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My Lord Verulam, in his little acre of grass, brighter (to borrow the brightest wisdom “ De Sapienta Veterum,” has and freshest of figures from Dante) classed this boy as the “ favorite;" but than newly-broken emeralds, while soft since
airs, Argus himself, so cautious and so wise,
“That, blown about the foliage underneath, Was fooled at last for all his hundred eyes,"
And sated with the innumerable rose,
Beat balm against your eyelids ;" we may venture that my lord missed the mark a little in this instance, and
and to see afar off your white flocks
enameled into the mead; or in the hot looked at things through the fashions of his time. To us, at all events, En- day to dream in a cool grot and there
be visited by a goddess—this was the dymion is the representative lucky man.
heaven of their old idea. This was an Yet hear what my lord saith :
end that no man could compass by his “The shepherd, Endymion, is said to have
own endeavor, nor any deserve by his been beloved by Luna, and the manner of their meetings was singular and extraordi. good conduct or pure heart-and so nary, for he was wont to sleep in a grotto near they went away from reality into their his nntive place, under the Latinian rocks; fine imaginations and dreamed it, catchand Lunn is said to have descended frequent- ing at it at once through a faith that ly from heaven, sought the embraces of her sleeping companion, and so returned again to some power unknown, for a cause also heaven. Yet his indolence and sleep were no unknown, would stoop to their wishes : detriment to his fortunes : bat Luna, in the this was luck. Every one bad a divine mennwbile, took care that his herds should faith, that he, also, might be an Endyfatten and increase as prosperously as possible, so that no shepherd had more well. mion, and, to an extent, the faith was conditioned or more numerous flocks." rewarded; for every one enjoyed the
Could there be a clearer sketching dream. Endymion had no more. All of the nature, or of the chief circumthat they had, or knew, or imagined of stances in the life of the lucky man? voluptuous pleasure, far separated from Yet hear the rest:
care and grief, grew around this name ;
and wherever it is to be found in the old “This fable appears to relate to the character and habitude of princus. Being full of poets, it is in a golden halo of delight, cares and inclined to suspicion, they will not as if its mere mention, like the mystic readily admit to their private familiarity men syllables of the east, wrought thein up who are intelligent, curious, and of vigilant dispositiou ; but rather men of a quict and
to a seventh heaven of bliss. yielding nature, who submit to the will of Skipping the intermediate periods their masters and inquire no furtber, exposing for the fancy of the reader will easily themselves as men unconcerned, unsearching, fill them we come at once to the time insensible, and, as it were, asleep; paying rather simple obedience than cunning ob.
when Bacon wrote, and find the same servance to their masters. With such men principle working in different forms upon as thesc, princes are accustomed to descend the same material : it is the same huinan from their majesty, as the moon from her heart and the same mind, unsatisfied orbit, to lay aside their musk (the perpetual wearing of which becomes a sort of burden),
with everything but its dreams, bringand amuse themselves familiarly with them; ing all easy indolence and voluptuous imagining that they may do this in safety," love of pleasure to gather around the etc., etc.
place of the king's favorite. At that In the general idea, we might find no time, when the world ran to pageants fault-for the favorite is of the samo and royal displays, magnificence of family, one development, indeed, of the dress, splendid retinues, and all the lucky man—but it is forced into trivial. paraphernalia of gorgeous courts, to be ities. It is stamped with the time when the proud heart of all, the richest of the it was written as with a date-a time rich, beloved of all ladies and cynosure when royal favorites were fashionable. of all eyes, was to be the Endymion of
We will thus find luck developing that day, and the luckiest man of the itself in every age, in some man pecu- time. liar to that age; in some man around Again a skip, and we return to our whom, or around whose position, the early friend, whom, for this present purfancy of the times clusters, by common pose, we may restore to a portion of his consent, all that it deems desirable. pristine right, and denominate EndyEndymion is an instance: where the fa- mion Schenck. This is a time when it ble was conceived, the words, “I also is imposzible to find eyes so dull that am an Arcadian," conveyed the whole there sball be no “speculation" iu them. sum of bliss; and to lie prone upon the When men lie down with Lazarus, and
arise with the other fellow; but in a with the good fisherman who tells by better place. When a small merchant his experience when the fish come in or with a smaller capital follows the star down, and by his knowledge of their of a new time, and, with a sarsaparilla natures and habits, and by observation bottle in his hand as a present to the of the winds and tides, warmth or coldexpected monarch, sits down like the ness of the water, threatening storins, ancient kings, and like them falls asleep, etc., whether there will be any prevenand, not dozing half so long, arises to tion, and only expects a good luck when find that bis bottle, without in any par all things are favoring. This gives ticular altering its shape, has grown to point to that ancient part of wisdom in a hundred thousand dollar mansion. scraps: Diligence is the mother of good This is the time — and Endymion Luck—and that brings good luck to Schenck is the man around whom all be of a better family than was comthe ideas of the time gather. He is monly thought. always successful-he was never known Thus, so far from there being any to fail-nor to have a care: he always chance in luck, it will be seen that one's knew he would be successful. From luck did depend, as much as a thing posfirst to last, in the greatest and the least, sibly could, upon his own endeavor. victory sits upon his eagles. Call him Luck was simply success, and that what you will - Endymion, Piers Gaves could only be understood as crowning ton, or John Schenck-he is always labor. But the word has gone away the same lucky man.
