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Mr. Olmsted prefaces his Journey relay-house. They seem to sleep only like with a calm and able letter to a south

tops, with brains in steady whirl. There is no orn friend, in which, from the industrial photo in thiet tumultuous life of the

streets

. point of view, he considers the general of Mr. Longworth-, delicious bit of rural subject of free and slave labor. We verdure, lying not far from the beart of the heartily commend this letter to the peru

town, like a tender locket beaving on a black:

smith's breast. What more need be said of sal of every thoughtful man in the coun- Cincinnati ? Bricks, burry, and a muddy try; for no man can well avoid the con- roar make up the whole impression." clusion at which the author arrives, and which is emphasized by contemporary All the descriptions of life and charevents, that, “ any further extension or acter, as the traveler advances toward annexation of slavery, under whatever the Mississippi, are full of humor and pretense or covering it is attempted, sly observation and entire appreciation. will only be effected in contemptuous He is not a man going about with his defiance of the people of the Free ears strained to hear the crack of the States."

slave-whip or the groan of the vicThe Journey commences in Balti- tim. more, where our author begins to feel

"As we lay quiet one evening in the fog, that he is in another region, because we heard and listened long to the bappy word

less song of the negrocs gathered at fire-light “Five minutes had not elapsed after we work, probably corn-husking, on some neighwere all off at a wave of bis hand, before & boring plantation. The sound bad all the rich Virginia gentleman by my side, after care- and mellow ring of pure physical contentment, lesbly ganging, with a glance, the effort and did one good to hear it. Like the night necessary to reach the hinged ventilator over ingale, the performers seemed to love their the window of the seat opposite us, spat own song, and to wait for its far-off echo. It through it, without a wink, at the sky. Such was long before we discovered that this was a feat in New England would have brought artificial, and came in response from the next down the house. Here it failed to excite & plantation. No doubt, had one the tender and thought even from the performer.

ubiquitous ear of a fairy, he might bear, of a “Here was rest for the mind. Scene, the fine evening, this black melody, mingled with South:_bound West. It could be nowhere the whippoorwills' notes, all the way from else. The dramatis personæ at once fell into Carolina to Kansas, resounding, as thė moon place. The white baby drawing nourishment went up, from river to river." from a black mamma on the train; the tobacco wagons at the stations; the postillion driv. ing; the outside chimneys and open-centre

In Nashville, although he found some houses ; the long stop toward

noon at a rail. residences that pleased him, he says, way country, ina; the loafing pobles of poor quietly, in a note : wbites, banging about in search of enjoyment, or a stray glass of whisky, or an emotion; “The mansions of palatial magnitude and the black and yellow boys, shy of baggage, splendor, mentioned in Lippincott's late Gaz. but on the alert for any bit of a lark with one another; the busom, saucy, slipshod girls

etteer, we did not see.within, bursting with fat and fun from

And so our author and his companion their dresses, unable to contain themselves even during the rude ceremonies of dinner: gradually make their way to the great the bacon and sweet potatoes and corn-bread Western highway, which they descend, that made for most of the passengers the sub- and he draws a most lively picture of stantials of that meal; the open kitchen in the the life upon the steamer and upon the black and white that visibly reigned there: shore, with this conclusion : nothing of this was now a surpriso."

“ Who would not rather own his ten acres Here is a sketch of Cincinnati, in

on the Hudson than the two hundred or which our author shows his natural

five hundred considered of equal value on the

Mississippi ?” right to tell of his travels by showing how well he can do it:

At Natchitoches, the travelers buy

their horses, and complete the prepara“There is a prevalent superstition in Cin. cinnati that the hindermost citizen will fall tions for their camp-lífe in Texas ; and, into the clutches of the devil. A wholesale when all was ready, set forth to follow fear of this dire fate, secret or acknowledged the old Spanish trail from Monterey, with more or less candor, actuates the whole

Chihuabua, and Sante Fé, to the states, population. A ceaseless energy, pervades the city and gives its tone to everything. A pro

as far as the Rio Grande. The reader found hurry is the marked characteristic of will find the most copious and intelligithe place. "I found it difficult to take any re. ble directions for a similar trip. At poge or calm refreshment, eo magnetic is the air. Now then, sir! everything

seems to say. last they found themselves, upon • a crisp Men smoke and drink like locomotives at a December morning, fairly en route."

