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of grace 1685—we are of Enemies, against whom we informed in the naïve narrative of the obliged to be continually upon our Sieur Raveneau de Lussan- -a jolly Guard, and who did all that in them lay company of freebooters in the South to deprive us of subsistence." sea" (the Pacific west of the isthmus), The artless tales of such earlier misof which he was ono, descended upon sionaries of human progress and the suthe town of Granada, on the southern perior races in Central America, closely shore of Lako Nicaragua, in Central resemble those of their successors with America. On the 7th of April, of that whom we are contemporary. The Sieur year, three hundred and forty-five men, de Lussan's foray upon Granada, read chiefly English and French, and all of in quaint old type, has a little air of unthem very anxious to extend the benefits reality, and the crime is so remote that of French and English civilization to it becomes almost romantic. But the the Spanish and Indian inhabitants of samo relation of the same transaction the country, “went ashoar on a fat by a vagabond of our own time, told in Coast," and were led by a good guide yesterday's newspaper, is only shocking through a wood, marching night and and disgusting in its details. day until the 9th, when “sharp Hunger” The old pirates were outlaws in an compelled them to rest in a great sugar outlawed region. The inbabitants of plantation, four leagues distant from the Spanish Main had been themselves Granada. “It belonged to a Knight of robbers and spoilers. The provinces St. James's, who, upon our arrival, we they occupied were subject to Spain, failed to take prisoner, our Leggs being but Spain cared only to strain their at that time much more disposed to rest, treasure from them, drop by drop, like than to run after him.” On the 10th, blood, to bloat her coffers. England they saw two ships upon Lake Nicara- and France were at war with Spain, and gua, carrying all the wealth of the town the easiest strokes they could deal, and to an island two leagues off; and, after the most deadly, were those upon the brief consultation, we exhorted one American possessions. For a century another to fall on bravely,” and ad- the shores of the Gulf of Mexico had been vanced at a “round pace" to the attack, debatable ground. Removed from the The freebooters lost but four men killed neighborhood of any power wbich could and eight wounded; "which, in truth, make its laws respected in detail, the was very cheap.” Thereupon, they re- whole Central American region was conpaired to the church and sang Te Deum, vulsed with strife, as deadly and conand then detached a party " to go and tinuous as the elemental fury of the find out some women," to be ransomed; tropics. It was the arena of the world. and finally seut word to the Spaniards Superstition and religious rage burnt that they must ransom the town, or it there more wastingly than volcanic fires. would be burnt. The Spaniards did The Holy Church of Rome sent over not trouble themselves to answer; shiploads of racks and thumb-screws “ which at last constrained some of us to allure the Indian lambs to the fold, to set fire to the Houses out of meer and the pure religion and undefiled of Spight and Revenge.” The pirates part- the English Church withstood the dreadly intended to pass through the Lake to ful cruelties of the Inquisition with the " North Sea” (Caribbean Sea), but bloody retaliation. The aboriginal in. wanting the facilities to do that, they habitants of the country-a mild and cut their way back through ambuscades tender race-were the victims of all of Spaniards, and tropical forests, and sides, and were ruthlessly conquered deadly disease, reaching the shore again and enslaved by every victory. Gold upon the 26th of the month; and so was the object, and blood the means of

got out of those parts of the World, the long sanguinary struggle which which, though very charming and agree- makes up the history of Central Ameable to those who are settled there, yet rica ; until, within a century, the tordid not appear to be so to an handful por of pure exhaustion paralyzed the of Men as we were, without Shipping, land, and it has lain for years upon the the most part of our time without Vic- equator, moribund. tuuls, and wandering amidst a multitude After the French revolution, both the


patrician and plebeian classes in Spanish and gnaw it with his teeth, like a ravenAmerica desired to separate from Spain. ous wolf, saying to the rest, “I will The former, because it feared that the serve you all alike, if you show me not reforms imposed upon the Spanish another way.monarchy would be transplanted to the Walker had other objects than presprovinces, and destroy the patrician ent booty merely; but the sufferings prerogative of absolute oppression; he has occasioned are a thousand-fold the latter, because the movement of more dreadful than those usually reNorth America and Europe had even corded as the consequences of the old stirred the stagnation of despotism forays. And to what end? Month in which the provinces were slowly de- after month, now for nearly two years, caying. In 1821, therefore, Spanish young men have been shipped by reAmerica became independent. Since sponsible agents in New York and New that date, its internal history has been Orleans to Nicaragua, and for what a record of constant differences, jeal- purpose ? Hundreds have gove--not ousies, and insurrections. The states three hundred remain above groundhave been ceaselessly fighting within by whose means—to what end ? their own limits, or with each other. it a scheme of colonization in good They made a confederation and dissolv- faith? We have not seepp a solitary ed it. The world has not even heard man who believes so; but assuming it, the incessant quarrel, much less heeded then it has failed so disastrously that it. But suddenly, in our day, the Central every city and village in the country American States have again become of should warn anybody, who intends to vast importance, and their affairs chal- emigrate, of the facts. Was it a scheme lenge daily interest and attention. of assistance to one of two contending

