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of Massachusetts, the risk was thought Mason of Connecticut, Seely of New too great, and it was concluded pott Haven, and Leverett and Atherton of send him. Five years after, in 1640, Massachusetts-all of them able offithis troublesome business was brought cers, highly distinguisbed in the milito a final and amicable conclusion. tary annals of New England. This

One of the greatest stains upon the time, however, there was no actual early colonists of New England is the fighting. Alarmed at the preparations murder of Miantenomob, successor to against him, Pessicus took the advice Canonicus, as chief sachem of the Nar- of Williams, and hastened to Boston to ragansetts, perpetrated in 1644 by the solicit a peace, which he obtained only worthless Uncas of Mohigan; acting, on very hard terms. however, by the advice, and, indeed, at In 1647, as the colony of Plymouth the instigation, of the commissioners for now included several towns, Standish the United Colonies of New England, to was appointed to command and instruct whom the intelligence and enterprise of all tha companies as sergeant major, Miantenomoh and his friendship for and, as the record informs us, "he conRoger Williams and the enthusiast descended thereto." New difficulties Gorton made him an object of dread. with the Narragansetts arose in 1653, Pessicus, brother and successor of with wbich was combined the prospect Miantenomoh, was very urgent with of a war with New Netherland, Crom. the colonists for leave, which he solicit- well having the year before declared ed by repeated presents, to make war war against the Dutch. Uncas, the on Uncas, whom he accused of having Mohigan sachem, always ready for killed Miantenomoh, notwithstanding mischief, had spread a report, that the acceptance of a ransom for bim. Ninegret, sachem of the Niantics, a This complaint was specially inves- branch of the Narragansetts inbabiting tigated by the commissioners for the the main-land opposite Block Island, United Colonies and pronounced un- had visited Nėw Amsterdam during the founded; for, of course, they would not winter, and bad arranged with the Dutch fail to uphold their ally Uncas in an act governor a grand plot, in which it was done at their suggestion and for their pretended that even the oonverted Inspecial benefit. They arranged a tem- dians of Massachusetts were engaged, porary truce, which having expired in for a general Indian insurrection and the 1645, the Narragansetts sent out war- massacre of all the New England coparties against Uncas. On news of this lonists. outbreak, a special meeting was forth- In consequence of this report, the with called of the commissioners of the commissioners for the United Colonies United Colonies, and prompt measures assembled in special session at Boston, were taken for the support of their con- and sent messengers and interrogatories venient ally. In the curious manifesto to Ninegret and Pessious, both of whom issued by the commissioners on this oc- totally denied any implication in or casion, they acknowledge that their knowledge of the alleged plot. lord and master," being king of peace Stuyvesant, the Dutch governor, and righteousness, required them" to sent also an indignant denial, expressbold forth an example, not only to ing bis desire that, if the New England Europe, but to the barbarous tribes of commissioners had any doubts, an inthe wilderness." They profess“ an vestigation might be made at New Amawful respect for divino rules, and an sterdam. Threo envoys were accordendeavor to walk uprightly and in- ingly sent to the Dutch capital, and, offensively, and, in the midst of many to be ready in case “God called the injuries and insults, to exerciso much colonies towar,” five hundred men patience and long-suffering. But they were ordered to be raised. The New argue, that, under existing circum- England envoys, not able to agree with stances, “God calls the colonists to the Dutch governor as to the manner war," and they ordered accordingly an in which the investigation should be immediate levy of three hundred men. conducted, crossed to Long Island, This force was to be commanded by where they took the ex parte affidavits Gibbons, sergeant major of the Boston of several persons, English and Indians, regiment, who, however, was to be going to establish the reality of the alguided in his action by a council of war, leged plot. It would seem that the composed of Standish of Plymouth, only foundation for the roport of this