ENIGRANT TRAINS.

months to rough use, exposed to damp grass, " We overtook, several times in the course

and to all the ordinary neglects and accidents of each day, the slow emigrant trains, for

of camp travel, not once did a ball fail to anwhich this road, though less frequented than

swer the finger. Nothing got out of order, years ago, is still a chief thoroughfare. Inex nothing required care; not once, though car? orable destiny it seems that drags or drives

ricd at random, in coat pocket or belt, or tied on, always Westward, these toil-worn people. thumping at the pommel, was thero nn acciSeveral families were frequently moving to

dental discharge.' In short, they simply gavo gether, coming from the same district, or

us perfect satisfaction-being all they claimed chance met and joined, for company, on the

to be. Before taking them froin bome, wo long road from Alabama, Georgia, or the Caro.

gave them a trial alongside every rival wo

could hear of, and we had with us an unpalinas. Before you come upon them you hear, ringing through the woods, the fierce crios

tentod imitation, but for practical purposes and blows with which they urge on their

one Colt we found worth a dozen of all others. jadod cattle. Then the stragglers appear,

Such was the testimony of every old hunter and lean dogs or fainting negroes, ragged and

ranger we met. There are probably in Texas spirit/css. An old granny, hauling on, by the

about as many revolvers as male adults, and hand, a weak boy—too old to ride and too

I doubt if tbere are one hundred in the state young to keep up. An old man, beavily loaded,

of any other make. For ourselves, as I said, with å rifle. Then the white covers of the wag.

we found them perfect. After a littlo practice, ons, jerking up and down as they mount over

we could very surely chop off a snake's head & root or plunge into a rut, disappearing, ono

from the saddle at any reasonable distance, aftor another, where the road descends. Then

and, across a fixed rest, could hit an object of the active and cheery primo negroes, not yet

the size of a man at ordinary rifle unge. Ono cxhausted, with a joke and a suggestion

of our pistols was one day submerged in a bog about tobacco. Then the black pickaninnies,

for some minutes, but on trial, though dripstaring, in a confused beap, out at the back ping wet, not a single barrel missed fire. A of the wagon, more and more of their eyes to

border weapon, 80 reliable in every sense, be made out among the table legs and bedding would give bruto courage to even & dyspeptic

tailor." as you get dear; behind them, further in, the old pooplo and young mothers, whose turn it is to ride. As you get b5, the white mother and like the city of New York at the pres

They were now in Texas, a region, babies, and the tall, frequently ill-humored master, on horseback, or walking with his gun, ent time, in which every man looks out urging up the black driver and his oxen. As for his own neck, but having this ada scout

ahead is a brother, or an intelligent vantage over New York, that every man slave, with the best gun, on the look out for a deer or a turkey. Wo passed in the day per

is expected to do so. There are other haps ono bundred persons attached to these advantages over the metropolis, as the trains, probably an unusual number ; but the following figures show, illustrating the immigration this year had been retarded and condensed by the foar of yellow fever, the last

expense of camping in Texas : case of which, at Natchitoches, had indeed begun only the night beforo our arrival. Our

“The following is a note of expenses dør. chances of danger were considered small,

ing twenty-four hours. It will give a conciso however, as the hard frosts had already come.

idea of our fare. One of thesc trains was made up of three large

1 bbl. corn (in the husk),

$1 00 12 bundles corn-fodder,

75 wagons, loaded with furniture, babies, and in.

Corn-bread,

10 valids, two or three light wagons, and a gang

Bacon,

05 of twenty able field-bands. They travel ten

Eggs,

03 or fiftcon miles a day, stopping wherever

Chocolate (from our own storee), 20 night overtakes them. The masters are plain. ly dressed, often in home-spun, kecping their eyos about them, noticing the soil, sometimes

$2 13 making a remark on the crops by the road

Horses, 44 cts. each; Men, 124 cts. each. sido; but, generally, dogged, surly, and silent.