from this use, and has come now to But let us stop to inquire a little after represent that part of things that we conthe word. What idea does the word luck, templated an instant ago in using the call up to us ? According to the com phrase "as much as a thing possibly mon definitions, one of hap-chance, for could." There is, then, some degree in tune, accident. Common definitions are which the endeavor cannot regulate the seldom satisfactory. It is like picking result--and this degree, that goes beup a sea-shell on the shore, and having tween, is under the dominion of luck. our thought of it choked down with ở That the same thing frequently thrives long Latin name, when we want to go with one man and miscarries with an. back and muse upon the particular fish other has always been observed – nor that held his high court of life in the has it been seen that the successful man little round. “ Like music.” bowever, was the one of the greater ability or the this present definition, is “bad or good, closer application—but commonly the according as 'tis understood.” Hap
"Certainly there be," says fortune, accident, may be ordinarily well Bacon, again, “ whose fortunes are like enough; but that there is any pure Homer's verses, that have a slide and chance expressed in the word luck, if easiness more than the verses of other admitted by the general use, is at least poets.” And when the Italians “speak denied by the etymology. Perhaps it of one that cannot do amiss, they will may be questioned, indeed, whether it throw in into his other conditions, that be possible for human intellect to con he hath poco di matto,' and certainly template the idea of pure chance : but there be not two more fortunate propthis is going too deep for our present erties than to have a little of the fool, purpose. We are mere pearl-divers in and not too much of the honest." In this depth of thought, and should be this view, luck would seem to have been more frightened than pleased to meet used as an equalizer, and to have been any metaphysical monster of the deep. given to those who lacked such better “Luck (good or bad) is the past tense things as brains. " Nature," says Hookand past participle of the Anglo-Saxon er, hath gifted some men with wisdom læccan, læc-gan, læc-cean, prehendere, and understanding, and others with the apprehendere, to catch ; and means art of playing the fiddle.” Such men (something, anything) caught. Instead as have brains, ability, power — they of saying that a person has had good who are either the flint or steel of huluck, it is not uncommon to say he has man nature, and can strike out fire by had a good catch." So quoth the contact--who can help themselves, seem ** unique Horne." This is illustrated to be left to themselves ; but they who by the fisherman-his haul is his luck are neither of these who are mere pot as it is an uncertainty ; for there is sticks in life-are tipped on the end with but little of that necessarily understood this little phosphorus of good luck : all
they need is a rub, a touch, and they There is often in the course of events blaze. This runs very well with a a happy confluence of accidents bringsecond scrap of wisdom, that, if it be a ing about results apparently quite in“wise saw," is certainly also “ a modern commensurate with the powers at work instance :" “ Fools are kicked into and this, when associated in history luck." And this is recognized in with great names, makes a wonderful Shakespeare :
appearance. This goes so deeply into “Good morrow, fool,' quoth I. •No, sir,' things that we can never attain & corquoth be;
rect idea of either characters or circum* Call me not fool till heaven bath sent mo
stances without taking it into consider. fortune.
ation. However great has been the conMidas, from turning all he touched to fidence of man in his individual ability gold, may be the figuring of a lucky-his force of intellect to mould or diman ; and then we must not forget rect circumstances to his will—but few what the wind so continually whispered: have lived who have had the confidence “King Midas has the ears of an ass." to refer things to “me" alone-but they How often has fine genius been cut to better qualify it with “we—and the the quick by seeing the smooth“ Sun- lucky moment"-so fixing the luck to day citizens” of the world distance it time, and making what the poets aposin its dearest schemes! With what trophize as occasion-opportunity. gusto does Schiller cry out: “ Heaven "Oh, opportunity! thy crime is great: and earth both fight in vain against a 'Tis thou that executest the traitor's treason, dunce !" When we get here it almost
Thou puttest the wolf where he the lamb becomes explainable. Childe Harold
Whoerer plots the sin thou pointest the bas it that, “Brisk confidence still best with woman And the more bequoted scrap: thrives."