At this moment (March, 1857) there parties, in good faith? Then why are is a freebooter in one of those states, in both those parties in arms, to a man, much sorer plight than the old pirate de against the invader? Having fulfilled Lussan, when he and his friends sacked his mission, or failed in it, why is he Granada, or the earlier pirate, Morgan, still lingering? Is all this blood, and ,

, who burnt Panama ; and, although near- grief, and desolation of a country, tho ly two hundred years have passed--and consequence of commercial ambition ? even two hundred years ago in England, Then merchant princes are as inbuman at war with Spain, the citizens of Lon- as Indian caciques. Is it all part of an don did not publicly assemble to express agitution to be used for the benefit of their sympathy for de Lussan-yet, the great Christian blessing of slavery ? in New York, to-day, in the chief city of Then its facts should be made patent a country that has nominally some espe- to every voter in the land. cial Christian and democratio claims, Walker, bimself, is an adventurer in the citizens are summoned to express, whose whole career there is not a soli. publicly, their hopes of the victory of tary indication of ability. He is, we unde Lussan's successor, who has ordered derstand, a Tennesseean, about thirty-six the same Granada to be burnt to the or eight years of age; who has studied ground. And as the old pirates coupled law and medicine; has edited newstheir carnage with Te Deums, the new papers in New Orleans and San Franones consecrate theirs with


senti- cisco; practiced law in Marysville, Calimentality about the progress of the fornia ; and, in the year 1854, at the Saxon race and democratic equality. head of fifty or sixty missionaries of

At least, the old murderers of the human progress and democratic equalSpanish main had the merit of cutting ity, proclaimed himself President of throats without canting. They wanted Sonora, a small Mexican State borderplate, and pieces of eight, and they said ing upon California. His presidency 80 plainly, and they butchered the in- was very brief, and ended in a trial in habitants until they found them. Be- California for a violation of the Neutraling anxious for information, and pressed ity Laws. He was acquitted; for the for time, on one occasion, Lolonois, a California of four years ago naturally French buccaneer of the seventeenth judged such lapses lightly, and his servcentury, drew his cutlass and cut open ices in the van of empire were not rethe heart of one of the Spaniards who quired again until he received, in the did not reply quickly enough, and. spring of 1855, a commission, as gener“ "pulling out his heart, began to bite al, in the army of Nicaragua, and a


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grant of 58,000 acres of land. On the ed. Don Patricio Rivas, who had been 5th of May, in that year, he sailed for an official under the legitimist rule, that country with fifty-six followers. was made provisional president for

Nicaragua is one of the loveliest of fourteen months : Walker was comtropical states; rich in natural products, mander-in-chief of the army; Corral, and, upon its Pacific slopes, not un- the legitimist general, was minister of healthy in climate; while, through its war; Parker H. French, an ex.Calilake and river, it offers a convenient and fornia editor, minister of the Hacienda ; rapid transit from sea to sca.

Don Firmin Ferrer, a gentleman of ernment is nominally republican ; but Granada, minister of public credit; and the languor and ignorance of its inhab- General Maximo Xeres (who had been itants, who are of mixed races, keep it the predecessor of Walker in the in a semi-barbarous condition, without command of the liberals), minister of manufactures or industry, or any prac- foreign affairs. This government was tical improvement of its natural advan recognized by Mr. Wheeler, minister tages. It has been constantly embroiled of the United States, the only foreign in civil wars since the dissolution of the minister then resident in Nicaragua. Central American Confederacy, in 1838. But, unfortunately, the new governIt is not necessary to state the details ment commenced by shooting its minis of these struggles. It is enough to ter of war, who was detected in treaknow that, in the month of May, 1854, sonable correspondence with the enemy; there had been a battle which resulted and by sending Mr. French to Washin the assumption of two governments ington as minister, who was not recogin the country—the liberal, which had nized by the United States Government; its headquarters at Leon, the old capi. and also by dispatching Major Louis tal of Nicaragua, and the legitimist Schlessinger as ambassador to Costa (as the government party called itself), Rica, to propose a treaty of amity, which centred at Granada. The latter which that state answered by declaring faction held the southern portion of the war upon Nicaragua-doubtless, regardstate ; and the former occupied the ing Walker as the small European northern. After the battle, in May, states regarded Napoleon, as no less 1854, the liberals besieged Granada for dangerous a friend than enemy. ten months ; but, in February, 1855, These steps were not auspicious; but · retired, and, pursued by the legiti- the Rivas-Walker government was not mists, a bloody battle was fought be- inactive. In the year 1849, the State tween the factions, at Massaya, which of Nicaragua bad granted a right of was disastrous to the liberals.