"The chocolate being soon exhausted, and The women are silent, too, frequently walk.

not to be replaced, and eggs being a rare ing, to relieve the teams, and weary, haggard, be put down at five cents each per diem. To

luxury, our private necessary expenses may mud bodraggled, forlorn, and disconsolate, live upon this sum would, for some patients, yot hopeful and careful. The negroes, mud. incrusted, wrapped in old blankots or gunny.

be a capital prescription; for others it is only bags, suffering from cold, plud on, aimless,

a sour and aggravating discomfort." hopeleas, thoughtless, more indifferent than

“Returning with our corn, we overheard the tho oxon to all about them."

following negro conversation :

"Wher' you gwine to-morrow ?' The travelers had entered the region

-'8.

"Ken you get whisky thor ?' of “getting along," which our author "Yes. justly calls a "part of the peculiar "'Good rye whisky ?' southern and southwestern system.” As a help in getting along, it appears

“• What do they ask for it?'

"A dollar and a half a gallon. I don't that the revolver is a favorite instru

want no whisky dat costs less 'n a dollar and ment, and we find :

a half a gallon. I'd rather bev it then your

common rot-gut fur a dimo. I don't want to “Of the Colt's we cannot speak in too high buy no whisky fur less 'n a dollar and a balf Terms. Though sabjected for six or eight a gallon.'

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"Well, I du. I'd like it was a picayune a tions with mechanical precision, and the least gallon, I would.""

possible fatigue.

“ As the shadows grow long, we intimate to Compelled to unwilling brevity in our one another that it is time to be choosing a extracts, we shall quote incidents and camp-ground, and near tbe first house at which descriptions that characterize the coun

we can obtain corn, select a sheltered spot,

where fuel and water are at hand. Saddles try:

off and bampers—the horses are left frec, save

Fanny, who is tied for a nucleus. The mule “An emigrant party from Alabama passed, instantly is down, and reappears with his four having fifty negroes, and ono bundred head of feet in the air, giving loud grunts of satisfac. cattle, sheep, etc., going to the Brazos, to

tion. A tree, overbanging a smooth slope, settle. 'Oh, my God! How tired I am,' I is taken for the back rope of the tent, the ham. beard an old negro woman esclaim. A man

pers, saddles, and arms placed by it. The of powerful frame answered, 'I feel like as tent is unrolled and hoisted to the tree, a pole tho I couldn't lift my legs much longer.' This is cut for its other end, the long tent-rope car. was about twelve o'clock.

ried over it and made fast to a bush or a peg, “Near us, within sound, were two negroes and when the corners are pegged out by the all day. splitting rails-Sunday and New tiat iron pegs attached, our night quarters are Year's day."

ready, and our traps already under it, secure “At evening F. rode into town to mail our from dew. One of us, meanwhile, has colletters. One was a package of notes, on let. lected fuel and lighted a fire, brougbt water ter sheets, in a large envelope. Wishing to and set it heating. Then there is a journey prepay it, he asked, “What is the postage on for corn, and a task to busk it. The horses this, sir ?

are caught and offered their supper, each on “How many sbeets are there ?'

his own blanket, as manger. They bito it "Oh, twelve or fourteen.' The postmaster from the the car, taking, now and then, et commenced tearing off one end of the en- pecially the mule, some of the husks, as salad velope.

By this time it is ncarly dark, and we hastily "Stop. Don't open it.'

collect fuel for the night, thinking, rather " " It'll save putting it in a way.bill. I sup- dolefully, what we may have for supper. If pose I've no right to charge only one cent ?' nothing have been shot or bought, there is

“Yes, thrce cents per half ounce. It must only the bot corn-meal, engaged at the cabin be weigbed.'

with the corn, to be sent for. This we discuss “ His scales were broke down,' but it was with some rancor and a cup of coffee. Then finally weigbed after a fashion, paid roundly, comes a ramble out into the vague, nominally and put in a bag, unmarked.

for logs of firewood, but partly for romance. “On landing on the west side of the Trini.