“ There is a tide in the affairs of men Fortune is a woman and “ some
Which, taken at the flood, leads on to for
tune." have called her fickle." It is the confidence that is found so fully devel. This luck of time—of a particular day, oped in the fool that “ bids a gay defi date, bour or minute-has had superstiance to mischance," and goes triumph- tion to help it, and has gone to such an antly through with everything. Fools extent that men have regulated their seem to be lucky everywhere ; for lives to it; and only commenced serious even tho parenthesis-eyed Chinaman undertakings at a specified moment. knows of it. “One has never so much This comes, no doubt, from the astroloneed of his wit as when ho bas to do gers. The fate of families seems somewith a fool.”. There is no such thing times associated with a day-all the as putting the real fool where he will members being born, married, and dying not thrive : “ throw him into the Nile," only upon its recurrence. There is, say the Arabs, “ and he comes up with perhaps, no spot upon the earth where a fish in his mouth.” Perhaps this the idea of the ill luck of Friday has idea of luck, that is half buried in the not now, or has not had, its effect. We saying, "Lucky at play, unlucky in may say of this superstition to the love," and some similar ones, may be whole world, as was said of love : explained upon a sufficiently general
Qui que tu sois, voila ton maitreprinciple : the very qualities that would Il l'est, le fut, ou le doit ètre. fit a man to be " lucky" (successful) This superstition originated, doubtat play are those that would unfit him less, in the day's being a holy one in to be so at the other-and the converse. the Gothic mythology-and the natur
Lucky men finally do--and well may ally sequential belief, that to undertake -have confidence in their destiny ; but common affairs of life upon that day they must beware how they have too was sacrilege. much in themselves, for “it is written Luck itself seems to defy analysis ; that Timotheus the Athenian, after he for if you have once obtained a suffihad, in the account he gave to the stato cient hold upon to examine it-presto! of his government, often interlaced this it has changed its nature. When you speech, and in this fortune had no have once fairly recognized it as parl,' never prospered in augtbing he working principle in things (and until undertook afterwards."
then you can scarcely oxamino it), it is VOL. IX.-42
no longer luck; for the very essence in the secret, mistook the directions of of this common idea is eccentricity, particular carefulness to refer to the total irregularity-being outside of all excellence of the wine, and when the rules. Thus, in daily calling Schenck duke, arriving tired and thirsty, called a lucky man, and so accounting for for wine, thought to please bim by givhis success, we recognize a working ing some of his own good drink. He principle, and virtually declare that he died. When we remember that Shake
a potable exemplification of this speare read Montaigne, it is not difficult idea of indirection that we express in to suppose that he may have arisen from the word chance. Yet, in containing the perusal of this circumstance with
this the thing defeats itself; for his luck the speech in his mouth· presently amounts to regularity. There is no chance in his chances-no uncer
“Thus even-handed Justice
Commends our poisoned chalice to our lips." tainty. All who know him know that when he is into any description of
Another is of the prevention of a scheme, where simple ability may not crime. Iceter employed two soldiers make success, nothing can be moro
to kill Timoleon, sojourning in Sicily. certainly direct than indirection. One They chose the time while he was offerof the philosophical poets has called ing a sacrifice and mixed with the mul" all chance direction that thou canst titude. While they were waiting, a not see;" and it must always be a mys sword was suddenly driven through the tery why this invisible direction has neck of one and he fell dead. The so strong a tendency toward Schenck. other, supposing that they were disYet, perhaps, as the gods laughed at covered, filed to the altar, and, claiming Vulcan, "all chance" laughs at him its protection, promised to disclose all and as the one laughter is defined to -and at once betrayed the conspiracy. be “tho exuberant energy of the gods He had scarcely finished speaking, proceeding joyously through the uni when the one who had sent the sword verse,” the other may be a very merry through his companion was brought in though immaterial game of skittles, and and confessed to having committed tho Schenck the ball-in this particular in- murder for an old quarrel. In a dif. stance, like the old Toxopholite's second ferent vein_entirely is that of the bow, more sure for to last than pleas- “Capitaine Rense assiegeant pour nous ant for to use." As nothing but truth la ville d'Eronne." That worthy encame from Jove-though it was turned gineer was in a manner hoist by his into opinion and falsehood by the phan own petard. He placed his mine very tasy of Agamemnon-so nothing but per correctly, and blew the wall up with fect regularity comes from this direc such power, suddenness, and precision, tion that thou canst not see;" but acci that it raised in one piece, and came dents incident to the nature of things down the same way, settling so exactly create eccentricity. Still there is the in its proper place that the besieged same objection, that the “eccentricity" "did not value it the less.” Ahem! tends so to Schenck, and never to me. With this we may give the sensible ad. But then Schenck is of the earth, and monition of Josephus: “If any one earthy things grow around him : the think these things incredible, let him weeds thrives where the flowers fail, for keep his opinions to himself.” “the earth is the mother of the weeds, A writer in the Dublin University but only the step-mother of the flowers." Magazine--in an article not seen til
