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him as before. Here is my hand; but as cold as if they slept in wet sheets, on condition that we keep apart here- and blew all the while, without pause or after."
punctuation. The food was an insult The Germans agreed to this proposic to the palate and an injury to the stotion, out of respect to English eccen- mach. “I knew not the difference in hytricity; and Drummond left the room, dropathic physicians, and hoped to find, charmed at having got quietly rid of his in some more supportable locality, anothtroublesome admirer. I ought to add er as skillful as Priessnitz. D'Hauteville that I witnessed neither of these affairs, told me of places in his country where and, therefore, relate their history at I could continue my curo, and, at the second-hand, which is as safe a band as same time, practice good French instead a man can have in a duel.
of bad German. Thus, after a resiYet, notwithstanding all the benefits dence of two months at Gramfenberg, I I received, I left Graefenberg before wandered away, in the company of my curo wus balf completed. The cli. Burroughs; and, now seeking a ruined mate, as I have said, was detestable. castle, now a water-cure, traversed midIt ruined nearly half the time, even when dle Germany with all the haunted Rhineit was fair weather. The winds were land.
HOW THEY LIVE AT PARIS.
go OME one says that figures cannot lie. pure fable, but ancient chronology for
They can-pardon me. I conceive à fixed science. The 9 above, then, that, if a man once sets about it, he can its great head bowed as if in deep calcufalsify with them as thoroughly as with lation, no loose ends, no waste flourishes, the boldest of tropes : e. g. vide the tabu- its tail curled snugly up to the chin, lar statements, mostly in ciphers, drawn like thrifty housekeepers, making both up by that able financier, Doem Brown, ends meet; and the 1 with its puribanker, showing the prospective value tanic uprightness, stiff, straight, erect, of stock of the Pekin and Astrakan R. R. always number one-let them say what and Canal Company, for the negotiation they will, your first impulse is, to take of whose bonds he is the European agent. their word for it, and, in five cases out No-even by reason of their general of six, the chances are nine to one that character for honesty, cipbers often be- there is not one in nine of us who ever come the most effective, because un- thinks about it a second time. To illussuspected, instruments of our deception. trate my meaning, let me ask if any of There is no levity about them. There you have observed how extremely are no arithmetical jokes—no numerical small is the proportion of you who have fancies. They enter little into the given a second thought to it, as arithservice of wits and poets. They wear metically expressed in this last proposirather the livery of solid men, of sound tion? I do not like to tell you-but, capitalists, of corporations real, to the such is my respect for large majorities, cxclusion of souls, of wealthy men, and I do not doubt that the rest have done safe men, of grave, precise, positive as well to keep their thoughts to themmen, and so impose upon us by help of selves. association of ideas. Let a man worth I have been led in these, and more $1,000,000, ventricose as the plump such, and other reflections, while lookzeros that puff up the index value of his ing out of my window on to the panorama estate, or a professor of mathematics, of Paris. There is food enough for all sharp and angular, as a figure 4, state a sorts of reflections in such a spectacle. startling proposition, and it is 9 to The particular turn that mine took re1 that you believe it without exam- cently, received its impulse from Arination of its intrinsic probabilities, mand Husson's statistical work on the though you would grant it small faith Consommations de Paris. For it was tu coming from the mouth of a jovial poor escape the fatigue of continuous second debtor, or a fanciful rhymer. Why, thinking, which its perusal requiros, to this day, with the mass of high vulgar, that, like a tired school-boy, I let my Saturn devouring his children passes for eyes wander from its pages, over to the
curious prospect that my window always within a radius of four bours' march offers.