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pretended Dutch and Indian conspiracy mous consent. Nothing, therefore,
was, that Stuyvesant had given out, could be done ; and the extra session of
that, in case he was attacked by the the commissioners broke up, leaving
New Englanders-with whom, in addi- the majority of that body in high dis
tion to the pending war between the gust. At the regular session, in the
mother countries, the Dutch of New following autumn, the controversy was
Netherland had a long-standing quar- renewed, Massachusetts having found
rel of their own-he should endeavor to another occasion for applying her new-
strengthen himself with the Indians. ly discovered distinction.
The affidavits thus taken having been On the east end of Long Island were
laid before the commissioners assem- some tribes of Indians, who had ac-
bled at Boston, it was voted that they knowledged the sovereignty of the New
furnished sufficient ground for war. England union. These tributary In-
But, fortunately, the general court of dians complained of hostilities com-
Massachusetts happened to be in ses- menced against them by the Niantics.
sion at the same time, and as the Massa- Ninegret, the Niantic sachem, being
chusetts commissioners did not concur sent for by the commissioners, returned
in the opinion of the majority, the & “proud, presumptuous and offensive
members from that colony desired that answer." The commissioners there-
the commissioners would take the opin- upon conceived themselves “called by
ion and advice of the elders”--that is, God to make a present war against
of the ministers, whom, in those early Ninegret," and they ordered two hun-
days of New England, it was the custom dred and fifty men to be raised for that
to consult on all questions of importance, purpose. But Bradstreet, one of the
especially those involving, as most im- Massachusetts commissioners — after-
portant questions do, any matters of wards the last governor under the first
duty or conscience. A joint committee Massachusetts charter-dissented from
of the court and the commissioners was this vote. In his opinion, the United
appointed to prepare, from the docu- Colonies were under no obligation to
ments, a statement of facts, on which protect the Long Island Indians, or to
the opinion of the elders might be asked; engage in Indian quarrels, "the grounds
but, as this committee would not agree, whereof they cannot well understand."
two statements were drawn up.

The general court of Massachusetts
The elders saw, in the facts laid be. sustained this sensible objection. See-
fore them, plain evidence of an ing no sufficient reason for war, they
crable plot, tending to the destruction “dared not," so they said, "exercise
of many dear saints of God;" but they authority to levy men."
did not find the proofs of it so “ fully Thus, a second time, by the opposi-
conclusive as to close up present pro- tion of Massachusetts, were the warlike
ceedings to war." There were those intentions of the commissioners defeat-
however, who thought the proofs quite ed, and a war prevented between New
conclusive. Many pensive hearts at England and New Netherland, much
Salem," as they described themselves to the disgust of the people of Plymouth
in a memorial to the commissioners, of colony, who were inspired with great
which the first signer was the Salem zeal for both the proposed wars-that
minister, urged the justice and necessi- against the Dutch, and that against the
ty of hostilities. Six out of the eight Niantics—and to be in readiness for
commissioners—the constitutional ma- which they had established a council
jority-were sufficiently inclined to of war, with Standish at its head.
this step; but they found an unexpected Despairing of the concurrence of Mas-
and insuperable obstacle in a distinction sachusetts in the war against New
taken by the general court of Massa- Netherland, the colonies of Connecti-
chusetts between offensive and defensive cut and New Haven united in a solicita-
wars—the same distinction, by the way, tion to the Lord General Cromwell and
wbich was acted upon by Washington, the English Council of State to take
a hundred and forty years after, in his that matter in hand. Nor were these
interpretation of the French treaty. solicitations without success. Robert
Upon the strength of this distinction, Sedgwick and John Leverett, the for-
the Massachusetts court denied any au- mer lately chosen major general of
thority in the commissioners to declare Massachusetts, the latter one of the late
war, except by unani.

envoys to New Amsterdam, and recently




& captain in the parliamentary army, a grant of 300 acres of land near Sawere authorized to undertake an expe- tuckett point, in Bridgewater. dition against New Netherland, to. In spite of Hubbard's fling at his rewards which Cromwell, who had ligious character, we have the authority become, in the mean time, Lord Protect- of Secretary Morton for saying that or, furnished four armed ships with a " he fell asleep in the Lord." small body of troops, authority being Captain Standish left three sonsgiven to the commissioners to raise Myles, Alexander, and Josiah. His more in New England. To give his “dear daughter" Rosa, ncar whom he advice and aid to Leverett as to this levy requested in his will to be buried, died and expedition, the aged Standish pro- before her father. No stone marks his ceeded to Boston; but, by the time the grave, though he is supposed to have New England contingents were ready been buried on his farm or in the old news arrived that Cromwell had mado burying-ground at Hardin Hill, near peace with the Dutch, who thus es. by. caped the grasp of the New Englanders Standish left, for the time and place, a for ten years longer. The final triumph handsome property, valued at £358 7s. over the Dutchmen, in the transforma- Some of the most considerable items of tion of New Netherland and New Am- the inventory, such as show the conditian sterdam into New York, Standish did of well-to-do persons in those times, as not live to see, though, doubtless, in regarded their household establishments, spite of his former connection with Hol- were as follows: “Two mares, two land, it would have rejoiced his stout colts, one young horse, with equipNew England heart.