way through the country to a steamIn May, 1855, Walker and his fifty ship company, upon certain conditions. six men arrived from California, and, at Of course, during the incessant internal the end, of June, marched, with two wars this steam-ship company's prophundred' Nicaraguan liberals, upon erty was liable to heavy taxation, and it Rivas, a city upon Lake Nicaragua, naturally desired peace. It was noticed occupied by the legitimists. The at- in this country and in England, that tack' was repulsed. Walker and bis Walker had used the ships of that comfifty-six men had taken up their posi- pany for his transport upon the lake. tion in a house, which the enemy fired, Some kind of mutual intelligence was, and the ex-president of Sonora and his consequently, inferred; but in Februmen cut their way back to the coast of ary, 1856, to the amazement of every. San Juan del Sur. There was some body, and especially of Nicaragua stockskirmishing during the summer; and, in holders, the Rivas-Walker government October, at the head of two hundred seized the property of the company, Americans, and two hundred and fifty upon the ground that the conditions of natives,

Walker took possession of one the compact between it and the state of the Transit Company's steamers, at had not been observed, estimating the Virgin Bay, sailed to Granada, which company's debt to the state at $300,000, lies upon the lake, and captured the and its property at $200,000, and therecity after a few shots, while the enemy upon transferred the grant to other were expecting him at Rivas, forty parties, supposed to be commercial miles distant. A treaty followed be- rivals of the original grantees. The tween the two parties, and a government representatives of the old grantees apselected from both sides was constitut- plied for aid at Washington ; but the United States Government proffered no and being the head of the government, consolation in the premises. Mean. of which he had been named provisionwhile the Costa Ricans had marched al president for fourteen months, by into Nicaragua, and were in possession the treaty of peace, dated October 23, of Rivas, one of the chief towns of that 1855, and so in good faith to continue, State. Here a disastrous battle was "unless the president, in full council fought in April, 1856. Both armies of ministers, should resolve to call an were nearly destroyed. The Costa election before the end of the time," Ricans tottered home again, and Walker (Art. II., of the Treaty), be resolved fell back upon Granada.' A decree had to assert his rights as chief of the govbeen issued granting two hundred and ernment; and, naturally suspecting the fifty acres of land to every emigrant intentions of the commander-in-chief, who would come and settle upon it ; and, Walker, President Rivas, with his minunder this pretense, hundreds of mon ister of war, Salazar, departed to Leon left the United States, although the pres. in the month of June, 1856, and deident issued his proclamation against clared the government to be removed the violation of the Neutrality Laws, to that city. This was irregular, beAt length the other states of Central cause, by the second “additional” artiAmerica began to take up arms, ap- cle of the Treaty of Peacepthe governprehending an application of fillibuster- ment was to reside in Granada; but it ism to their own territories.

was a justifiable measure of public safeFully to secure the ultimate purpose ty, Walker being at that time in treaof this movement in Nicaragua, it was sonable correspondence with a Cuban necessary for the Rivas-Walker Gov- adventurer. ernment to be sustained by the United Upon Rivas's retirement to Leon, States, and Mr. French having failed to Walker proclaimed him and his minisbe received, a priest of Granada, and a ter-at-war, Salazar, traitors, and ornative Nicaraguan, the Padre Vijil, was dered a new election for president, sent to Washington, and was recog- which was held on the 24th of June. nized there as minister. Actual re- Walker was elected, as Louis Napolations were now established with the leon was elected Emperor of Franco; United States. The army was under and, a few weeks afterward, he caused command of Walker ; all the foreign Salazar to be put to death at Granada. intrigue in the state, of course, passed The pretended election of Walker rethrough him; he had perfect intelli- duced the country to the precise condigence with the Transit Company, and tion in which the Fillibuster found it, with the emigration that poured in under upon his arrival thirteen months before. its auspices, to encourage which, a free Since June, 1856, there have been two passage was, at one time, offered from governments in Nicaragua; the one New Orleans and New York to Nicara- composed of foreigners headed by gua—the American newspapers, espe- Walker, and the other, of native Nicacially at the South, were loudly celebrat- raguans and other Central Americans, ing this emancipation of Central America chiefly Costa Ricans, allies of their from ignorance and despotism; the sub neighbor Nicaragua. On the 19th of ject excited profound political attention; August, Walker's government was reall kinds of political possibilities began cognized by Mr. Wheeler, who had acto glimmer in the future, simultaneously knowledged the Rivas-Walker governwith the tragical debate of the extension ment. The Padre Vijil returned, and of slavery in Kansas; inchoate ideas Walker hastened to appoint his suofilled many minds; theories of the in- cessor, but Mr. Oaksmith and Don domitable Saxon race, the march of em- Firmin Ferrer, who have been successpire, the republicanization of the conti- ively sent by him to Washington, nent, superior and inferior people, all have not been received by our governthe sentimental variations of manifestment, which, to the honor of Mr. Marcy destiny-meaning "to get what you be it said, has declined officially to can, and hold what you get"-became countenance an adventurer in a foreign very conspicuous in newspapers and state, merely because he chanced to be conversation.