“Old Montaigne" has done his share this was thus far gone-in trying to toward showing that luck is sometimes resolve a question of the superstition on tlie right side: that "fortune se ren of fortuno-What is fortune ?-brings contre souvent au train de la raison." together some definitions : "Lucan He illustrates very well how “fortune says, fortune is only another name for brings in some ships that are not steer our own doings; somebody else that ed," though some of the stories he tells "pluck is luck”; a third that luck is a are like George_ the Third's cavalry word to be talked about, but that it is charge down the Devil's Dyke : “Very skill that leads to fortune ; a fourth that steep, sir.” The first is of a duke who every one is his own fortune-maker; would have poisoned a cardinal, and and, finally, our grave friend, Juvenal, going to sup with him sent some poi. assures us, that fortune is but hapsoned wine before. The servant, not hazard; that the true power is prudence,
although inen persist in elevating the us plainly that “the lion is no lion, but impostor to heaven, and there worship- only Snug the joiner ;” that the wonder ing her as a divinity ;" and elsewhere is no wonder, but perhaps the inevitable quotes a remark of Chatham, that result of a principle of adaptability that
Chance is but another name for an seems to pervade nature, and causes unaccountable nothing." And, turning one man, who appears a fool in only this definition inside out, like a “che- knowing one thing, to yet thrive with veril glove," wo may say that an un that one thing, and be called lucky, beaccountable nothing is but another name cause another of great ability and for chance. There is nothing resolved; universal knowledge shall fail at that and the definitions merely shift the same simple thing he failing, perhaps, matter from one word to another. The for the very reason that he knew too prologue has yet to come that shall tell much.
AMERICAN LITERATURE AND
-The beautiful blue and gold series of the whole operation of our institutions, choice works, inaugurated last summer by fairly and philosophically to examine and Ticknor and Fields, of Boston, with the determine their character and tendency ; poems of Tennyson, is continued by Long- and while there bave been plenty of eager fellow's works and Swain's poems, and the tourists who made indignant notes tbat we Characteristics of Women, and other works, spit, and chew, and drawl, and boast, and by Mrs. Jameson. These are to be follow- drink, there have been only a few who ed by Whittier, Leigh Hunt, Lowell, and would not measure a new phenomenon by others—a pure belle-lettres series. The the canons of taste and tradition, but lookbooks are not only pretty, they are in the ed through the imperfection and the crumost convenient form for summer reading dity to the principle. Tbis is wbat de Guand travel ; and the collection of Leigh rowski has done. He says sharp things of Ilunt's poems will be the first complete us sharply; but be, also, says sweet and edition of one of the daintiest and most true things well. He does not spare our melodious of contemporary English wri intolerable pusillanimity; but he sees that tere the most characteristically Italian the faults are not essential defecte. His author out of Italy.
feeling is as warm as his expression is ve-Europe and America, by Adam de Gu hement. He does not hesitate to illustrate rowski (Appleton), is a book which deserves a proposition with any name or instance ; more than a magazine notice; for it is the and the late president points a contemptuprofoundest and most comprehensive sur ous paragraph. But this impetnous temvey of America and Americans since de perament of thc observer does not vitiate Tocqueville's work. It is, in truth, a more the justice of the observation : it serves perceptive and philosophical treatise than rather to enliven and vivify the descripde Tocqueville's; for, while the clear-eyed tion. Few foreigners bave paid so high Freocbman is mainly interested in the con homage to America : and that it is a sideration of the metbod and practicability foreigner who does it is his own great of democratic organization, de Gurowski praisc. The mastery of the English lanpierces and exposes the very genius of our guage in the work is remarkable. It is not character and civilization. We commend a clear style, but it is forcible, and copious, the work to the thoughtful study of every and even idiomatic. The scholarsbip, which one of our readers wbo loves his country the book displays and implies, is of a scope as a man and not as a partisan, and who beyond our usual standard. The anthor is believes in its good destiny, as a Christian. evidently a man familiar with histories and We are ourselves too much a part of the literatures. We consider bis work of great process; we live too closely inwound with practical value as a reflection-an image