ments, two saddles, one pillion, and one It was in other than warlike ser- bridle. Four oxen, six cows, three vices that the close of his life was heifers, one calf, eight sheep, two rams, employed. The Massachusetts Bay one wether, and fourteen swine. Three had been for some time complaining muskets, two carbines, three small guns, against Plymouth colony “as want- one fowling-piece, a sword, a cutlass, ing to themselves in a due acknow- and tbroe belts. Five bedsteads, one ledgement and encouragement to min- settle-bed, four feather beds, three bolisters of the gospel." Nor were these sters, three pillows, two blankets, one complaints without effect. In 1665, coverlet, four pair of sheets, one pair Standish, with another person, was of fine sheets, and four napkins. Two appointed to go to Marshfield and tables and table-cloths, one arm chair, signify to the people “the court's de- one common chair, and four rugs. Four sire, that they should take notice of iron pots, three brass kettles, a fryingtheir duty and contributo according to pan, a skillet, a kneading-troughtwo their ability, freely to the support of pails, two trays, one dozen trenchers the ministry." He was also sent to or wooden plates, one bowl and a Rehoboth in the course of the same churn. Four spinning wheels, one pair year, on a similar mission. Two of stoel-yards, a warming pan, three years after, upon further urging from beer casks and a malt-mill

, and perMassachusetts, a law was passed by the sonal apparel of the value of £10.*** Plymouth court, requiring the towns to His house and farm were valued at levy taxes for the support of ministers £140. That property descended to his and grammar schools.

eldest son, Alexander. This ancient Standish was treasurer of the colony homestead, at Duxbury, remained in the for several years, and held that office family for four generations; but, at prestill 1656, when he died full of years and ent, there are no persons of the name in honors. When rechosen treasurer at that town. The house, built by Standthe election previous to his death, it ish, to which the son made additions, appeared, on the settlement of bis ac- was finally burnt down, it is supposed, counts for the two preceding years, in 1665. An exploration of the ruins that he had in his hands a balance of by the Rev. Mr. Kent, about thirty public money to the amount of £15;

years ago, led to

some interesting but this was granted him by way of discoveries. The foundation stones compensation-be having received no were nearly in their original positions. salary. He had also, at the same time. The cement employed was evidently

* Windsor's History of Durbury, p. 55.


made from clam shells, and the roof had extremely durable, and scarcely pene been thatched. “The first substance trable. The suit was complete, includ discovered was, a quantity of barley, ing a helmet and breast-plate. perfectly charred, and apparently wrap- The Historical Society of Massachuped in a blanket. This was found in sitts and the Pilgrim Society at Plythe east corner of the site, which was mouth both claim to have his sword. thought to be a small cellar. At the In this case, however, there does not chimney, in the new part, were found arise the same difficulty as where severed the ashes as perfectly fresh churches claim to possess the skull though the fire had just been extin- of the same individual saint. No man guished, and here also was found a por- -out even a saint, unless, indeed, by tion of an andiron, an iron pot, and a miracle-can be supposed to have other articles. In other places, were had more than one skull; but, is it pot discovered a buccaneer gun-lock, a quite rational to suppose that so resickle, a hammer, a whetstone, a large doubtable a soldier as Standish may have binge, a scythe-wedge, portions of stone had two swords? Indeed, the invenjugs, and other pieces of earthen wares, tory of his estate, though it makes no large quantities of glass and some beads; mention of any coat of mail, would some of which show the action of great serve to bear out this supposition. heat; several buckles, and among The following clause in the will of others, a sword buckle ; a brass kettle, Standish, in relation to his English posa pair of scissors, a small glass phial, session or claims, has been already rocbisels and files, parts of pipes, and ferred to at the commencement of this other articles of household use. There article :-"I give unto my sou and heirwere also found a deer's horn, and a apparent, Alexander Standish, all my tomahawk of fiue workmanship.”. lands, as heir-apparent, by lawful deStandish's second son, Myles, moved scent, in Ormistick, Bousconge, Wrightto Boston. His third son, Josiah, was ington, Maudsley, Newburrow, Cranston, frequently a representative of Duxbury and in the Isle of Man, and given to me in the general court, and during the as right heir in lawful descent, but great conflict with Philip, son of Massa- surreptitiously detained from mommy soit, was one of the Plymouth council of great grandfather being a second or

He inherited the land in Bridge- younger brother from the house of Standwater, and one of his children settled ish of Standish."