from the Place de la Concorde, there After all, if figures can lie, they can are probably 60,000 troops. tell truth as well, and those of M. Only one-half of the inhabitants of Husson are among the honestest of Paris are " native here, and to the mantheir kind - gathered and set down ner born;" more than eight-tenths of the with much painstaking and conscien- rest come from the provinces; the retiousness. T'he position be occupies as maining fraction are of foreign or unchief one of the bureaus-what might known origin. Classifying them by be called the alimentary bureau—at the professions, we find that 43 per cent. of prefecture of police, has given him some them are mechanical workers, other 22 special advantages for approaching ac- per cent. are in receipt of wages or curacy in the treatment of his subject. salaries. Drawing another dividing line, Absolute accuracy is impossible. Many that which separates the fed from the of the estimates are calculated on the unfed classes, we find that one in every population of 1851, some on that of 16-as some make it one in every 15 other years; of course, they are not belongs to the latter. This is sad strictly true for that of to-day, which is enough, but the table before me, made probably, somo 15 per cent. greater. up from official documents, shows that On the whole, the book is a valuable one, there is a steady advance for the better and, while reading it, as I finally have, on the proportions of the last sixty to the end, I could not but be impressedyears. This sixteenth, or 65,264 indipotwithstanding my distrust of figures, viduals, are those only who are inscribed with the possible worth of a statistical on the lists of the bureaux de bienfai. view of Paris, as a means of completing sance, those who sue formully in forma and correcting the ordinary views of a pauperis; there are others, who owe all passing observer. To present one that or a large part of their means of existshould have that merit in any marked ence to the societies of private benefidegree, I do not here for an instant pre- cence, with which Paris abounds. But, tend. The most to be said for what if there are but about 66,000 nominally follows is, that the ciphers are mostly below feeding-mark, there is another borrowed from Husson, de Watteville, large class who live as near as possible Say, and the contributors to the Annu- to the line of demarcation, and who are aire de l'Economie Politique all good constantly exposed to be overwhelmed authorities--and occasionally from offi, by any sudden rise in prices, lack of cial documents. Their fidelity can, I work, attack of sickness, or other misbelieve, be relied upon in nearly all fortune. Thus, during the commercial
Doubtless, great caution is re. crisis and short crops in 1846 and 1847, quisite when we would draw large con- the number of indigents inscribed rose clusions from them.
rapidly to 95,177, while, at the same time, The population of Paris (within the the average number of persons, admitwalls), in 1851, was 1,053,262, of whom ted to participate in the benefit of the 31,732 were soldiers forming tho garri. bread-tickets distributed by the munison of Paris, and 54,200 were foreigners. cipal authorities, was 299,387; showThe foreign nationality most largely ingin all a temporarily necessitous popurepresented in this capital of the civil- lation of 394,564 individuals. De Watized world, is the German-numbering teville, the highest French authority on over 12,000 persons ; next come in order the subject, says, in 1847, that in the Belgians, Italians, Swiss, English, department of the Seine (including Poles, Spaniards, all others together, Paris), the indigents are as one to fifincluding Russians and Americans, teen, the mendicants as ono to two amounted to 9,147. The number of hundred and fifty-two. English is, most probably, something There are, in round numbers, 315,larger now than in that disturbed time. 000 Parisian households (ménages), of The number of soldiers is considerably which 219,000 inhabit lodgings, whose less, or, at least, was in 1854, when the annual rent is, in no case, over 150 garrison of Paris was reduced to 24,692, francs ($39) ! which is rather smaller than it was in There are annually sent into the tho latter years of the reign of Lnuis country, to purse, 15,000 infants. The Philippe. In the immediate neighbor- nurses are generally procured, as dolood there are many stations for troops mestics sometimes are with us in our
large towns, at nurse-agencies or of. More than five-sevenths in number of fices, and are not generally a “good all loans are for fifteen francs and less, article." To obviate abuses in this and cause an absolute loss to the mont kind, the municipal government has es- de piété. tablished purse-offices, whose agents The caisse d'épargne is French for take pains to put the babes in kind savings bank. The accounts of the laps, and to healthy breasts ; of 4,000 in- caisse d'épargne form a natural and fants put out to nurse by the municipal pleasing pondant to those of the mont administration, the expenses of more
There are on deposit at the than half are paid for by it. Working Savings Institution of Paris 47,000,000 Paris women cannot afford to spend the francs, placed there by 214,000 detime in nursing their own children, positors, of whom by far the larger with the rest it is unfashionable.