A little way from the firelight glower indiety, we entered a rich bottom, even in winter, tinct old giants all about; sticks crack under of an almost tropical aspect. The road bad the feet, the horses start and peer wildly, with been cut through a cane-brake, itself a sort stretched ears, after you ; who knows what of Brobdigpag grass. Immense trees, of a wild-cat, wolf, or vagubond nigger may be great variety of kinds, interlaced their

watching to spring upon you if you go further branches and reeled with their own rank from the light. Then, leaning upon your growth. Many vines, especially huge grape- elbow, you lounge awhile upon the confines vines, ran hanging from tree to tree, adding of combustion, toasting your various fronts, to the luxuriant confusion. Spanish moss and never getting warmed through. Then á clung thick everywhere, supplying the shad- candle and a book or pencil in the tent, hood. ows of a winter foliage.

ed in blankets. Then a piling on of logs for a “ These bottom lands bordering the Trinity parting and enduring fire, and your weary are among the richest of rich Texas. They bones, covered with everything available, are not considered equal, in degree of fatness, stretch themselves, from á saddle-bag, out to some parts of the Brazos, Colorado, and towards the blaze, and--the chilly daylight." Guadalupe bottoms, but are thought to have “Late in the same evening we reached the compensation in reliability for steady, crop- town of Caldwell, the seat of justice of ping. The open coast prairie grazing districts Burleson County. We were obiiged to leave extend to within a short distauce of where we our horses in a stable, made up of a roof, in crossed. Above are some fine planting coun. which was a loft for the storage of provender, ties, and bigb up, in the region of the Forks set upon posts, without side-boarding, so that of the Trinity, are lands equally suitable to the norther met with no obstruction. It was cotton, wheat, and corn, which were univers- filled with horses, and ours alone were blan. ally described to us as, for southern settlers, keted for the night. The mangers were very the most promising part of the state.

shallow and narrow, and as the corn was fed “We made our camp on the edge of the on the cob, a considerable proportion of it was bottom, and for safety against our dirty per- thrown out by the horses in their efforts to dosecutors, the hogs, pitched our tent within tach the edible portion. With laudable econoa large bog-yard, putting up the bars to ex- my, our landlord had twenty-five or thirty pigs olude them. The trees within had been spar: running at large in this stable, to prevent this ingly cut, and we easily found tent-poles and overflow from being wasted. fuel at hand."

"The hotel building was an unusually large in another room, in which there was no fire, ran away, when he caught him he would bind and the outside door was left open for the con- his knee over a log, and fasten him so be venience of the servants in passing to and couldn't stir; then he'd take a pair of pinchers from the kitchen, which, as usual here at large and pull one of his toe-nails out by the roots ; houses, was in a detached building. Supper and tell him that if he ever run away again, he was, however, eaten with such rapidity that would pull out two of them, and if be run away mothing had time to freeze on the table. again after that, he told them ho'd pull out

and fine one; the principal room had glass win. “SADDLE AND TENT LITE.

dows. Several panes of these wore, however, “Our days' rides were short, usually from broken, and the outside door could not be twelve to twenty miles only, which was about closed from without; and, when closed, was the common distance, we found, in steady generally pried open with a pocket-knife by travel. We soon reduced the art of camping those who wished to go out. A great part of to a babit, and learned to go through the mo- the time it was left open. Supper was served

four of them, and so on, doubling each time. “ TEXAN CONVERSATION.

He never had to do it more than twice-it “There were six Texans, planters and herds- always cured them.' men, who had made harbor at the inn for the “One of the company then said that he was, norther, two German shop-keepers and, & at the present time, in pursuit of a negro. He young lawyer, who were boarders, besides had bought him of a connection of his in Misour party of three, who bad to be seated be- gissippi; he told him when he bought him that fore the fire during the evening.' We kept he was a great rupaway. He had run away coats and hats on, and gained as much from him three times, and always when they warmth, from the friendly manner in which caught him he was trying to get back to Illiwe drew together, as possible. After ascer

nois; that was the reason be sold him. He taining, by a not at all impertinent or incon. offered him to me cheap,' be continued,' and siderate method of inquiry, where we were I bought him because he was a first-rate pig. from, which way we were going, what we ger, and I thought perhaps I could break bim thought of the country, what we thought of of running away by bringing him down to this the weatber, and wbat were the capacities and new country. I expect he's making for Mexico, the cost of our fire-arms, we were considered

now. I am d-most suro I saw his tracks on as initiated members of the crowd, and the

tbe road about twelve miles back, where he conversation became general.'