born an American. They became so conspicuous that From the moment of his election as President Rivas took the alarm at president to the present, William last, as Costa Rica had done at first, Walker being thrown entirely upon his own resources, without the favor of the tionary party of Cuba ; thirdly, he reUnited States government, without the quires a full statement of the Spanish support of a Nicaraguan party, which resources upon the island; and fourthhas entirely deserted him, or of the ly, he and Capt. Lainé accept the whole steam-ship company, which is practical- as the preamble of a more elaborate ly powerless for the time, its boats be- contract. In consequence of this agreeing seized by the native army, has ex- ment, in the following March, Domingo posed to the whole world the measure de Goicouria went to Nicaragua, and of his capacity. The man, who, a year was made Brigadier General in Walker's since, having the semblance of right army; Walker having made these proupon his side, was the active agent of mises without the knowledge, so far as the government which held the capitals appears, of his government; disposing and controlled the resources of the of Nicaragua as if he were already country, has discovered that that sem- that state--and afterward declaring the blance of right was his whole power. government invalid, when it was reTotally unable to cope with the circum- moved by President Rivas to Leon, in stances of his position, be now (March, consequence of such treachery as this. 1857) skulks along the road between Wo are far from supposing that the Lake and the Pacific, a conspicuous Walker necessarily meant to keep the criminal, a forlorn adventurer, the contract, because he signed it. His contemptible captain of a hundred first necessity was munitions of war wretched men, starved, demoralized, and and money, and he was, doubtless, very utterly miserable ; bimself the direct willing to purchase them upon such occasion of an extremity of human easy terms as his word. If he did suffering, the story of which is like mean to keep the contract, it proves that of the plague in Napoleon's army the ultimate intention which other at Jaffa.

events revealed; if he did not, it illusAnd grave men and grave journalstrates the quality of his honor. The contemplate the ridiculous, and, in ro- Cuban movement in the United States, spect of others, tragical career of this as explained and justified at Ostond by incompetent Bombastes, and philoso- His Excellency, James Buchanan, the phize about the destiny of our country Hon. Pierre Soulé, and Mr. Mason, is in overspreading the continent.

no secret. It is notoriously a moveMr. William Walker's personal views ment for the extension of slavery. It

as important as those of the old is not surprising, therefore, that some pirate Morgan, or his compeer Lolonois, time subsequent to the signing of this or Roche Brasiliano, or Bartolomeo contract, between Goicouria's agent Portugues, or Captain Kidd ; but any and Walker, that eminent American such man, used as a tool, becomes im- citizen and lover of liberty, the Hon. mediately important, and it is, there. Pierre Soulé, went to Nicaragua, and fore, quite worth while to know what established relations with the Fillibuswas the meaning of this descent upon Nicaragua, if it meant anything beyond By this time—the summer of 1856a personal scrabble for power and the great contest between slavery and booty. Nor is it very difficult to ascer- freedom upon this continent had been tain.

brought to open battle. For the first The Rivas-Walker government was time in our political history, a vast established in Nicaragua in the autumn party was organized upon the fundaof 1855. On the 11th of January, mental principle of no further slavery 1856, Walker made a contract with a extension. The difference came to Captain F. A. Lainé, agent of Domingo blows, and blood, and anarchy, in the do Goicouria, “sole holder and depos- territory of Kansas ; and to the most itory of the goods and chattels belong. searching and solemn debate and voto, ing to the cause of Cuba, consisting in throughout the country. The slavery money, a vessel, and munitions of party, accustomed to victory, were

To this contract, Walker agrees amazed at the vital earnestness of the firstly, to help Cuba and “her liberty,” struggle, and could with difficulty unafter he has * consolidated the peace” derstand how a people, which had of Nicaragua ; secondly, he makes only made mouths at the fugitive slave oommon cause of the resources of law, and had only murmured protests Nicaragua, with those of the revolu- against the repeal of the Missouri




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