part are mechanics and domestics. The mont de piété is French for More than 82,000 patients were reFawnbrokers' shops; but French pawn- ceived last year in the public hospitals, broking is very strictly and justly re- of whom about one-quarter came in from gulated by law. The mont de piété is the provinces. Besides these, more as much a government establishment than 30,000 patients were visited gratis as the hospitals, and is as truly a chari- at their residences, by physicians attable institution. It is the poor man's tached to the bureaux de bienfaisance, providence. How, and how frequently, who also gave gratuitous advice, at their he appeals to it for aid, may be judged offices, in 118,000 cases. by the following figures : The annual In the alms-houses (hospices) and asys operations" of the Parisian mont de luins for the old, infirm, and incurable piécé, in ordinary times, amount to poor of both sexes, there is an avorage 20,000,000 francs ($4,000,000). In population of 8,600. The number of the year 1853, there were loans demand foundlings, poor orphans, and children ed of the mont de piélé on 1,431,575 abandoned by their parents, received articles, for an amount of 24,872,922 by the hospices, amounts, in a year, to francs, by 830,000 borrowers, of whom 3,400, of whom, it is ascertained, that more than seven-tenths belovged to the about 600 are not born in Paris. working classes. After tho workmen During tho year 1853, there were come small manufacturers and retail 34,049 births at Paris, of which 10,833, dealers, then rentiers and proprietors, or something over one-third, were illeclerks and domestics, and members of gitimate. As we aro apt to reason erthe liberal professions. For the small roneously from Paris to France, it may fabricants and traders without credit, be well to introduce here a few figures the mont de piété serves as a bank, from outside the city. The proportion where they do not hesitate to raise loans for all France (Paris, of course, includon occasions of pressing want. The ed), of illegitimato to legitimato births, rate of interest is indeed somewhat high, has not, in the last thirty-six years, but not so high as they would be forced varied beyond the merest fraction from to pay by the money-lenders.
one in thirteen. Now, in Belgium, it The average amount of the loans is a is a little more than this; in Saxony it trifle less than twenty-one francs, say is one in seven; in Bavaria, Baden, and four dollars. But if some loans rise in several other countries of Europe, quite beyond that, as when a lorette in much greater, and even in England but lack of a lover pawns watch and jewels, very little less—one authority making others, and they are the majority, fall it, for the last-named country, soven to below, as is shown, since I keep to the hundred, and the report of the Refigures, by the appropriation made by gistrar-General (for 1845, I think) the city authorities at the time of the reading thus: “I can discover no birth of the Imperial Prince. They grounds for supposing, that less than gave 100,000 francs on that occasion 64 in 1,000 English children are illegifor the " redemption of tools and bed- timate.” The proportion of illegitimate ding at the mont de piété," to be ap- births, taken by itself, is surely no plied cnly to articles on which loans of sufficient test of the morality of a six francs and under had been allowed, nation; but it is often cited as such, to and belonging to persons whose needs prove the immorality of the French beand deserts were certified by the mana- yond other civilized peoples-with how gers of the bureaux de bienfaisance.. much reason, the abovo figures show.
The whole number of individuals sup- France. I might add some results of ported at any one time, at the expense personal observations made at the barof the city, either in the hospitals, alms- rières on Sundays and Mondays, and, houses and asylums of Paris, or in the what is weighty as authority, the opincountry, is 31,219.