Everybody knows the numerous proSoine of his descendants are now liv- jects recently in vogue among us, for ing in the county of Plymouth, and a recovering great estates in England. number of them elsewhere. Wheelock, Among the rest, the descendants of Myles the founder of Dartınouth college, and Standish formed, in 1846, an association Samuel Kirkland, missionary to the six and raised $3,000—which they might nations, whose son, John Thornton better have spent in erecting a monu. Kirkland, was president of Harvard ment to their valiant ancestor—and sent college, were descended from Standish, an agent to England to attempt the rein the female line. One of Stand- covery of these estates. The property ish's great grandsons is said, by Bel- was found to comprise large tracts of knap, to have had in his possession the rich farming lands, including several suit of armor which his valiant ancestor valuable coul mines, producing a yearly was accustomed to wear; but, even in income of £100,000, or more. A comBelknap's time, this valuable relic was mission discovered, appointing no longer to be found. Wiusluw states, Myles Standish to a commission in in his History of Duxbury, that Captain Queen Elizabeth's forces on the conMyles Standish of Boston, still or lately tinent, from which, and other circumliving, had seen this suit of armor at the stances, the year 1534 was determined house of Captain John Standish of Plym- as that of his birth. The family seats ton, then fast going to decay from are situated near the village of Chorley, exposure, though but a few years pre- in Lancashire, and the records of this vious it had been in a perfect state. It was parish were thoroughly investigated, a cloth garment, very thickly interwoven from the year 1549 to 1652. They were with a metallic wire, so as to render it all readily deciphered, with the exception


on it.


* Windsor's History of Duxbury, p. 55.

of the years 1584 and 1585, the very once suspected his design of investiyears in one of which Myles Stand- gating the title to the Standish estates, ish was probably born. The parch- and taking advantage of the rigor of the ment leaves, which contained the reg- law (as he had presented himself merely istry of the births of those years, were in the character of an antiquarian), comwholly illegible, and their appearance pelled him to pay a fee of about £15, such as to lead to the conclusion, that or suffer imprisonment. pumice-stone, or something of the sort, “ Thus," says Windsor, from whom had been purposely employed to dis- we borrow this account, “it will be seen figure and destroy the record which they that, from the destruction of all legal contained, namely, the legal evidence proof, the property must forever re. of the parentage of Standish, and his inain hopelessly irrecoverable.” consequent title to the estates. This The crest of the Standishes, as given mutilation, it was supposed, had been by some authorities, might seem to accomplished some twenty years

before. allude to the surreptitious title by in consequence of some inquiry then which the family at present hold their set on foot by the American Standishes. estates—" An owl argent, beaked and The rector of the parish, when after- legged or, standing on a rat sable." wards requested by the investigator to Here follows Miles Standish's audo. certify that the papers were illegible, at graph.

Myles Standish


"To take it rightly, it, is no more than a medley of impertinent conceits, where two lovers do most silly things, and the buffooneries of a merry-andrew."-ST. EVREMOND (1684).

"The Italian theatre was the original and model of all European drama, the culture of Troy having found in Rome, etc., etc. The Venetian actors played extempore.

*** Their lazzis was fair to see. Practice in throwing off the mask made them able to play the sublime septi ment, at the same time of pleasingly imitating the most ridiculous whims of mankind. They bad no booth for themselves, but played (comedies) in private houses."-RICCoBONI. "WHA

CHAT a luscious slice of melon-it shadow, and see what an effect Zam

is so juicy that it is positively betto and the sun get up together? I dripping itself away; how nicely those lift my arm, presto! there it goes—its slippery, black seeds contrast with the shadow-right on that melon. I move firm red pulp! It is somewhat of a pity my bead-if it hasn't gone straight into that it is raw ; decidedly I should have the baker's window! By the way, that preferred it cooked, say fried in oil, it crumb looks white and soft, as does is a deal wholesomer that way; on an the crust brown and crisp. I wonder empty stomach that slice of melon there if those loaves are up to weight? I say would have disagreed with my delicate it with regret, they do not louk so. healtb;" and saying this the philosopher Now, had I money in my pocket, and Zambetto, who had supped the night be- was to buy a loaf there, I should be fore on a handful of olives, and was now cheated, and you know, 'a fool and his in search of a breakfast, passed on with money are soon parted;' so, at this presa smile. "What a glorious thing this ent moment, hungry as I am, I may sunshine is to a bungry fellow !" cried consider myself the luckiest of dogs the enthusiastic Zambetto, as he basked -" Just then, Zambetto's ears, which in the full Venetian glare. “At this were considerably sharper than a foi's, present moment it is worth more to me heard a low hist.” He turned quickly tban meat and drink—there is absolutely round. “Hist!” cried a voice, again. substance in it. Will any candid ob- It was a remarkably quiet sidewalk server be kind enough to look at my (Venice has hardly a street); with the

VOL. IX.-9

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