canada, N. E. New England, Car. Carolina, Height, i. and in. incher, f. and ft. feet.
ŻECTURE I. IMPORTANCE OF SYSTEM. - ADVANTAGES TO BE DERIVED FROM THE STUDY OF
BOTANY. The universe consists of matter and mind. By the faculties of mind with which God has endowed us, we are able to examine into the properties of the material objects by which we are surrounded.
If we had no sciences, nature would present exactly the same phenomena as at present. The heavenly bodies would move with equal regularity, and preserve the same relative situations, although no system of Astronomy had been formed. The laws of gravity and of motion, would operate in the same manner as at present, if we had no such science as Natural Philosophy. The affinities of substances for each other were the same, before the science of Chemistry existed, as they are now. It is an important truth, and one which cannot be too much impressed upon the mind in all scientific investigations, that no systems of man can change the laws and operations of Nature; though by systems, we are enabled to gain a knowledge of these laws and relations.
The Deity has not only placed before us an almost infinite variety of objects, but has given to our minds the power of reducing them into classes, so as to form beautiful and regular systems, by which we can comprehend, under a few terms, the vast number of individual things, which would, otherwise, present to our bewildered minds a confused and indiscriminate mass. This power of the mind, so important in classification, is that of discovering resemblances. We perceive two objects, we have an idea of their resemblance, and we give a common name to both ; other similar objects are then referred to the same class or receive the same name. A child sees a flower which he is told is a rose; he sees another resembling it, and nature teaches him to call that also a rose. On this operation of the mind depends the power of forming classes or of generalizing.
Some relations or resemblances are seen at the first glance; others are not discovered until after close examination and reflection; but the most perfect classification is not always founded upon the most obvious resemblances. A person ignorant of Botany, on beholding the profusion of flowers which adorn the face of nature, would discover general resemblances, and perhaps form in his mind, some order of arrangement; but the system of Botany now in use, neglecting the most conspicuous parts of the flower, is founded upon the observation of small parts of it, which a common observer might not notice.
System is necessary in every science. It not only assists in the acquisition of knowledge, but enables us to retain what is thus acquired ; and, by the laws of association, to call forth what is treasured up in the storehouse of the mind. System is important not only in the grave and elevated departments of science, but is essential in the most common concerns and operations of ordinary life. In conducting any kind of business, and in the arrangement of household
By the faculties of mind we examine the properties of matter-Human science cannot alter the laws of nature-Power of the mind to form classes—Classification not always founded upon the most striking resemblances, as in Botany-Importance of system.
concerns, it is indispensable to the success of the one, and to the comfort of those interested in the other. The very logical and systematic arrangement which prevails in Botanical science, has, without doubt, a tendency to induce in the mind the habit and love of order; which, when once established, will operate even in the minutest con
Whoever traces this system through its various connexions, by a gradual progress from individual plants to general classes, until the whole vegetable world seems brought into one point of view, and then descends in the same methodical manner, from generals to particulars, must acquire a habit of arrangement, and a perception of order, which is the true practical logic.
The study of Botany seems peculiarly adapted to females; the objects of its investigation are beautiful and delicate ; its pursuits, leading to exercise in the open air, are conducive to health and cheerfulness. It is not a sedentary study which can be acquired in the library, but the objects of the science are scattered over the surface of the earth, along the banks of the winding brooks, on the borders of precipices, the sides of mountains, and the depths of the forest.
A knowledge of Botany is necessary to the medical profession. Our Almighty Benefactor, in bestowing upon us the vegetable tribes, has not only provided a source of refined enjoyment in the contemplation of their beautiful forms and colours; in their fragrance, by which, in their peculiar language, they seem to hold secret communion with our minds; He has not only given them for our food and clothing, but with kind, parental care, has, in them, provided powers to counteract and remove the diseases to which mankind are subject. For many ages plants were the only medicines known, or used; but modern discoveries in Chemistry, by forming compounds of previously existing elements, have, in some degree, superseded their use. Although the science of medicine has received much additional light from Chemistry, it may perhaps in modern days have occupied the attention of medical men too exclusively; inducing them to toil in their laboratories to form those combinations which nature has done, much more perfectly, in the plants which they pass unheeded. It is probable that the medicinal productions of the animal and mineral kingdoms, bear but a small proportion to those of the vegetable.
When our forefathers came to this country, they found the natives in possession of much medical knowledge of plants. Having no remedies prepared by scientific skill, the Indians were led, by necessity, to the use of those which nature offered them: and, by experience and observation, they had arrived at many valuable conclusions as to the qualities of plants. Their mode of life, leading them to penetrate the shades of the forest, and to climb the mountain precipices, naturally associated them much with the vegetable world. The Indian woman, the patient sharer in these excursions, was led to look for such plants as she might use for the diseases of her family. Each new and curious plant, though not viewed by her with the eye of a botanist, was regarded with scrutinizing attention; the colour, taste, and smell
, were carefully remarked, as indications of its properties. But the discoveries and observations of the Indians have perished with themselves; having had no system for the classification or description of plants, nor any written language by which such a system might have been conveyed to others, no other vestige remains than uncertain tradition, of their knowledge of the medicinal qualities of plants.
The study of Botany is practical logic—Proper for females—Necessary to the medical profession-Experience of the Indians with respect to plants-Medicinal virtues of plants.