was a-coming on this way: Night before last “ One of the gentlemen asked me if I had I engaged with a man, who's got some first. seen this new instrument.'

rate nigger dogs, to meet me here to-night; *• What instrument ?'

but I suppose the cold keeps bim back.' Ho “This grand boojer.'.

then asked us to look out for him as we went "I never heard of it before : what is it?' on west, and gave us a minute description of “I don't know, only that.' He pointed to

him that we might recognize him. He was a a large poster on the wall, advertising 'L. real black bigger,' and carried off a doubleGilbert's celebrated patent GRAND, BOUDOIR,

barreled gun with him. Another man, who and square pianofortes.' I mention the cir. was going on by another road westward, offercumstance as a caution to printers in the ed to look for bim that way, and to advertiso choice of words for the use of their emphatic him. Would he be likely to defend himself type.

with the gun, if he should try to secure bim, he 1 Sam. Houston and his eccentricities

asked. The owner said he had no doubl he formed a very interesting topic of conversa- would. He was as humble a nigger when he tion. Nearly every person present had been was at work as ever he had seen; but he was the worthy senator in some ridiculous and not a mighty resolute nigger-there was no man very honorable position, and there was much

had more resolution. * Couldn't I induce him laughter at his expense.' As he seemed to be to let me take the gun, by pretending I wanted held in very little respect, we inquired if he to look at it, or something? I'd talk to him were not popular in Texas. He had many simple; make as if I was a stranger, and ask warm old friends, they said, and always made him about the road, and so on, and finally ask himself popular with new acquaintances, but

him wbat he had got for a gun, and to let me the greater part of the old fighting Texans look at it.' The owner didn't believe be'd let hated and despised him.

go of the gun; he was a ' nigger of sense--as

much sense as a white man; he was not one of ABOUT NIGGERS.

your kinkey-beaded niggers.' The chances of “But the most interesting subject to North catching him were discussed. Some thought erners which was talked of, was brought up they were good, and some that the owner by two gentlemen speaking of the house might almost as well give it up, he'd got such where they spent the previous night. 'The a start. It was three hundred miles to the man made a wbite boy, fourteen or fifteen Mexican frontier, and he'd have to make fires years old, get up and go out in the norther for to cook the game be would kill, and could wood, when there was a great, stroug nigger travel only at night; but then every nigger or fellow lying on the floor, doing nothing. God! Mexican he could find would help him, and if I had an appetite to give him a hundred, right he had so much sense, he'd manage to find out there.'

his way, pretty straight, and yet not have "Why, you wouldo't go out into the north. white folks see him. er, yourself, would you, if you were not forced to ? inquired one, laughingly.

“BHEEP AND PRICES. "" I wouldn't have a nigger in my house that “We had observed sheep not far from CaldI was afraid to set to work at anything I want- well, for the first time. They were in a large ed him to do at any time. They'd hired him flock of some four or five hundred, overlooked out to go to a new place next Thursday, and by a black boy on horseback, attended by they were afraid if they didn't treat him well, two hounds. We were told that the wool from he'd run away. If I couldn't break a nigger this flock had been sold in the neighburhood of running away, I wouldn't have him any at twenty-seven cents per pound, and that how.'

the flock had averaged four pounds to the “I can tell you how you can break a nig. fleece. ger of running away, certain,' said another. “There had been a 'hiring' of negroes at There was an old fellow I used to knuw in the County House the week before. Eight or Georgia, that always cured his so. If a nigger ten were hired out at from $175 to $250 per annum-the birer contracting to feed them North, the Federal Congress, and the Par. well and to provide two substantial suits of liament of Great Britain, in both its branches, clothing and shoes.

on occasions of great moment but none of “ The price of beef at Caldwell was two them commanded my involuntary respect, for cents per pound; pork, five cente; corn-fed their simple manly dignity and trustworthi. ditto, six cents.

ness for the duties that engaged them, more

than the General Assembly of Texas. There " MANNERS AND THE WEATHER.

was bonest eloquence displayed at every op “We slept in a large upper room, in a com

portunity for its use, and business was car. pany of five, with a broken window at the

ried on with great rapidity, but with completo head of our bed, and another at our side, parliamentary regularity, and all desirable offering a short cut to the norther across our

gentlemanly decorum. One gentleman, in a heads.