ion of De Watteville, who, among the There are 63,000 persons in the pris. fifteen immediate causes of French pauons of the department of the Seine. perism and wretchednoss, ranks third in
The popalation of the hotels and fur- order the use of intoxicating drinks. nished lodging-houses may be classed Paris is noted, the world over, for the as follows: First, those persons, French quality of its cookery. Paris cooks an or foreigners, travelers and mercantile enormous deal of victuals in the course people, for the most part, who occupy of a twelve-month. Paris is gourmet the better order of hotels and maisons and gourmand, not to say gluttonous. meublées. There are about 1,100 of Victor Borie says, that it eats one-fifth these establishments, having accommo- of all the good beef eaten in France. dations for 20,000 guests; on extra oc- The mother city absorbs the best of casions, such as baptismal fêtes, they victuals as it absorbs the best intellects, stretch their borders so as to take in the best writers, the best artists, and from 30,000 to 35,000 unfortunates. A the best artisans of the wholg country, second and inferior category, numbering The items of the metropolitan bill of 12,000, but sometimes rising to 15,000 or fare for a year are of Pantagruelian pro16,000, occupy furnished lodgings in portions. The zeros, and nines, and 1,800 maisons meublées of a plainer sort; sixes, and eights, and other of the rotund finally, there are from 37,000 to 50,000 ciphers, as they parade the quantities of mechanics, and laborers, and domestics, this Gargantuan gobbling and guzzling, and other small folk, sleeping in the seem stouter and paunchier than ever. wretched, ill-furnished rooms of the The reading of them is a feast. As I lowest grade of lodging-houses (garnis), have set them down here, reducing kiloof which there are 3,963 in the capital. grammes to pounds, I have not gener
Having now some notion of the ex- ally regarded such small matters as tent and classifications of the popula- hundreds of pounds. Round thousands tion of Paris, let us see how they sup- will convey notions of the city's conport life-how they eat and drink. sumption, sufficiently accurate for tho
There are 29,000 dealers in food and purposes of this view, and moro easily drink within the walls. Of these, 4,408 retained by the reader's memory. keep wine and liquor-shops ; 1,600 Strict accuracy is, indeed, impossible. others, as a part of their regular busi. M. Husson's estimates are for the popuposs, sell wine, liquors, or some sort of lation of 1851, excluding the garrison intoxicating drinks; this is exclusive of and hospitals, i.e., for 999,086 conkeepers of restaurants, cafés, inns, and sumers; to-day the population must be small eating-houses, and several other from one to two hundred thousand classes of shops, in all of which wine greater. So that the estimates given and brandy are sold by the glass. I below should be considerably enlarged may be permitted to correct here, the to meet the truth of to-day. grossly erroneous statements, often In the year 1851, then, Paris ate made and believed by foreigners who 360,000,000 pounds of bread, and 143,visit the boulevards, to the effect that 000,000 pounds of butcher's meat, be" there is no drunkenness in France ;' sides over 23,000,000 pounds of swine's "you never see a drunken man in flesh, and ncarly 23,000,000 pounds of France," and the liko. There are in fowls and game, and more than 29,500,this country, or there were, in 1847, 000 pounds of fish, together with 19,347,328 places for the sale of intoxicat- 140,000 pounds of eggs; to this add ing drinks, that is, nearly one for every nearly 11,000,000 pounds of pastry, a
, and one hundred men, women, and children 7,000,000 pounds of rico, macaroni, verthroughout the land; there are sold micelli, and other prepared breadstuffs, yearly, in these places, over 250,000,000 and 500,000 pounds of gingerbread gallons of wine, and over 17,000,000 (very bad is the gingerbread). This gallons of distilled spirits. Now we mass of solids was lubricated and helpmight roason, a priori, from this enor- ed on its downward way by 22,500,000 mous quantity of drink swallowed, that pounds of butter, and sweetened by more there must be some drunkenness in than 16,000,000 pounds of sugar, and 500,000 pounds of boney, to say no- consumption of tobacco in all France thing of 1,200,000 pounds of bonbons, nearly doubled in quantity. Whatever and about 2,000,000 pounds of sweet- may be the vicious effect of the noxi. meats; it was washed down by 118.- ous weed on the popular health, this in000,000 quarts of wine (or drugs and creased consumption helps to plump up Seine water, that, according to M. Dela- the government finances curiously. The marre, make up one-third of what is manufacture and sale of tobacco is, as drank for wine in Paris), 13,500,000 my readers are aware, a state monopoquarts of beer, 2,000,000 of cider ly; but they are, perhaps, not aware of (very bad), 12,000,000 of ardent spirits, what M. Husson assures us is the fact, 100,000,000 of milk, over 1,000,000 of that it produces a clear yearly profit liqueurs. The town, furthermore, con- (bénéfice nct) of more than 100,000,000 sumes in liquid form nearly 7,000,000 of francs, or one-fifteenth of all the pounds of coffee, and over 2,000,000 receipts of the public treasury. pounds of chocolate. In the way of After eating, and drinking, and smokvegetables, it eats 300,000,000 pounds ing Paris, comes, naturally enough, as of fresh, and 17,000,000 pounds of dry, if for digestion, riding Paris. I should “ garden sarse," besides about 420,- say here, that this view of Paris on 000,000 pounds of fresh fruit, and over wheels is very imperfect, inasmuch as it 7.000,000 of dried fruits, and 4,500,- does not include large classes of vehicles, 000 pounds of oranges and lemons. such, for example, as those that do the The whole is seasoned with 12,000,000 heavy carting and nocturnal dirty work, pounds of salt, 600,000 pounds of mus- water-carts, market-wagons, scavengertard, 295,000 pounds of pepper and carts, etc., etc. Of carriages of all other spices, and 297,000 pounds of sorts for the transport of persons, habpickles, 4,000,000 quarts of oil, and as itually circulating, though not all owned many of vinegar. Such are some of in the city, there are 11,765, drawn by the principal items of the table of 40,000 horses. Of saddle-horses, there Paris.
are 3,000. Place yourself on the BouleIn the year 1854, Paris chewed, vard des Italiens, and you may see snuffed, and smoked, 3,800,000 pounds pass, in the course of twenty-four hours, of tobacco, for which it payed 17,725,- 10,750 wheeled vehicles, of which near263 francs (more than $3,500,000). ly 9,000 are appropriated solely to the This poor justice must be done to the conveyance of persons. A curious Parisians and to the French in gener- calculation shows that, in a twelveal, that few of them are guilty of our month, 25,000,000 rides are taken in peculiarly disgusting American form omnibuses, and 18,000,000 in hired carof tobacco-vice. The quantity of the riages.
Besides these, 13,000,000 perveed masticated is to that snuffed and sons yearly pass in or out of the city smoked, as one to sixty-two, and has by the different rail-roads, and four not increased per annum since 1839. other millions by the diligences and The habit of taking snuff is on the de- other public conveyances. crease; that of smoking, on the con- So much of Paris as likes, and can trary, has been of late years, and still afford it, goes after dinner to spend the is, in course of wonderful develop- evening in twenty-two theatres and ment. Formerly it was deemed an es- opera-houses, where there are 29,000 sentially vulgar practice, and was main. seats, where, last year, 213 new pieces ly confined to the estaminets; from were brought out, where spectators pay them it spread to students' rooms and annually over 12,000,000 francs for their artists' attics, then reached the clubs, entertainment. Others go to cafés. at last invaded families, and “ the totali- circuses, public balls, suburban theatres, ty of the street," and is now à la mode concerts, and other numberless places with all classes. As you are aware, of nightly amusement. Apart from the emperor and empress both smoke. what the public pay directly, there are If they had not a taste for tobacco, five theatres, namely, the Française, the they might still indulge in, or rather Odeon, the Grand Opera, the Opera subject themselves to, its use, by way Comique, and the Italian Opera, which of setting an example, which his majes- together receive allowances from the ty has strong, politico-economical rea- state to the amount of 1,500,000 sons for wishing to, see generally imi- francs. tated. Between 1839 and 1854, the When all is over, Paris retires to