state of intoxication, attempted to address the “We were greatly amused to see one of our

house (but tbat happens elsewbere), and be bed-room companions gravely spit in the was quietly persuaded to retire." candle before jumping into bed, exclaiming to

“This gentleman had thirty or forty nosome one who made a remark, that he always

groes, and two legitimate sons. One was an did so, it gave him time to see what he was idle young man. The other was already, at about before it went out.

eight years old, a swearing, tobacco-chewing “ The next morning the ground was cov.

young, bully and ruffian. We heard him ered with sleet, and the gale still continued whipping bis puppy behind the house, and (a pretty steady close reefing breeze) during

swearing between the blows, his father and the day.

mother being at hand. His tone was an evi. “ We wished to have a borse shod. The

dent imitation of his father's mode of daling blacksmith, who was a white man, we found

with his slaves. in his shop, cleaning a fowling piece. It was

“I've got an account to settle with you; too dd cold to work, he said, and he was

I've let you go about long enough ; I'll teach going to shoot soine geese ; he, at length, at

you who's your master; there, go now, God our urgent request, consented to earn a dol

damn you, but I haven't got through with you lar ; but, after getting on his apron, be found

yet.' that we had lost a shoe, and took it off again,

"You stop that cursing,' said his father, at refusing to make a shoe while this d å length. ‘it isn't right for little boys to curse. norther lasted, for any man. As he had no

*** What do you do when you get mad ? shoes ready made, he absolutely turned us

replied the boy: 'reckon you cuss some; 80 out of the shop, and obliged us to go seventy

now you'd betier shut up.' five miles further, a great part of the way

We repeatedly beard men curse white woover a pebbly road, by which the beast lost

men and children in this style, without the three shoes before he could be shod.

least provocation." “This respect for the norther is by no

“In the whole journey through Eastern means singular here. The publication of the

Texas, wo did not see one of the inbabitants week's newspaper in Bastrop was interrupted

look into a newspaper or a book, although we by the norther, the editor mentioning, as a

spent days in houses where men were loung. sufficient reason for the irregularity, the fact ing about the fire without occupation. Ono that his printing-office was in the north part evening I took up & paper wbich bad been of the house.

lying unopened upon the table of the inn “We continued our journey during the day painfully news items dribbled into the Texas

wbere we were staying, and smiled to see how in spite of the increased chilliness of the air, occasioned by the icy surface with which the country papers, the loss of the tug-boat sleet of the night had clothed the prairies,

'Ajax," which occurred before wo left New without any discomfort, until we were obliged York, being here just given as the loss of the again to enter one of these prairie houses. 'splendid

steamer Ocar.'

* A man who sat near saidDuring the next night it fell calm, and the cold, as measured by the contraction of the

“Reckon you've read a good deal, hain't mercury, was greater than at any time before. But the sun rose clear the next day, and, by

“Oh, yes; why? noon, the weather was mild and agreeable as

"* Reckoned you had.' in the fairest October day in New York.

Why?' “During the continuance of the norther,

You look as though you liked to read. the sky was constantly covered with dense

Well, it's a good thing. S'pose you take a gray clouds, the wind varied from N.N.E. to pleasure in reading, don't you ?' N.W., and was also of variable force. Our

"That depends, of course, on wbat I have

to read. thermometrical observations were as follow :

I suppose everybody likes to read

when they find anything interesting to them, Jan. 5th, 10.30 A.M.

don't they?' 10.42

55 "

No, it's damn tiresome to some folks, I 2

47 "

reckon, any bow, 'less you've got the babit of 4

42 " it. Well, it's a good thing; you can pass 40 16

away your time so." 6th, 7.30 A.M. “It continued at nbout this point during successive pages, have the value of

These extracts, selected almost from the following two days, wben it fell (Jan. 8th, 7.30 A.M.) to 21°

Tepiers's pictures. They are elaborate “We visited, several times, the Texas Leg. interiors, full of characteristic life, and islature in session, and have seldom boen moro

pregnant with proof of the general state impressed with respect for the working of Democratic institutions.

of the people. Texas, in fact, is not “I have seen several similar bodies at the civilized. Decency is forgotten; cook

you ?'

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66

P.M.

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